• Title, Summary, Keyword: ${\alpha}$-Keto Acids

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Determination of ${\alpha}-Keto$ Acids in Serum and Urine Using 1,2-Diamino-4,5-methylendioxybenzene as a Fluorescent Derivatizating Agent by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC법에 의한 1,2-디아미노-4,5-메틸렌디옥시벤젠을 형광유도체화제로 한 혈청 및 뇨 중의 ${\alpha}$-케토산의 분석)

  • Ok, Chi-Wan;Kim, Dae-Ki;Park, Song-Ja;Park, Jong-Sei
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.370-378
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    • 1992
  • A simple and sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic method to quantitate ${\alpha}-keto$ acids in serum and urine was investigated. ${\alpha}-Keto$ acids react with 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenedioxybenzene (DMB) in the presence of 2-mercapto-ethanol and sodium hydrogen sulfite to form highly fluorescent derivatives, substituted 6,7-methylenedioxyquinoxalinol. The derivatization procedure was performed in water bath at $100^{\circ}C$, and completed within 50 min. By the use of a reversed-phase column and multi-step gradient with two solvents, a mixture containing twelve of these derivatives were efficiently resolved within 35 minutes. The optimal wavelengh of the fluorescence detector are ${\lambda}_{ex}=364\;nm$ and ${\lambda}_{em}=445\;nm$. The quantitation of the individual ${\alpha}-Keto$ acids was reproducible with relative standard deviation of $3.0{\sim}7.9%$ and had a detection limits of $10{\sim}60$ fmol, except for p-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid (960 fmol).

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Synthesis of α-Ketobutyrolactones and γ-Hydroxy-α-Keto Acids

  • Kang, Han-Young;Ji, Yu-Mi;Yu, Yeon-Kwon;Yu, Ji-Yeon;Lee, Young-Hoon;Lee, Sang-Joon
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.24 no.12
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    • pp.1819-1826
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    • 2003
  • In connection with the studies for developing new enzymes that could be useful in organic synthesis, practical preparation of racemic and enantiopure forms of ${\gamma}$-hydroxy-${\alpha}$-keto acids has been successfully achieved. For racemic form of ${\gamma}$-hydroxy-${\alpha}$-keto acids, indium-mediated allylation of aldehydes with 2-(bromomethyl)acrylic acid has been employed as a key step. Oxidative cleavage of the thus formed 2-methylenebutyrolactones provided the desired ${\alpha}$-ketobutyrolactones. Enzymatic resolution of the ${\gamma}$-hydroxy-${\alpha}$-methylene esters provided the desired${\gamma}$-hydroxy-${\alpha}$-methylene acids which were successfully converted to ${\gamma}$-hydroxy-${\alpha}$-ketobutyrolactones in optically pure forms.

A New Synthesis of Triphenylphosphorane Ylide Precursors to α-Keto Amide/Ester and Tricarbonyl Units via Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons Reaction

  • Lee, Kie-Seung
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.31 no.10
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    • pp.2776-2782
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    • 2010
  • Newly developed Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) reagents 5 having triphenylphosphorane ylide subunits readily condensed with various carbonyl compounds under mild reaction conditions to afford $\beta,\gamma$-unsaturated $\alpha$-keto triphenylphorane ylides in good to excellent yields, which were hydrogenated over Pd-C (10%)/$H_2$ (1 atm) to give the corresponding $\alpha$-keto triphenylphorane ylides in quasi-quantitative yields. These triphenyphosphorane ylides have been utilized as the precursors to $\alpha$-keto amide/ester and vicinal tricarbonyl units in Wasserman's synthetic protocols, and have previously been prepared only from carboxylic acids/acid chlorides. Our new approaches provide excellent alternatives for the synthesis of triphenylphosphorane ylide precursors to $\alpha$-keto amide/ester and vicinal tricarbonyl units directly from carbonyl compounds in good to excellent yields.

