• Title, Summary, Keyword: $^3H$-leucine

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Changes of Microbial and Chemical Components in Salt-fermented Youbsak during the Fermentation (엽삭젓 제조중의 미생물 및 화학성분의 변화)

  • Yang, Ho-Chul;Chung, Hee-Jong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.185-192
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    • 1995
  • Microbial and chemical changes of salt-fermented youbsak which is a traditional processed fish product only manufactured in Hampyung bay region were investigated in this study. Total microbial cells of salt-fermented youbsak was gradually increased up to 30 days fermentation and then it was decreased. The pH and total acidities of fermented youbsak were not greatly changed, except for a rapid decrease in pH and acidity after 15 days fermentation. Volatile basic nitrogen and amino-type nitrogen were rapidly increased until 30 days fermentation and then slightly decreased by adding the extracted soup of pig bones. Palmitic acid was the most abundant fatty acid, and the major free amino acids in salt-fermented youbsak were composed of leucine, tyrosine, glutamic acid, valine, isoleucine, alanine and methionine.

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Effect of Ganoderma lucidum Mycelial Fractions on the Functional Recovery of Primary Cultured Hepatocytes. (영지 균사체 분획이 일차배양 간세포 기능회복에 미치는 영향)

  • 박혜선;현진원;김하원;심미자;김병각
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.209-213
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    • 2000
  • The cultured mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum were extracted and the extract was separated into six fractions by organic solvent fractionation. The antihepatotoxic activity of all the fractions was evaluated by measuring activities of glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT). Among the fractions tested, the high-polarity fractions such as aqueous and n-butanol fractions significantly reduced activities of GPT and GOT in CCl4- and galactosamine-intoxicated rat primary hepatocytes. When intracellular synthetic activities were measured by pulsing the rate primary cultured hepatocytes with [3H]-uridine and [3H]-leucine, activities of DNA, RNA and protein. When direct toxicities of the fractions were measured against human hepatoma(SK-Hep-1), the non-polarity fractions such as n-butanol and ethyl acetate fractions showed potent direct cytotoxicities even at the concentration of 1 $\mu\textrm{g}$/ml. These data showed that Ganoderma lucidum has hepatoprotective and hepatotoxic recovery principles in its mycelia.

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Studies on the Ripening of Beef at Adding the Proteolytic Enzyme I. Changes of Free Amino Acid in Beef According to the Papain Addition (단백질(蛋白質) 분해효소(分解酵素) 첨가시(添加時) 우육(牛肉)의 숙성(熟成)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) 제(第)1보(報) Papain처리(處理)에 의한 우육(牛肉)의 유리(遊離) Amino Acid변화(變化)에 관(關)하여)

  • Youn, J.E.;Oh, S.H.;Hwang, C.S.
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.71-77
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    • 1973
  • The results, which was analytically surveyed the free amino acids by the automatic amino acid analyzer adding the enzyme on the Korean cow's fore shank muscles, are as follows: 1. The content of free amino acids in the fore shank muscles, without addition of the enzyme orderly contains alanine, glutamic acid, lysine, glycine, histidine, leucine, threonine, arginine, cystine, serine, proline, isoleucine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, methionine, aspartic acid and valine. 2. In accordance with the addition of the enzyme, by 0.01%, 0.05% and 0.1% the nine free amino acids of glutamic acid, glycine, alanine, cystine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine and arginine were continuosly increased. 3. Proline and histidine were decreased at the enzyme addition of 0.01% after showing the high content at the control, but the quantity of free amino acids was increased according to the increase of the quantity of the enzyme. 4. Aspartic acid, threonine, serine, methionine, tyrosine and phenylalanine were increased till the enzyme addition of 0.05% and remarkably decreased from 0.1%. 5. At cooking the meat, the quantity of the enzyme addition was most effective at 0.05% of meat weight.

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Physiological Characteristics and ACE Inhibitory Activity of Lactobacillus zeae RMK354 Isolated from Raw Milk (원유에서 분리한 Lactobacillus zeae RMK354의 생리적 특성 및 ACE 억제능)

  • Lim, Sang-Dong;Kim, Kee-Sung;Do, Jeong-Ryong
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.587-595
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    • 2008
  • In order to develop a new starter for fermented milk, 1037 bacterial strains were isolated from raw milk. The strain that showed excellent acid producing and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity (88.6%) was selected and identified as a Lactobacillus zeae based on the result of API carbohydrate fermentation pattern and 16S rDNA sequence. Lactobacillus zeae RMK354 was investigated further to study its physiological characteristics. It showed strong ACE inhibitory activity compared with commercial LAB starters tested. The optimum growth temperature of L. zeae RMK354 was $40^{\circ}C$ and it took 10 hr to reach pH 4.3 under this condition. L. zeae RMK354 showed more sensitive to penicillin-G, bacitracin, novobiocin, in a comparison of 14 different antibiotics, and showed most resistance to polymyxin B and vancomycin. It showed higher esterase and leucine arylamidase activities compared with 16 other enzymes. It was comparatively tolerant to bile juice and able to survive at pH 2 for 3 hr. It showed inhibitory activity against Salmonella Typhimurium with the rate of 60%. Based on these and previous results, L. zeae RMK354 could be an excellent starter culture for fermented milk with high level of ACE inhibitory activity.

