• Title, Summary, Keyword: $^3H$-leucine

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Metabolism of Leucine During the Early Pupal State of Cabbage Worm, Pieris rapae L. (배추흰나비 (Pieris rapae L.)의 초기 용시기에 따른 Leucine의 대사)

  • Jeon, Jin-Seon;Choe, Rim-Soon;Park, Choon-Keun;Kim, Hak-Ryul
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.19-25
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    • 1979
  • To determine the metabolism of leucine during the cuticle formation and the sclerotization process in Pieris rapae L., $U-^3$H-leucine or $U-^4$C-tyrosine is injected into the haemolymph of newly molted pupa through dorsal cuticle of heart area. The results show that leucine as a common amino acid participates in the synthesis of cuticle protein over the first 3 hr after ecdysis. It is also shown that leucine in the haemolymph at ecdysis is freely being moved between major internal organs during the short time period post-ecdysis, providing the evidence for some involvements including haemolymph protein synthesis and storage of fat body and gut in metabolism of leucine.

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Comparison of Methods for the Measurement of Bacterial Production in a Lake Ecosystem (호수 생태계에서 세균 생산량 측정 방법의 비교)

  • 김명운;강찬수;김상종
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.318-323
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    • 1990
  • The bacterial secondary production was measured at 6 sites of Lake Soyang in October, 1989 by $^{3}$H-thymidine incorporation rate. Verfication for the method of bacterial secondary production measurement showed that $^{3}$H-thymidine incorporated into DNA, RNA and protein by average percentage of 38.45, 42.27 and 20.07%, respectively. THe more increased incoporated $^{3}$H-thymidine, the more increasde DNA fraction, but protein fraction was generally low. Incorporation of rate of /usp 3/H-thymidine. $^{3}$H-leucine into protein correlated with protein fraction of incorporated $^{3}$H-thymidine. Conversion factors were calculated as follows; $1.83*10 ^{20}$ cells/moles of thymidine incorporated/hr and 1.69*10$^{22}$ cells/moles of leucine incorporated/hr.

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Brevibacterium sp.에 의한 L-leucine의 생산에 관한 연구

  • 정병하;황두연
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Applied Microbiology Conference
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    • pp.96.3-96
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    • 1978
  • Biotin 요구성 glutamic acid 생산능을 가진 Br-evibacterium sp.의 isoleucine 영양요구성 변이주가 다량의 L-leucine을 생성함을 발견하였다. 본균주에 관한 탄소원, 질소원, 무기염, vitamin, amino acid 등의 영양물질과 온도, 공기주입량, pH등에 관한 실험으로 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 본균주는 탄소원, 질소원으로서 10% glucose와 4% $(NH_4)_2SO_4를$ 공합하여 $30^{\circ}C,$ 88시간 배양시킨 결과, 액중에 21 mg/ml의 L-leucine이 축적되었다. Fe$^{2+}$$Mn^{2+}$의 동시첨가는 L-leucine생성에 효과적이었으며 thiamine 역시 L-leucine 생성에 효과적이었다. 30ι jar fermentor 에서 폐당밀을 주원료로 한 실험결과, 폐당밀, $(NH_4)/SO_4,$ $KH_2PO_4,$ $MgSO_4ㆍ7H_2O로$ 구성된 액체배지에서 $30^{\circ}C,$ 36시간 배양시킨 것이, 27mg/ml의 L-leucine이 축적되었으며 이때의 대당수율은 16%이었다.

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Optimization of L-leucine Fermentation (L-leucine 발효의 최적화)

  • 신현철;하구선;조영제;전영중;김성준;이재홍
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.677-680
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    • 1992
  • The effects of pH, temperature and oxygen transfer rate(OTR) on L-Ieucine fermentation were investigated employing Corynebacterium glutamicum CH 1516 in 71 fermentor. The optimum pH, temperature and OTR were determined to be 7.0, $30^{\circ}C$ and 0.21 kmole $O_2$/$m^3{\cdot}hr$, respectively. For the values of OTR lower than 0.19 kmole $O_2$/$m^3{\cdot}hr$ a significant amount of lactic acid was accumulated, while the packed cell volume(PCV) was rapidly increased at higher OTR values above 0.23 kmole $O_2$/$m^3{\cdot}hr$ and glutamic acid was produced to some extent. Scale-up studies for L-Ieucine fermentation which was carried out in 12001 pilot scale fermentor reaffirmed the results of 71 fermentation. The optimum redox potential value for L-Ieucine production was found to be -150 to -170 mY.

