• Title, Summary, Keyword: $^3H$-leucine

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Chemical Compounds and Biological Activity of Phellinus baumii (상황버섯의 화학성분 및 생리활성 효과)

  • Shon, Mi-Yae;Seo, Kwon-Il;Choi, Sun-Young;Sung, Nak-Ju;Lee, Sang-Won;Park, Seok-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.524-529
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    • 2006
  • Chemical compounds, hydrogen peroxide and nitrite-scavenging activities of Phellinus baumii (PB) were investigated to expand the utilization of PB as functional food material. Total mineral contents of PB was 534.3 mg% and potassium was the highest content being 224 mg%. Total and reducing sugars were 56.2% and 9.8%, respectively The contents of free amino acids (FAAs) were in a range of $16.9{\sim}765.5mg%$ with the major FAAs of phenylalanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, leucine, serine and valine. The contents of total phenolic compounds in methanol and hot water extracts of PB were 33.3 and 20.7 mg/100 mL, respectively and were higher than those of other solvent extracts. Hydrogen peroxide-scavenging activity (80%) of methanol extract at $10{\mu}g/mL$ for 30 min was similar to tocopherol (83.1%) as control. Nitrite-scavenging activity of extracts of methanol and hot water at 500 mg/mL and pH 1.2 were 57.3% and 51.8%, respectively and then their effects were increased by lowering pH. The present results showed that the methanol and water extracts of Phellinus baumii exhibited strong hydrogen peroxide and nitrite-scavenging activities.

Studies on the Fermentative Utilization of Cellulosic Wastes (Part 8) Mixed Culture of Cellulose Assimilating Bacteria (폐섬유자원의 발효공학적 이용에 관한 연구 (제8보) 섬유소자화세균의 혼합배양)

  • 윤한대;성낙계
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.51-57
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    • 1978
  • The study was made of the cultural condition and physiological characteristics of the symbiotic pair of microorganisms, Cellulomonas flavigena and the second organism. It also contains the results of a taxonomical study of the second organism. The results obtained wers summarized as follows : 1) Cell yield of the mixed culture, Cellulomonas and the second organism, was higher than that of each pure culture in CM-Cellulose medium. 2) The taxonomical characteristics of the second organism revealed that it probably belonged to the genus Sporocytophaga because it had a gliding motility and microcyst. 3) Optimum pH of the mixed culture was found to be in the vicinity of 7.2, and optimum temperature of the cell growth in the mixed culture was observed to be in the vicinity of 30$^{\circ}C$. 4) It was found that the majority of the population during growth in the mixed culture consisted of Cellulomonas flavigena. 5) Cellulomonas flavigena required thiamine and biotin as growth factors but Sporocytophaga sp. had no requirement of vitamins. 6) Gulucose was not found in detectable amounts in the medium of Cellulomonas flavigena but it was traced in the mixture by thin layer chromatography. 7) Sixteen amino acids were analyzed from the cell protein of Cellulomonas flavigena by amino acid autoanalyzer. The amount of the leucine, valine and arginine was very high.

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Ovarian and Fat Body Yolk Protein Synthesis in Culex piplens pallens (홍모기(Culex pipiens pallens) 지방체와 난소에서의 난황단백질합성에 관한 연구)

  • 이승훈;박영민;성기창
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.416-424
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    • 1993
  • Ovarian Yolk protein (YP2) synthesis has been investigated in mosquito, Culex pipiens pallens. Yolk protein amount which was syntheized in fat body, accumulated into ovary were analyzed by Rocket immunoelectrophoresis and in vitro organ culture. The result was that yolk protein synthesis began to occur at 6hrs after blood meal, reached at maximum level by 24hrs, and was completed within 48hrs. Yolk protein accmulation into the ovary began to start at 6hrs and coutinued for up to 60hrs after blood meal. Extract from 0, 24, 48, 72hrs ovaries after blood meal were analyzed by electrophoresis and Western blotting. The result was that 24hrs ovary contain one yolk protein(YP1), and 48, 72hrs ovaries contain two kinds of yolk proteins(YPl and YP2). When 48hr ovaries and fat bodies were incubated in $^3$H-leucine contained medium, protein synthesis was not occurred in fat body, but ovary synthesized much protein contained yolk protein (YP2). The result of crossed immunoelectrophoresis represented the same immunity between YPl and YP2. The present data suggest that ovary synthesize yolk protein(YP2) in mosquito, Culex pipiens pallens.