Inhibition of the Biodegradative Threonine Dehydratase from Serratia marcescens by ${\alpha}$-Keto Acids and Their Derivatives

  • Choi, Byung-Bum;Kim, Soung-Soo
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.118-123
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    • 1995
  • Biodegradative threonine dehydratase was purified to homogeneity from Serratia marcescens ATCC 25419 by streptomycin sulfate treatment, Sephadex G-200 gel filtration chromatography followed by AMP-Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was 118,000 by fast protein liquid chromatography using superose 6-HR. The enzyme was determined to be a homotetrameric protein with subunit molecular weights of 30,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme was inhibited by ${\alpha}-Keto$ acids and their derivatives such as ${\alpha}-ketobutyrate$, pyruvate, glyoxlyate, and phosphoenol pyruvate, but not by ${\alpha}-aminobutyrate$ and ${\alpha}-hydroxybutyrate$. The inhibition of the enzyme by pyruvate and glyoxylate was observed in the presence of AMP. The inhibitory effect of glyoxylate was decreased at high enzyme concentration, whereas the inhibition by pyruvate was independent of the enzyme concentration. The kinetics of inhibition of the enzyme by pyruvate and glyoxylate revealed a noncompetitive and mixed-type inhibition by the two inhibitors with respect to L-threonine and AMP, respectively.

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Determination of Branched-Chain α-Keto Acid Dehydrogenase Activity in Rat Tissues

  • Kim, Hyun-Sook;Johnson, Wayne A.
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.12-16
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    • 1995
  • The branched-chain ${\alpha}$-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) complex is a rate limiting enzyme which catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain ${\alpha}$-keto acids. Numerous studies have suggested that BCKAD is subject to covalent modification in vitro via phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, which are catalyzed by a specific kinase and phosphatase, respectively. The biggest difficulty in the assay of BCKAD activity is to arrest the interconversion between the active and inactive forms. BCKAD activity was determined from fresh rat heart and liver tissues using homogenizing and assay buffers containing inhibitors of phosphatase and kinase. The results suggest that a radiochemical assay using ${\alpha}$-keto[1-$^{14}C$]-isovalerate as a substrate for the enzyme can be applied as a reliable method to determine in vitro enzyme activity with arrested interconversion between the active and inactive forms of the BCKAD complex.

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Peroxy Acid Oxidations: A Kinetic and Mechanistic Study of Oxidative Decarboxylation of $\alpha$-Keto Acids by Peroxomonophosphoric Acid

  • Radhasyam Panda
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.22 no.8
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    • pp.909-913
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    • 2001
  • The kinetics of oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvic acid and benzoylformic acid by peroxomonophosphoric acid (PMPA) in aqueous medium have been investigated. The reaction follows second order-first order each in PMPA and substrate concentration a t constant pH. The reactivity of different peroxo species in the oxidation has been determined. Activation energy and thermodynamic parameters have been computed. A plausible mechanism consistent with the observed results is proposed.

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Modulation of Branched-Chain Amino Acid Metaolism by Exercise in Rats

  • Kim, Hyun-Sook
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.27 no.9
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    • pp.892-900
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    • 1994
  • A variety of important roles for branched-chain amino acids in metabolic regulation has been suggested. Branched-chain $\alpha$-keto acid dehydrogenase(BCKAD) complex is a rate limiting enzyme in branched-chain amino acid metabolism. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise on the activity and activity state of branched-chain $\alpha$-keto acid dehydrogenase in rat hert and liver thssues. Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into three experimental groups : sedentary control, exercised, or exercised-rested. Submaximal exercise(running) for two hours significantly increased basal activity without a change in total activity in both tissues, with a concomitiant increase in activity state of the enzyme complex. At 10 min post-exercise, heart enzyme activity significantly decreased, though not to the control level, while liver enzyme activity remained unchanged. These data suggested that the exercise-induced increase in branched-chain $\alpha$-keto acid decarboxylation in rat tissues may not be the result of enzyme synthesis, but rather is due to increased activity of the BCKAD.

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Studies on the Chemical Constituents of the New Zealand Deer Velvet Antler Cervus elaphus var. scoticus-(I)

