• Title, Summary, Keyword: ${\beta}$-endorphin

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Inhibition of Endothelial Cell-dependent Serotonin-induced Contraction of ${\beta}-endorphin$ and Increment of Plasma ${\beta}-endorphin$ of Silver Spike Point Low Frequency Electrical Stimulation (${\beta}-Endorphin$의 내피세포의존성-세로토닌 유도-근 수축 억제와 저빈도-주파수 은침점전자극의 혈장 ${\beta}-endorphin$ 증가)

  • Choi Young-Duk;Lee Joon-Hee;Kim Jung-Hwan
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.22-31
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effects of silver spike point (SSP) low frequency electrical stimulation on plasma ${\beta}-endorphin$ activities measured by radio- immunoassay from normal volunteer and the effects of ${\beta}-endorphin$ on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin)-induced contraction investigated by isometric tension methode in rats. The current of 3 Hz continue type, but not 100 Hz continue type, of SSP low frequency electrical stimulation significantly increased in plasma ${\beta}-endorphin$ from normal volunteer. The endothelial cell-dependent 5-HT-induced contractions were inhibited by ${\beta}-endorphin$ $1{\mu}M$. These results suggest that the ${\beta}-endorphin$ regulates nociceptive-like substance, such as 5-HT, in part and that the SSP low frequency electrical stimulation, specifically current of low frequency of 3 Hz continue type, significantly increases plasma ${\beta}-endorphin$ from normal volunteer.

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Immunohistochemical Identification of $\beta$-Endorphin in the Mouse Ovary (생쥐의 난소의 $\beta$-Endorphin에 대한 면역조직화학적 동정)

  • 조사선;이영기;김경진;윤용달;이정주;조완규
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.152-157
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    • 1990
  • The present study, using immunohistochemical procedure, was carried out to determine the localization of immunostainable $\beta$-endorphin cells in the mouse ovarian tissues. Mature female mice were perfused with 4% neutral buffered paraformaldehyde under anesthesia and then frozen-sections were immunostained with anti $\beta$-endorphin antiserum according to ABC technique. Immunoreactive $\beta$-endorphin was found in the luteal cells of corpus lutea, but not in the thecal cells. More strong immunostaining signak were observed in large corpus luteum, in particular, the regressing luteal cells. Primary and secondary follicles did not show any immunoreactivity of $\beta$-endorphin, but granulosa cells lining the antral cavity of large antral follicles contained immunoreactive $\beta$-endorphin.

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A Study on the Diurnal Variation of Endorphin in Rat Brain (백서 뇌내 Endorphin의 일주기 변동에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Chang-Young;Kim, Ki-Won;Cho, Kyu-Park
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.35-47
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    • 1984
  • Contents of immunoreactive ${\beta}-endorphin$ and maximum of $^3H-morphine$ binding was measured in the rat midbrain homogenates from different subgroups at 24 hour interval over 24 hours. Animals were adapted to the light-dark cycle(L : D, 12: 12) or constant darkness (D : D, 12 : 12) for 3 weeks. After the adaptation, 0.5ml of physiologic saline or drug was administered twice a day for 2 weeks. A highly significant circadian rhythm with the peak$(94.8{\pm}7.7\;fmole/mg\;protein)$ at 06:00 and the nadir $(27.6{\pm}2.4\;fmole/mg\;protein)$ at 18:00 was observed in constant of group. Constant dark or treatment of reserpine, pargyline, imipramine, amphetamine and chlorpromazine modified the diurnal rhythm in the time of peak and nadir, shape, phase amplitude and 24 hour mean of ${\beta}-endorphin$ contents. Opiate receptor binding by $^3H-morphine$ also showed highly significant diurnal change in control and constant dark adapted rats. Statistical analysis by one-way analysis of variance and two-way analysis of variance indicates that the·re are highly significant differences between the diurnal change of ${\beta}-endorphin$ in control and those constant dark adapted and drug treated groups. However diurnal change of Maximum $^3H-morphine$ binding is closely related to the change of ${\beta}-endorphin$ contents. The results are interpreted with regard to the circadian rhythm of beta-endorphin contents, its modification by psychoactive drugs and possible mechanism of diurnal change of opiate receptor in brain.