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Elution Profiles of Volatile Compounds and Free Amino Acids during Alcohol Soaking of Garlic(Allum sativum L.) (마늘의 alcohol 침지 중 휘발성 향기성분과 침출유리아미노산 함량)

  • Lee, Young-Guen
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.286-292
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    • 2007
  • Free amino acids and volatile compounds of fresh garlic and its liqueur were investigated to search elution profile of those components as basic data for development of garlic liqueur. The garlic was soaked in 20% alcohol solution and then sampled every week for 5 weeks. The major free amino acids were L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, L-arginine, L-alanine, L-proline, L-asparagine and L-serine. Neutral amino acids such as L-threonine, L-proline, L-valine and L-leucine, and aromatic amino acids such as tyrosine and phenylalanine were eluted over 80% of those content in fresh garlic after 3 weeks of soaking, but acidic, basic and sulfur containing amino acids were below 80% even after 5 weeks. Sulfide compounds such as diallyl trisulfide, diallyl disulfide, methyl allyl disulfide, 2-vinyl-4H-1,3-dithi in, 3-vinyl-3,4-dihydro-1,2-dithiin, 3,5-diethyl-1,24-trithiolane, isobutyl isothiocyanate and diallyl sulfide were identified as major volatile compounds of fresh garlic by using GC/MS. Among volatile compounds of fresh garlic, allyl alcohol, diallyl disulfide, 3,5-diethyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, diallyl trisulfide and 3,4-dimethoxy furan were eluted to liqueur, but those compounds except 3,5-diethyl-1,2,4-trithiolane were lowered in liqueur during soaking. Furfural, 5-methylfurfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, dimethyl pyrazine, furfuryl alcohol, 3-hydroxy-2-bytanone and 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyr-an-4-one were generated newly and their content increased in liqueur during soaking.

Effects of Dietary Energy Concentration and Lysine on the Digestible Energy Ratio for Apparent Amino Acid Digestibility in Finishing Barrows

  • Cho, S.B.;Lee, H.J.;Chung, I.B.;Long, H.F.;Lim, J.S.;Kim, Y.Y.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.232-236
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    • 2008
  • This experiment was performed to investigate the effects of two energy levels and four lysine:digestible energy (DE) ratios on the apparent digestibility of nutrients in finishing pigs. The experiment was conducted using a $2{\times}4$ randomized complete block (RCB) design with three replicates. Twenty-four cross-bred finishing barrows ((Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire)${\times}$Duroc) with an average body weight of $64.2{\pm}0.69kg$ were assigned to one of eight treatments. Each barrow was placed in an individual metabolism crate and dietary treatment and water was provided ad libitum. Diets were designed to contain lysine:ME ratios of 1.5, 1.8, 2.1 and 2.4 g/Mcal at 3.35 and 3.6 Mcal/kg of diet in a $4{\times}2$ factorial arrangement. Dry matter (DM), ash, Ca and P digestibility were not affected by energy density or lysine:DE ratios. Crude fat digestibility increased as the energy density increased from 3.35 to 3.6 Mcal of DE/kg. Increasing the lysine:DE ratio also increased crude protein digestibility. There were no interactions between energy density and lysine:DE ratio in terms of nutrient digestibility. Nitrogen excretion via feces was not affected by energy density and lysine:DE ratio, while nitrogen excretion via urine was significantly affected by energy density and lysine:DE ratio. The apparent digestibility of all amino acids except for isoluecine, arginine and aspartic acid as well as average values of essential amino (EAA), non-essential amino acids (NEAA) and total amino acid digestibility (p>0.05) were not affected by energy density. The apparent digestibility of all amino acids except for leucine, proline, alanine and tyrosine, NEAA and total amino acid digestibility were significantly affected by lysine: DE ratio (p<0.05). Interactive effects of energy and lysine:DE ratio also significantly affected amino acid digestibility except for isoleucine, alanine, cystine, leucine, phenylalanine, glutamine and proline (p<0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that maintaining the appropriate lysine:DE ratio becomes more important as the energy density of the diet increases. Consequently, increasing the lysine:DE ratio can result in increased crude protein digestibility and urinary nitrogen excretion, although apparent protein digestibility and nitrogen excretion were not affected by energy density Furthermore, increasing the lysine:DE ratio also increased the apparent digestibility of essential amino acids, except for leucine, regardless of energy density. The optimum lysine:DE ratio for maximum essential amino acid digestibility of the $64.2{\pm}0.69kg$ pig is approximately 2.4 g of lysine/Mcal of DE.