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Determination of Differences in the Nonvolatile Metabolites of Pine-Mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) According to Different Parts and Heating Times Using $^1H$ NMR and Principal Component Analysis

  • Cho, In-Hee;Kim, Young-Suk;Lee, Ki-Won;Choi, Hyung-Kyoon
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.10
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    • pp.1682-1687
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    • 2007
  • The differences in the nonvolatile metabolites of pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) according to different parts and heating times were analyzed by applying principal component analysis (PCA) to $^1H$ nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy data. The $^1H$ NMR spectra and PCA enabled the differences of nonvolatile metabolites among mushroom samples to be clearly observed. The two parts of mushrooms could be easily discriminated based on PC 1, and could be separated according to different heattreated times based on PC 3. The major peaks in the $^1H$ NMR spectra that contributed to differences among mushroom samples were assigned to trehalose, succinic acid, choline, leucine/isoleucine, and alanine. The content of trehalose was higher in the pileus than in the stipe of all mushroom samples, whereas succinic acid, choline, and leucine/isoleucine were the main components in the stipe. Heating resulted in significant losses of alanine and leucine/isoleucine, whereas succinic acid, choline, and trehalose were the most abundant components in mushrooms heat-treated for 3 min and 5 min, respectively.

Microwave Assisted Rapid Synthesis of Novel Optically Active Poly(amide-imide)s Based on N-Trimellitylimido-L-Leucine Diacid Chloride and Hydantoin Derivatives

  • Faghihi, Khalil
    • Macromolecular Research
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.258-262
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    • 2004
  • We have developed facile and rapid polycondensation reactions of N-trimellitylimido-L-leucine diacid chloride 1 with eight different derivatives of hydantoin compounds 2a-h, in the presence of a small amount of a polar organic medium, such as Ο-cresol, by using a domestic microwave oven. The polycondensation reactions proceeded rapidly-they were complete within 7-9 min-to produce a series of novel optically active poly(amide-imide)s (3a-h) in high yield with inherent viscosities of 0.33-0.51 dL/g. We characterized the resulting poly(amide-imide)s by elemental analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis (DSC, TGA, and DTG), and FTIR spectroscopy, and by measuring their viscosities, specific rotations, and solubilities. All of the polymers were soluble at room temperature in polar solvents such as N ,N-dimethylacetamide, N,N-dimethylformamide, dimethylsulfoxide, tetrahydrofuran, and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone.

Oral Insulin-like Growth Factor-I Combined Alters Intestinal Protein Synthesis in Parenterally-fed Piglets

  • Park, Yoo-Kyoung;Sharon M. Donovan
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.57-65
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    • 2000
  • Partial enteral nutrition (PEN) supplemented with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) to neonatal piglets receiving parenteral nutrition increases lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) activity, but not LPH mRNA. The goal of the current study was to investigate the mechanism by which IGF-I up-regulates LPH activity. We hypothesized that IGF-I regulates LPH synthesis post-transcriptionally. Methods: Newborn piglets (n=15) received 100% parenteral nutrition (TPN), 80% parenteral nutrition + 20% PEN (PEN), or PEN + IGF-I (1.0mg/kg/d). On day 7, two stable isotopes of leucine, [$^2 H_3$]-leucine and [$^{13}C_1$]-L-leucine were intravenously administered to measure mucosal protein and brush LPH (BB LPH) synthesis. Results: Weight gain, nutrient intake and jejunal weight and length were similar among the treatment groups. PEN increased mucosal weight, villus width and cross-sectional area, LPH activity, mRNA expression and the abundance of proLPHh compared to 100% TPN (p<0.05). IGF-I further increased mucosal weight, LPH activity and LPH activity per unit BB LPH ~2-fold over PEN alone (p<0.05), but did not affect LPH mRNA or the abundance of proLPHh or mature LPH. Isotopic enrichment of [$^2 H_3$]-leucine and [$^{13}C_1$]-L-leucine in plasma, mucosal protein and LPH precursors, and the fractional and absolute synthesis rates of mucosal protein and LPH were similar among the treatment groups. Total mucosal protein synthesis was increased 60% (p<0.05) and LPH synthesis tended (p=0.14) to be greater in the IGF-I treated animals compared to the other two groups. Conclusions: The primary mechanism by which IGF-I up-regulates LPH may be post-translational, either via reducing LPH turnover, or by specifically altering LPH activity.