Effects of Mashing Proportion of Soybean to Salt Brine on Kanjang(soy sauce) Quality (메주의 담금비율이 간장의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Kwang-Soo;Choi, Jong-Dong;Chung, Hyun-Chae;Kwon, Kwang-Il;Im, Moo-Hyeog;Kim, Young-Ho;Kim, Woo-Seong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.174-180
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    • 2000
  • This work was carried out to investigate the effects of mashing proportion of meju(as wet weight basis of raw soybean) to 20% salt brine on the chemical compositions and sensory characteristics of kanjang. By increasing the salt brine proportion in the kanjang mash, total nitrogen, TCA soluble nitrogen and total free amino acid content in kanjang were decreased accordingly, but although pH values and organic acids content were not different noticeably, the major organic acids in kanjang, lactic acid, pyroglutamic acid and acetic acid were increased up to the mashing proportion of 1:2 from 1:1 and pH values decreased up to that of 1:2.5. Residual sugar content in 1:1 kanjang was exceptionally high. The major free amino acids in kanjang were glutamic acid, lysine, alanine and leucine. The acceptability scores of kanjang tested by sensory evaluation were decreased in inverse proportion to the salt brine proportion of kanjang mash, but those of kanjang samples with $1:1{\sim}1:2.5$ mashing proportions were not significantly different but that of 1:3 different from 1:1 statistically at 5% level. The major chemical compositions, significantly effective to the acceptability of kanjang, were found to be glutamic acid and free amino acid by statistical analysis.

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A Study on the Development of a Microbial Insecticide (미생물 살충제의 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jae-Koo;Kim, Kyo-Chang
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.189-201
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    • 1976
  • In an effort to develop a microbial in secticide, B. thdringiensis var. thuringiensis was cultured in the medium composed of cocoon-cooked water from a filature. The results obtained are summarized as followss : (1) Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacterium producing a ${\delta}-endotoxin$ especially toxic to lepidopterous insects and a thermostable exotoxin harmful to dipterous insects. (2) With a view to utilizing the cocoon-cooked water discarded from the filature, as a nutrient source in the B. thuingiensis culture, it was analyzed to contain large amounts of various minerals and protein (7.5 mg/ml) believed to be extracted from the pupae. (3) A large amount of the ${\delta}-endotoxin$ can be obtained most cheeply by using cocoon-cooked water instead of distilled water in preparing GYS and citrate salts media. (4) The largest amount of a mixture of the vegetative cells, spores, and crystals was obtained by addition of 8 gr/l of glucose to the GYS medium. (5) The growth of the bacterium was far better, when leucine, isoleucine, and valine were added all together to the citrate salts medium to the concentration of $1.25{\times}10^{-3}M$. (6) The best growth was observed by addition of Na-glutamate to the citrate salts medium to the concentration of $2.5{\times}10^{-3}M$. (7) The optimal culture time ranged from 9 to 15 days. (8) The highest mortality was shown in Pieris rapae Linne with a pH of the total body extract of 8.4, whereas Dendrolimus spectabilis Butler and Bombyx mori Linne with lower pH's were less susceptible to the ${\delta}-endotoxin$. (9) The presence of the thermo stable exotoxin was confirmed by the fact that the supernatant of the culture was very toxic to the Drosophila melanogaster tested.

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Quality Changes of a Fully Ripe Korean Native Pumpkin, Yangsan, during Long-term Storage, and High Temperature and Pressure Treatment (장기저장 및 고온고압 처리에 따른 한국재래종 호박 '양산'의 품질변화)

