• Title/Summary/Keyword: $\gamma$-oryzanol

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Antioxidant Activity of γ-Oryzanol and Synthetic Phenolic Compounds in an Oil/Water (O/W) Emulsion System

  • Kim, Joo-Shin
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.173-176
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    • 2007
  • ${\gamma}-Oryzanol$ is one of the chain breaking antioxidants. Both sterol (triterpene) and phenolic hydroxyl groups in the structure of ${\gamma}-oryzanol$ may be responsible for its antioxidative function. We hypothesize that ${\gamma}-oryzanol$ is more effective in preventing the autoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) than the synthetic phenolic compounds in an oil/water (O/W) emulsion system. The antioxidative effectiveness of different concentrations of ${\gamma}-oryzanol$ and synthetic antioxidants was evaluated at different incubation times (0, 4, 8, 16, and 32 h) by measuring both the formation of hydroperoxides and the decomposition product of hydroperoxides (hexanal) in each emulsion system. Overall, the order of effectiveness of various antioxidants for inhibiting the formation of hydroperoxide in the O/W emulsion was: ${\gamma}-oryzanol$> tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ)> butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)> butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). O/W emulsion with selective lower concentrations of ${\gamma}-oryzanol$ showed better effectiveness than that with higher concentration of synthetic antioxidants. However, the ability of both ${\gamma}-oryzanol$ and synthetic antioxidants to decompose hydroperoxide was similar. ${\gamma}-Oryzanol$ was more effective antioxidant than the synthetic phenolic compounds in preventing the formation of hydroperoxide in the O/W emulsion system.

Quantitative Analysis of ${\gamma}-oryzanol$ in Rice Bran (미강의 약리성분 감마-오리자놀의 정량)

  • Kwak, Tae-Soon;Park, Hee-Juhn
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.113-118
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    • 1997
  • Phytochemical analysis on rice bran and its pitch was performed by the tool of TLC, UV- and IR-spetroscopy, so that it was found that they contained ${\gamma}-oryzanol$ and free sterol. GC-MS analysis of free sterol revealed that it was composed of ${\beta}-sitosterol$, campesterol and stigmasterol. Successive phytochemical analysis of ${\gamma}-oryzanol$ revealed that it was composed of ferulic acid ester of triterpene and sterol, respectively. Triterpene moieties of ${\gamma}-oryzanol$ were identified as follows: cycloartanol, cycloartenol, 24-methylenecycloartanol and unknown triterpene; And sterol moieties were found to be identical with free sterols. In addition, characteristic absorption band in UV spectrum (220-340 nm) was exclusively due to ${\gamma}-oryzanol$. Thus, it was suggested that rice brans of nearly all species of Oryza sativa can be quantitatively analyzed by UV absorption spectrometry, even when water soluble pigments was contained in the rice bran.

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Antioxidant Effects of Gamma-oryzanol on Human Prostate Cancer Cells

  • Klongpityapong, Papavadee;Supabphol, Roongtawan;Supabphol, Athikom
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.9
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    • pp.5421-5425
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    • 2013
  • Background: To assess the antioxidant effects of gamma-oryzanol on human prostate cancer cells. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxic activity of gamma-oryzanol on human DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cells was determined by proliferation assay using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol, 2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reagent. mRNA levels of genes involved in the intracellular antioxidant system, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GSR) were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cancer cell lysates were used to measure lipid peroxidation using thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). Glutathione contents of the cell lysates were estimated by the reaction between sulfhydryl group of 5, 5'-dithio (bis) nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) to produce a yellow-color of 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid using colorimetric assay. Catalase activity was also analysed by examining peroxidative function. Protein concentration was estimated by Bradford's assay. Results: All concentrations of gamma-oryzanol, 0.1-2.0mg/ml, significantly inhibited cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent fashion in both prostate cancer cell lines, DU145 and PC3. Gene expression of catalase in DU145 and PC3 exposed to gamma-orizanol at 0.5mg/ml for 14 days was down regulated, while mRNA of GPX was also down regulated in PC3. The MDA and glutathione levels including catalase activity in the cell lysates of DU145 and PC3 treated with gamma-oryzanol 0.1 and 0.5mg/ml were generally decreased. Conclusions: This study highlighted effects of gamma-oryzanol via the down-regulation of antioxidant genes, catalase and GPX, not cytotoxic roles. This might be interesting for adjuvant chemotherapy to make prostate cancer cells more sensitive to free radicals. It might be useful for the reduction of cytotoxic agents and cancer chemoprevention.

Effect of Nitrogen Gas Packing and ${\gamma}-Oryzanol$ Treatment on the Shelf Life of Yukwa(Korean Traditional Snack) (질소치환포장 및 ${\gamma}-Oryzanol$ 첨가가 유과의 저장성에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Yoon-Jung;Chun, Hyang-Sook;Kim, Sang-Sook;Lee, Jong-Mee;Kim, Kyu-Heun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.317-322
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    • 2000
  • This study examined the effect of nitrogen$(N_2)$ gas packing and ${\gamma}-oryzanol$ treatment on the shelf life of Yukwa(Korean traditional snack). Yukwa were stored with $N_2$ gas packing(AN), $N_2$ gas packing with ${\gamma}-oryzanol$ treatment(ANA), and PE film packing with air(PE) for 20 days at $60^{\circ}C$. They were evaluated by POV, AV, conjugated diene, hexanal, color and sensory characteristics. The POV, AV and conjugated diene content increased abruptly in PE and AN, but increased slowly in ANA with prolonged storage. Higher sensory scores for Yukwa were found in ANA as compared to those in PE and AN. Hexanal content, yellowness and redness in AN were higher than those in ANA and PE. The moisture content, which is supposed to be related with browning of Yukwa, was 3 times higher in AN than that in PE. Oxygen content of each Yukwa pack, even in $N_2$ gas packing, increased remarkably as storage period increased because their highly porous, fragile and syrup-coated structure resulted in incomplete degassing before $N_2$ gas was flushed into package. Consequently, $N_2$ gas packing was inefficient, but $N_2$ gas packing combined with antioxidant(such as ${\gamma}-oryzanol$) treatment was effective for the extension of shelf life of Yukwa.