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Serum ${\beta}$-endorphin during Human Menopausal Gonadotropin-Hyperstimulated Menstrual Cycles (Human Menopausal Gonadotropin으로 과배란유도된 월경주기에서의 혈청 ${\beta}$-endorphin에 과한 연구)

  • Kim, Jung-Gu;Mun, Shin-Yong;Chang, Yoon-Seok;Lee, Jin-Yong
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.159-165
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    • 1990
  • It has been reported that endogenous opioid peptides play a role in the control of the reproductive function. The goal of this study was to evaluate changs in the serum levels of ${\beta}$-endorphin during hyperstimulated menstrual cycle and their relationship to serum prolactin levels. Serum ${\beta}$-endorphin and prolactin levels were measured during menstrual cycles of 10 normal cylic women hyperstimulated by human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) and of 10 women by clomiphene/HMG among in vitro fertilization candidates. The results were summarized as follows. 1. In clomiphene/HMG hyperstimulated menstrual cycle the mean serum ${\beta}$-endorphin level insignificantly on 2 day before aspiration of oocyte compared to basal level and reached maximum level on 1 day after aspiration. 2. There was a significant peak of the mean serum ${\beta}$-endorphin level on 1 day before aspiration in HMG hyperstimulated menstrual cycle. 3. On the same day from aspiration, there was no significant differences in the mean serum ${\beta}$-endorphin levels between HMG and clomiphene/HMG hyperstimulated cycles. 4. No significant correlation was noted between serum ${\beta}$-endorphin levels and prolactin levels.

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Effect of Conventional Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Plasma $\beta-endorphin$ Level (고빈도-저강도 경피신경전기자극이 혈장 $\beta-endorphin$ 농도에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee Jae-Hyoung;Pack Chun-Seo;Kang Jung-Koo
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.39-46
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    • 1993
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the effect and $\beta-endorphin$ level as conventional transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) application on acupuncture paints. Twelve healthy adult male volunteers were participated in this study. The subjects were assigned to TENS group (n=6) and naloxone group (n=6). The LI 3 and M 10 meridian points of dominant arm were stimulated comfortably with 100 pps, $75{\mu}s$ conventional TENS for 30 minutes. Experimental pain threshold measurement and plasma $\beta-endorphin$ level were detected before and after conventional TENS application. Experimental pain threshold increased significantly (p<.01) but plasma $\beta-endorphin$ level was not change in TENS group. Experimental pain threshold increased significantly (p<.01) but plasma $\beta-endorphin$ level was not change in naloxone group. In this study, the conventional TENS induced analgesic effect, and plama $\beta-endorphin$ level was not increase concomitantly with analgesia. These results suggest that the $\beta-endorphin$ did not involved in conventional TENS analgesia.

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The Differential Effect of Whole-body Irradiation on Morphine- and $\beta$-Endorphin-Induced Antinociceptive Actions in Mice

  • Kim, Kyung-N.;Chung, Ki-M.
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.137-142
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    • 2009
  • Whole-body $\gamma$-irradiation(WBI), which produces an oxidative stress, is reported to attenuate the acute antinociceptive action of morphine (a $\mu$-opioid receptor agonist), but not DPLPE (a $\delta$-opioid receptor agonist), in mice. Recently, we also reported that antinociceptive effect of morphine, but not $\beta$-endorphin (a novel $\varepsilon$-opioid receptor agonist), was attenuated by oxidative stress. These findings prompted us to investigate the effect of WBI on the antinociception of morphine and $\beta$-endorphin in mice. Mice were exposed to WBI (5 Gy) from a $^{60}Co$ gamma-source and tested 2 hours later for antinociception produced by intracerebroventricular administration of morphine or $\beta$-endorphin using the hot water tail-immersion and the writhing tests. WBI significantly attenuated the antinociception produced by morphine only in the hot water tail-immersion test, whereas the antinociception of $\beta$-endorphin was significantly potentiated by WBI in both tests. These results demonstrate a differential sensitivity of $\mu$- and $\varepsilon$-opioid receptors to WBI, and support the hypothesis that morphine and $\beta$-endorphin administered supraspinally produce antinociception by different neuronal mechanisms.