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Homeodomain-leucine Zipper Proteins Interact with a Plant Homologue of the Transcriptional Co-activator Multiprotein Bridging Factor 1

  • Zanetti, Maria Eugenia;Chan, Raquel L.;Godoy, Andrea V.;Gonzalez, Daniel H.;Casalongue, Claudia A.
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.320-334
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    • 2004
  • StMBF1 (Solanum tuberosum multiprotein bridging factor 1) is a plant member of the MBF1 family of transcriptional co-activators. In an attempt to understand the role of StMBF1, we analyzed its interaction with plant transcription factors of the homeodomain-leucine zipper (Hd-Zip) family, a group of proteins with a typical leucine zipper motif adjacent to a homeodomain. StMBF1 is able to interact in vitro with the Hd-Zip protein Hahb-4 both in the presence and absence of DNA. Upon binding, StMBF1 increases the DNA binding affinity of Hahb-4, and of another plant homeodomain containing protein from the GL2/Hd-Zip IV family, HAHR-1. The biological role of interactions is discussed in this paper.

Effects of Branched-chain Amino Acids on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Wheat Straw

  • Zhang, Hui Ling;Chen, Yong;Xu, Xiao Li;Yang, Yu Xia
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.523-528
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    • 2013
  • This study investigates the effects of three branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) on the in vitro ruminal fermentation of wheat straw using batch cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. BCAA were added to the buffered ruminal fluid at a concentration of 0, 2, 4, 7, or 10 mmol/L. After 72 h of anaerobic incubation, pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia nitrogen ($NH_3$-N) in the ruminal fluid were determined. Dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability were calculated after determining the DM and NDF in the original material and in the residue after incubation. The addition of valine, leucine, or isoleucine increased the total VFA yields ($p{\leq}0.001$). However, the total VFA yields did not increase with the increase of BCAA supplement level. Total branched-chain VFA yields linearly increased as the supplemental amount of BCAA increased (p<0.001). The molar proportions of acetate and propionate decreased, whereas that of butyrate increased with the addition of valine and isoleucine (p<0.05). Moreover, the proportions of propionate and butyrate decreased (p<0.01) with the addition of leucine. Meanwhile, the molar proportions of isobutyrate were increased and linearly decreased (p<0.001) by valine and leucine, respectively. The addition of leucine or isoleucine resulted in a linear (p<0.001) increase in the molar proportions of isovalerate. The degradability of NDF achieved the maximum when valine or isoleucine was added at 2 mmol/L. The results suggest that low concentrations of BCAA (2 mmol/L) allow more efficient regulation of ruminal fermentation in vitro, as indicated by higher VFA yield and NDF degradability. Therefore, the optimum initial dose of BCAA for in vitro ruminal fermentation is 2 mmol/L.

Effect of Bleaching and Permanent Wave Manipulation on the Amino Acid Composition of Hair (모발 탈색 및 퍼머넌트 웨이브가 모발의 아미노산 조성에 미치는 영향)

  • Ha, Byung-Jo;Kim, Jun-Kwang
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.143-148
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    • 2008
  • Variations of the seventeen amino acids(aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, cystein, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, histidine, lysine, arginine) were analyzed in human hair sample by amino acid auto analyzer(AAA). The effect of bleaching and permanent wave manipulation on the amino acid composition of hair were investigated. Hair samples were collected from 10 males in their thirties. Hair samples were treated with 10 mL of 6 N hydrochloric acid at $110^{\circ}C$ for 24 h and analysed by AAA. The results showed that the amino acid content of normal hair(73.9%) decreased to 71.5% and 69.3% after bleaching and permanent wave treatment, respectively. Furthermore, mean contents of lysine and tyrosine in amino acids showed obviously decreased about 25% by permanent wave and bleaching treatment. On the other hand, serine, cystein, leucine and histidine were not changed.