  • Youn, Sun-Joo;Jeong, Byeong-Ryong;Kang, Sun-Chul
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.409-413
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    • 2004
  • We have studied quality changes of fully ripe fruit of Korean native pumpkin 'Yangsan' regarding the following parameters: pH, sugar content, weight, water content, contents of crude protein and amino acids during 60 days storage at room temperature. As the results, there was no changes in sugar contents according to the storage period, but pH was changing to a little acidic direction with slight decrease in weight and water content. Contents of total crude proteins and comprising amino acids were increased during the storage period. The main contents of amino acids of the Korean native pumpkin, Yangsan, were glutamic acid (15.5%), aspartic acid (10.1%), lysine (8.7%), valine (7.5%), leucine (7.1%) and alanine (6.6%), which were not highly influenced during storage period. Additionally we have investigated the content of free amino acids and color changes during processing of Yangsan under high temperature at $121^{\circ}C$ and high pressure at $1\;kg/cm^2$. In fully ripe fruits, a total of 29 kinds of free amino acids were detected including 8 kinds of essential amino acids (histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, methionine, threonine and valine). More than 35% of total free amino acids were aspartic acid (20.3%) and asparagine (15.4%); ornithine, citrullin, and arginine, which are related to Ornithine cycle, were also detected in fully ripe fruits. But when treated with high temperature and high pressure, glutamic acid and arginine were decreased rapidly whereas ammnonium chloride was relatively increased. Moreover "b" value as yellow color indicator was decreased from 17.45 to 9.14 while treated for 60 minutes with high temperature and pressure, caused by the degradation of ${\beta}-carotene$ and other yellowish pigments in Yangsan.

Changes of Components in Salt-Fermented Anchovy, Engraulis Japonicus Sauce during Fermentation (숙성기간에 따른 멸치액젓의 성분변화)

  • CHO Young Je;IM Yeong Sun;PARK Hee Yeol;CHOI Young Joon
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 2000
  • To investigate changes of components in salt-fermented anchovy, Engraulis japonims sauce during fermentation, various chemical properties were examined at $1.5{\~}3$ months interval during 18 months fermentation. Moisture content and pH were decreased slightly, but the contents of VBN and crude protein, total and amino nitrogen, hydrolytic degree and absorbance at 453 nm were increased gradually during fermentation. On the other hand, ash content and salinity showed almost no change. Hk and uric acid were the most abundant in ATP related compounds, ranging from $80.1{\%}\;to\;92.7{\%}$ in salt-fermented anchovy sauce during the fermentation, After 18 months of fermentation the sauce was rich in free amino acids, such as glutamic acid, leucine, alanine, lysine, isoleucine, valine in that order.

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Physiological Characteristics and GABA Production of Lactobacillus acidophilus RMK567 Isolated from Raw Milk (원유에서 분리한 Lactobacillus acidophilus RMK567의 GABA 생성 및 생리적 특성)

  • Lim, Sang-Dong;Kim, Kee-Sung;Do, Jeong-Ryong
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.15-23
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    • 2009
  • In order to develop a new starter for fermented milk, 2082 bacteria were isolated from raw milk. The strain that showed excellent acid forming and ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production ($711.40{\mu}g/g$ D.W) characteristics after incubation at $37^{\circ}C$ for 18 hr was selected and identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus by the result of API carbohydrate fermentation pattern and 16S rDNA sequence. L. acidophilus RMK567 was investigated for its physiological characteristics. RMK67 strain showed good GABA production compared with commercial lactic acid bacteria. The optimum growth temperature of L. acidophilus RMK567 was $40^{\circ}C$ and cultures took 15 hr to reach pH 4.3. L. acidophilus RMK567 showed higher sensitivity to penicillin-G, novobiocin, as compared to other 14 different antibiotics. However, it showed more resistance to kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin. It showed higher leucine arylamidase and ${\beta}$-galactosidase activities compared to 16 other enzymes. It was comparatively tolerant to bile juice and able to survive at pH 2 for 3 hr. It showed resistence to Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus with rates of 29.2%, 39.1% and 51.4%, respectively. Based on these and previous results, L. acidophilus RMK567 could be an excellent starter culture for fermented milk with excellent GABA contents.

Physiological Characteristics and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activity of Lactobacillus plantarum M23 Isolated from Raw Milk (원유에서 분리한 Lactobacillus plantarum M23의 Tyrosinase 활성 저해 및 생리적 특성조사)

  • Heo, In-Sook;Kim, Kee-Sung;Yang, Seung-Yong;Lee, Nam-Hyouck;Lim, Sang-Dong
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.501-508
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    • 2007
  • In order to develop a new starter for fermented milk, Lactobacillus plantarum M23 was isolated from raw milk and investigated for physiological characteristics. It showed good tyrosinase inhibitory activity compared with commercial lactic acid bacteria. The optimum growth temperature of Lactobacillus plantarum M23 was $40^{\circ}C$ and cultures took 17 hr to reach pH 4.3. Lactobacillus plantarum M23 showed more sensitivity to Penicillin-G, Oxacillin, Novobiocin, Chloramphenicol in a comparison of 12 different antibiotics, and showed most resistance to Vancomycin. It showed higher leucine arylamidase and ${\beta}-galactosidase$ activities compared to 16 other enzymes. It was comparatively tolerant to bile juice and able to survive at pH 2 for 3 hours. It showed high resistance to Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus with rates of 77.8%, 86.5% and 83.8%, respectively. Based on these and previous results, Lactobacillus plantarum M23 could be an excellent starter culture for fermented milk with high resistance to melanin.