Intracellular calcium-dependent regulation of the sperm-specific calcium-activated potassium channel, hSlo3, by the BKCa activator LDD175

  • Wijerathne, Tharaka Darshana;Kim, Jihyun;Yang, Dongki;Lee, Kyu Pil
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.241-249
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    • 2017
  • Plasma membrane hyperpolarization associated with activation of $Ca^{2+}$-activated $K^+$ channels plays an important role in sperm capacitation during fertilization. Although Slo3 (slowpoke homologue 3), together with the auxiliary ${\gamma}^2$-subunit, LRRC52 (leucine-rich-repeat-containing 52), is known to mediate the pH-sensitive, sperm-specific $K^+$ current KSper in mice, the molecular identity of this channel in human sperm remains controversial. In this study, we tested the classical $BK_{Ca}$ activators, NS1619 and LDD175, on human Slo3, heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells together with its functional interacting ${\gamma}^2$ subunit, hLRRC52. As previously reported, Slo3 $K^+$ current was unaffected by iberiotoxin or 4-aminopyridine, but was inhibited by ~50% by 20 mM TEA. Extracellular alkalinization potentiated hSlo3 $K^+$ current, and internal alkalinization and $Ca^{2+}$ elevation induced a leftward shift its activation voltage. NS1619, which acts intracellularly to modulate hSlo1 gating, attenuated hSlo3 $K^+$ currents, whereas LDD175 increased this current and induced membrane potential hyperpolarization. LDD175-induced potentiation was not associated with a change in the half-activation voltage at different intracellular pHs (pH 7.3 and pH 8.0) in the absence of intracellular $Ca^{2+}$. In contrast, elevation of intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ dramatically enhanced the LDD175-induced leftward shift in the half-activation potential of hSlo3. Therefore, the mechanism of action does not involve pH-dependent modulation of hSlo3 gating; instead, LDD175 may modulate $Ca^{2+}$-dependent activation of hSlo3. Thus, LDD175 potentially activates native KSper and may induce membrane hyperpolarization-associated hyperactivation in human sperm.

Development of Modeling System for Assessing Essential Amino Acid Requirements Using Surgically Modified Rainbow Trout (외과적 수술에 의한 송어의 혈장 아미노산 농도 측정을 이용한 아미노산 요구량 설정 모델 개발에 관한 기초연구)

  • 배승철;옥임호;박건준;김강웅;최세민
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2003
  • A new technique combining forced-feeding and dorsal aorta cannulation was developed to monitor concentration of nutritions in the blood circulation and their metabolites in rainbow trout. To study the effect of dorsal aorta cannulation on stress, 30 rainbow trout (523$\pm$5.4 g; Mean$\pm$SD) were divided into 6 groups of 5 individuals each. A group was anesthetized and blood samples were taken at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24 or 48 h after dorsal aorta cannulation. Hematocrit peaked at 6 h and returned to 0 values by 12 h after dorsal aorta cannulation. Plasma cortisol and glucose concentrations also peaked at 6 h and returned to 0 values by 48 h after dorsal aorta cannulation. Based on the plasma cortisol and glucose concentrations, the rainbow trout recovered from the operation of dorsal aorta cannulation within 48 h. To compare the patterns of plasma free amino acid concentrations after force-feeding in the fish with dorsal aorta cannulation, 5 dorsal aorta cannulated individuals (511$\pm$6.2 g) were kept in a cage. After 48 h starvation, they were anesthetized and blood samples were taken at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36 or 48 h after forced-feeding. The concentration of all plasma free amino acids, except isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan, also peaked at 4 h and returned to 0 values by 24 h after feeding. The combined technique allows forced-feeding and repeated sampling of blood in rainbow trout with minimum stress.