Influence of Phenobarbital on the Circadian Rhythm of Opiate Receptor in Rat Brain (백서의 뇌내 Opiate 수용체의 일중 변동에 미치는 Phenobarbital의 영향)

  • Park, Yeoung-Gul;Kim, Kee-Won;Cho, Kyu-Park
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.128-141
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    • 1985
  • To investigate the influence of phenobarbital sodium on the action of morphine and on the diurnal rhythms of both opiate receptor binding and ${\beta}-endorphin$ contents, the amount of specifically bound $(^3H)$-morphine and immunoreactive ${\beta}-endorphin$ were measured in the midbrain of phenobarbital-treated rats at 4h intervals in a day. Rats were housed and adapted to a controlled cycle of either 12 h light-12 h dark or 24 h constant dark. After 3 weeks of adaptation, 0.5 ml of physiological saline or phenobarbital sodium (20mg/kg/day, i.p.) were administered twice a day for 2 weeks. Highly significant diurnal rhythms of opiate receptor binding and ${\beta}-endorphin$ were present in rat midbrain. In control group, the peak of maximum $(^3H)$-morphine binding was observed at 22:00 h, whereas the peak of ${\beta}-endorphin$ content was found at 06:00 h. Even in the absence of time cues these diurnal rhythms persisted, but they were highly modified with respect to the wave form as well as differences in the timing of peak and nadir. In the phenobarbital-treated group, these diurnal rhythms were also modified in shape, phase and amplitude, as well as in timing of peak and nadir. In this group, 24 h mean of opiate receptor binding was significantly decreased, while the 24 h mean level of ${\beta}-endorphin$ content was highly increased. However, Kd values in all experimental groups did not change. This indicates that differences in binding were not due to changes in the affinity, but in the number of binding sites. Statistical analysis of regression line indicates that changes of receptor binding were closely correlated with the changes of ${\beta}-endorphin$ content. These results suggest that phenobarbital may influence the action of morphine by changing the number of opiate receptors and that the modification of diurnal rhythm of opiate receptor by the agent is possibly due to changes of ${\beta}-endorphin$ content.

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Effect of Acupuncture-like Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Plasma $\beta-endorphin$ and ACTH, Serum Cortisol and Urinary 17-OHCS Levels (저빈도-고강도 경피신경전기자극이 혈장 $\beta-endorphin$ 과 ACTH, 혈청 Cortisol 및 요중 17-OHCS 농도에 미치는 영향)

  • Park Chun-Seo;Lee Jae-Hyoung
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.5-15
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    • 1994
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of electroanalgeia and $\beta-endorphin$ action by acupuncture-like (Lof/Hil) transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) applied to acupuncture points. Twelve healthy adult male aged between 19 ann 25 were randomly assigned to TENS group (n=6) and naloxone group (n=6). Subjects of both groups were strongly stimulated TENS with 4 pps and $200{\mu}s$ for 30 minutes on the LI 3 and LI 10 meridian points of dominant am. Naloxone group was injected naloxone hydrochloride before TENS application. The experimental pain threshold was measured by chronaxie meter CX-2 on the distal end of radius just before and after TENS application. The levels of plasma $\beta-endorphin$ and ACTH. serum cortisol and urinary 17-OHCS were analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA) kits before and after TENS application. In TENS group, there was a significant increase of experimental pain threshold (p<0.01), plasma $\beta-endorphin$ level (p<0.05), serum cortisol level (p<0,001) and urinary 17-OHCS levels (p<0.05) after TENS application. The plasma ACTH level was not significantly increased, but it showed an increasing tendency. In naloxone group, although there was a decreasing trend, ACTH and cortisol level did not show a significant change, but $\beta-endorphin$ and 17-OHCS level were significantly decreased (p<0.01). The result of this study stewed that acupuncture-like TENS induced analgesic effect, such that the levels of plasma $\beta-endorphin$, plasma ACTH, serum cortisol and urinary 17-OHCS were concomitantly increased with experimental pain threshold. It is suggested that the analgesic mechanism of the acupuncture-like TENS probably related to endogenous opioid component such as $\beta-endorphin$.