  • Lee, Nam Kyung;Shin, Hyun Jung;Kim, Wan Seok;Lee, Jong Tae;Park, Chae Kyu
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.160-169
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    • 2014
  • 44 compounds and 9 minerals were isolated from and detected in the New Zealand deer velvet antler Cervus elaphus var. scoticus L$\ddot{o}$nnberg. The chemical structures of (1 - 26) were identified on the basis of the spectroscopic methods and comparisons with literature, respectively. The structures were identified as cholesterol (CS, 6), 7-keto-CS (7), $7{\beta}$-hydroxy-CS (8), and $7{\alpha}$-hydroxy-CS (9), and included 12 steroid $3{\beta}$-O-(palmitic/stearic/myristic acid esters; PM/SA/MS) [CS-$3{\beta}$-O-PM (1 - 1), CS-$3{\beta}$-O-SA (1 - 2), CS-$3{\beta}$-O-MR (1 - 3), 7-keto-CS-$3{\beta}$-O-PM (2 - 1), 7-keto-CS-$3{\beta}$-O-SA (2 - 2), 7-keto-CS-$3{\beta}$-O-MR (2 - 3), $7{\beta}$-hydroxy-CS-$3{\beta}$-O-SA (3 -1), $7{\beta}$-hydroxy-CS-$3{\beta}$-O-PM (3 - 2), $7{\beta}$-hydroxy-CS-$3{\beta}$-O-MR (3 - 3), $7{\alpha}$-hydroxy-CS-$3{\beta}$-O-SA (4 - 1), $7{\alpha}$-hydroxy-CS-$3{\beta}$-O-PM (4 - 2), and $7{\alpha}$-hydroxy-CS-$3{\beta}$-O-MR (4 - 3)], dinonyl phthalate (5), 8 nucleic acids analogues [uracil (10), deoxyguanosine (11), deoxyuridine (12), uridine (13), deoxyadenosine (14), adenosine (15), inosine (16), and guanosine (17)], and the 9 free amino acids [L-phenylalanine (18), L-isoleucine (19), L-leucine (20), L-tyrosine (21), L-valine (22), L-proline (23), L-threonine (24), L-alanine (25), and L-hydroxyproline (26)]. Also, there are 8 kinds of amino acids [asparagine, serine, glutamine, glycine, histidine, arginine, methionine, and lysine], 2 sialic acids [N-acetylneuraminic acid (27), ketodeoxynonulosonic acid (28)], and 9 minerals [Na > K > Ca > Mg > Fe > Zn > B > Al > Cu] were detected from the autoaminoacid analyzer and ICP spectrometer, HPAEC-PAD/HPLC-FLD, respectively. 9 kinds of oxycholesterol-$3{\beta}$-O-fatty acid ester (2 - 1, 2 - 2, 2 - 3, 3 - 1, 3 - 2, 3 - 3, 4 - 1, 4 - 2, and 4 - 3) and 3 nucleic acids (12, 14, and 15) were isolated from the velvet antler for the first time. 6 kinds of steroids (7, 8, 9, 2 - 1, 3 - 1, and 4 - 1) were examined for their anti-proliferative effects against L1210, P388D1, K562, MEG-01, KG-1, MOLT-4, A549, HepG2, MCF-7, SK-OV-3, and SW-620 cancer cell lines. They showed anti-proliferative effects with $IC_{50}$ values of 0.06, 2.16, 2.42, > 50.0, 1.66 and $8.31{\mu}M$ against L1210, while the values were 24.05, 9.44, 5.22, 0.25. 9.48 and $49.77{\mu}M$ against P388D1, respectively. The others were inactive.

Identification of Two Novel BCKDHB Mutations in Korean Siblings with Maple Syrup Urine Disease Showing Mild Clinical Presentation

  • Ko, Jung Min;Shin, Choong Ho;Yang, Sei Won;Cheong, Hae Il;Song, Junghan
    • Journal of Genetic Medicine
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.22-26
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    • 2014
  • Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a disorder that involves the metabolism of branched chain amino acids, arising from a defect in branched-chain ${\alpha}$-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. Mutations have been identified in the BCKDHA, BCKDHB, or DBT genes, which encode different subunits of the BCKDH complex. Although encephalopathy and progressive neurodegeneration are its major manifestations, the severity of the disease may range from the severe classic type to milder intermediate variants. We report two Korean siblings with the milder intermediate MSUD who were diagnosed with MSUD by a combination of newborn screening tests using tandem mass spectrometry and family genetic screening for MSUD. At diagnosis, the patients' plasma levels were elevated for leucine, isoleucine, valine, and alloisoleucine, and branched-chain ${\alpha}$-keto acids and branched-chain ${\alpha}$-hydroxy acids were detected in their urine. BCKDHA, BCKDHB, and DBT analysis was performed, and two novel mutations were identified in BCKDHB. Our patients were thought to have the milder intermediate variant of MSUD, rather than the classic form. Although MSUD is a typical metabolic disease with poor prognosis, better outcomes can be expected if early diagnosis and prompt management are provided, particularly for milder forms of the disease.