Purification and Characteristics of an Antibiotic Against MRSA form Streptomyces lydicus YSK-681 (Streptomyces lydicus YSK-681이 생산하는 메치실린 내성 황색 포도상구균에 유효한 항생물질의 정제 및 특성)

  • 김중배;이동희;신운섭;고춘명
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.347-353
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    • 1998
  • An antibiotic for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) produced by Streptomyces lydicus YSK-681 was extracted by chloroform, and then purified by the C18 reversed-phase HPLC and silica gel column HPLC. The molecular weight of the purified antibiotic was determined from the FAB analysis MS an m/z 1022.4 and 1036.4(M+H)+, indicating that the isolated antibiotic consisted of two similar compounds with the molecular weight difference of 14 m/z value. With the aid of the various nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) spectroscopic techniques such as 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT and HMQC spectroscopy, the characteristics of function al groups were deduced as the hydroxyl group and leucine. The MIC values of the purified antibiotic were observed at 1∼32 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$ against Gram-positive bacteria compared to > 125 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$ against Gram-negative bacteria or fungi. The antibiotic was active at 8 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$ of MIC90 and S180 at the concentration of 500 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$.

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Changes in Physicochemical Properties of Actinidia arguta (Siebold & Zucc.) Planch. ex Miq. by Blanching, Drying, and Fermentation (다래순의 데침, 건조 및 발효 조건에 따른 이화학적 특성 변화)

  • Jeong, Ji-Suk;Kim, Yong-Joo;Park, No-Jin;Go, Geun-Bae;Son, Byeong-Gil
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.425-433
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    • 2015
  • This study investigated changes in physicochemical characteristics by drying and fermentation in order to utilize Actinidia arguta. Moisture content of A. arguta was 85.81%. Major sugar and organic acids were sucrose, succinic acid, and citric acid. A. arguta contained 19 kinds of amino acids, including 8 kinds of essential amino acids such as valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and lysine. For total organic acids, sample fermented for 17 h at $50^{\circ}C$ under a relative humidity of 80% showed 29,026.53 mg/100 g total organic acids. For total free sugars, cold-dried sample showed the highest level at 6,560.86 mg/100 g, which decreased to 2,386.73 mg/100 g after blanching. For the ratio of essential amino acids, freeze-dried sample showed a content of 11.66%, which increased 4-fold up to 40.71~55.50% with fermentation. Both GABA and vitamin U were highest after 17 h of fermentation (110.29 mg and 6.78 mg/100 g fresh weight, respectively). A. arguta contains a variety of free amino acids that increase in amount after fermentation and thus is expected to be developed as a functional food and substitute tea.

STUDIES ON THE UTILIZATION OF ANTARCTIC KRILL 1. Compositional Characteristics of Fresh Frozen and Preboiled Frozen Krill (남대양산 크릴의 이용에 관한 연구 1. 크릴의 식품원료학적인 성상)

  • PARK Yeung-Ho;LEE Eung-Ho;LEE Kang-Ho;PYEUN Jae-Hyeung;RYU Hong-Soo;CHOI Su-An;KIM Seun-Bong
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.191-200
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    • 1979
  • For the use of antarctic krill as a fond protein source its compositional characteristics were investigated as the first part of the work includes other subjects such as processing of drill paste, concentrates, and fermented or seasoned product. In general composition of fresh frozen and preboiled frozen krill on board, the contents of crude fat and free amino nitrogen were higher in the former than in the latter which contained a high amount of ash. VBN was rather high as much as 37.6 and $26.4\;mg\%$ in both fresh frozen and preboiled krill. The pH of drill homogenates was 7.1 to 7.2 in both cases. Such a low pH might be attributed to a long term storage and temperature fluctuations during frequent transshipping. The amino acid competition of fresh frozen krill meat showed relatively high amount of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, lysine, proline, and leucine while methionine, histidine, serine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine were lower. Among the essential amino acids lysine and leucine were higher and methionine was lower. In tile composition of free amino acid proline, lysing, arginine, and alanine were higher comparatively to the contents of histidine, aspartic acid, serine, and threonine. It is noteworthy for nutritional qualification that tile essential amino acids particularly as lysine were abundant similarly to that of fishes. Heavy metal contents of krill meat 0.039 to 0.048 ppm as Hg, 0.06 to 0.11 ppm as Pb, less than 0.32 ppm as Zn, 0.008 to 0.012 ppm as Cd, 0.61 to 0.68 ppm as Fe, 0.87 to 1.37 ppm as Cu, and nondetective as Cr. A high Cu content seems to be resulted by tile blood pigment of crustacea. The ratio,1 of edible portion to non-edible portion were 37:63 in fresh frozen and 42:58 in preboiled frozen krill respectively. Release of drip after thawing was more in fresh frozen than in preboiled frozen drill marking $36\%$ and $24\%$ of both respectively.

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