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The Effects of Laser Irradiation on Human Plasma $\beta-endorphin$ Levels (Laser가 정상인의 혈장내 $\beta-endorphin$ 농도에 미치는 영향)

  • Seo Yeon-Soon;Park Rae-Joon;Park Young-Han
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.157-166
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    • 1997
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of laser Irradiation on Human plasma $\beta-endorphin$ levels, by treating with low level helium-neon (He-Ne) and Infrared(lR) laser. The Laser was fixed frequency of 2400Hz by continuous scanning and irradiating time was 8 minutes each point. Blood samples were taken at before, after, after 15min's treatment and Plasma $\beta-endorphin$ was measured by radioimmunoassay. The samples for this study were 6 normal subjects(3male, 3female). The data were analyzed by paired t-test, one-way ANOVA and simple regression. The results of this study were as follows : 1. The human plasma $\beta-endorphin$ levels were noted as significant increase in after-treatment $(22.84{\pm}10.63pg/ml)$ as compared with before-treatment $(16.96{\pm}9.23pg/ml)$ and significant increase in after 15min's $(27.27{\pm}8.81pg/ml)$ as compared with after-treatment (p<0.05). 2. There were no significant changes in plasma g-endorphin levels between male and female. 3. The human plasma $\beta-endorphin$ levels were high associated in between session reliability (p<0.05).

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The Effects on the Level of $\beta-endorphin$ and Pain Threshold according to each TENS and MENS Application (경피신경 자극과 미세전류신경근 자극이 $\beta-endorphin$ 과 동통역치에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim Hyung-Nam;Park Rae-Joon
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.103-115
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    • 1997
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the amount of $\beta-endorphin$ and pain threshold according to time sequences in applying experimented TENS and MENS(pre treatment, posttreatment, 25 minutes after the treatment). This test was to aim at showing the effects of the experimental $\beta-endorphin$ and pain threshold applied to the randomly selected twenty healthy men in their twenties. The subjects were divided into two group(ten for TENS and the other ten MENS). The results obtained are as follows : 1. There was no significant difference in the $\beta-endorphin$ between TENS and HENS(p>0.05). There was no difference in the pain threshold at pretreatment and posttreatment(p>0.05), but there was some difference at 25 minutes after the treatment(p<0.05). 2. The group of TENS in the experimental $\beta-endorphin$ had the highest level of $14.40{\pm}3.098$ at posttreatment, but the level decreased a little according to time passed. And in the experimental pain threshold, the level went to the highest plateau of $2.92{\pm}0.483$ at 25 minutes after the treatment. 3. The group of MENS in the experimental $\beta-endorphin$ had the highest plateau of $14.20{\pm}3.967$ at posttreatment, but the level decreased a bit according to time passed also. And in the experimental pain threshold, the level went to the highest plateau of $2.49{\pm}0.617$ posttreatment. 4. There were some differences of the experimental $\beta-endorphin$ in TENS group at pretreatment and posttreatment(p<0.05). There were some differences in the experimental pain threshold between pretreatment and posttreatment as well as between pretreatment and 25 minutes after the treatment(p<0.05) MENS did not influence the experimental $\beta-endorphin$ and pain threshold. This experiment showed that TENS increased the levels of the experimental $\beta-endorphin$ at posttreatment and increased the levels of the experimental pain threshold untill 25 minutes after the treatment. Therefore, the time of sustaining pain in TENS group was longer than that of MENS group. Also, MENS showed that it increased each level of the experimental $\beta-endorphin$ and pain threshold, but these levels were not statistically meaningful.

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