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Preparation of γ-oryzanol-loaded pectin micro and nanocapsules and their characteristics according to particle size (감마오리자놀 함유 칼슘-펙틴 미세 및 나노캡슐의 제조와 입자 크기에 따른 캡슐특성)

  • Lee, Seul;Kim, Eun Suh;Lee, Ji-Soo;Lee, Hyeon Gyu
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.110-116
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    • 2017
  • ${\gamma}-Oryzanol-loaded$ calcium-pectin micro- and nanocapsules were prepared by ionic gelation to improve oxidation stability and the effect of particle size on capsule properties was investigated. The physical properties were influenced by preparation conditions such as concentrations of pectin, $CaCl_2$, ${\gamma}-oryzanol$, and hardening time. Particle sizes of micro- and nanocapsules that showed the maximum encapsulation efficiency and sustained release were $2.27{\pm}0.02mm$ and $347.7{\pm}58.1nm$, respectively. Microcapsules showed higher encapsulation efficiency ($50.73{\pm}1.98%$) than nanocapsules ($17.70{\pm}2.04%$), while nanocapsules showed more sustained release and higher stability than microcapsules. Release of ${\gamma}-oryzanol$ from both microand nanocapsules, which was low in gastric environments and promoted in intestinal environments, showed suitable characteristics for oral administration. Furthermore, antioxidant activity of ${\gamma}-oryzanol$ against autoxidation of linoleic acid was prolonged by both micro- and nanoencapsulation in a ferric thiocyanate test. Therefore, micro- and nanoencapsulation using pectin can be effective for improving biodelivery, stability, and antioxidant activity of ${\gamma}-oryzanol$.

Purple Rice Bran Extract Attenuates the Aflatoxin B1-Induced Initiation Stage of Hepatocarcinogenesis by Alteration of Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzymes

  • Suwannakul, Nattawan;Punvittayagul, Charatda;Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan;Wongpoomchai, Rawiwan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.3371-3376
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    • 2015
  • Pigmented rice bran has been suggested to be a valuable source of beneficial phytochemicals. We investigated genotoxic and anti-genotoxic effects of purple rice bran extract (PRBE) in rats using a liver micronucleus assay. Purple rice bran was extracted with methanol, obtaining large amounts of phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins and small amounts of gamma-oryzanol. The experimental protocols were divided into two sets. Male rats were divided into three groups. Group 1 was a negative control, while Groups 2 and 3 were fed with 100 and 500 mg/kg bw of PRBE, respectively, for 28 days. PRBE had no effect on micronucleus formation or xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in rat liver. Experiments concerning the effect of PRBE on $AFB_1$ showed that PRBE significantly lessened the amount of micronucleated hepatocytes in $AFB_1$ treated rats. Furthermore, it modulated metabolic activation of $AFB_1$ metabolism in the liver by suppressing activity and protein expression of CYP1A2, CYP3A and CYP 450 reductase, and enhancing phase II enzymes including GST and UGT. Overall, purple rice bran extract was not genotoxic in rats. It exhibited anti-genotoxicity by modulation some xenobiotic enzymes active in $AFB_1$ metabolism.

Effect of γ-oryzanol on Proliferation and Apoptosis of AGS Human Gastric Carcinoma Cell (감마 오리자놀의 위암세포증식억제 및 세포사멸 유도 효능)

  • Shin, Eun Ju;Chung, Sangwon;Hwang, Jin-Taek
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.83-89
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    • 2017
  • Gamma (${\gamma}$)-oryzanol is a substance abundant in rice, which is widely cultivated in Asian countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of ${\gamma}$-oryzanol treatment on proliferation and apoptosis of AGS human gastric carcinoma cells. AGS cells were treated with ${\gamma}$-oryzanol for 72 h in a dose dependent manner. Treatment of ${\gamma}$-oryzanol (50, 100, and $200{\mu}g/mL$) resulted in decreased AGS cell proliferation and increased number of cells in the sub-G1 population. Additionally, apoptotic cells were investigated by annexin V staining and mitochondrial membrane potential assays. Our results indicated that ${\gamma}$-oryzanol treatment increased the number of annexin V-positive cells and depolarized cells. This demonstrated that ${\gamma}$-oryzanol is effective for the induction of apoptosis in AGS cells. We next examined the expression of promising anticancer drug target molecules, including PTEN and HSP90. We found that treatment of ${\gamma}$-oryzanol induced the expression of PTEN in AGS cells. Under the same treatment conditions, ${\gamma}$-oryzanol reduced the expression of HSP90 in AGS cells. These results suggest that ${\gamma}$-oryzanol-induced apoptosis was accompanied by changes in regulation of PTEN and HSP90 in AGS cells. Taken together, ${\gamma}$-oryzanol could be used as a functional substance for the prevention of gastric cancer.

Effect of γ-Oryzanol on Lipid Oxidation of Linoleic Acids and Ground Pork (감마 오리자놀이 리놀산 및 분쇄돈육의 항산화효과에 미치는 영향)

  • 조수현;박범영;김진형;김용곤;이종문;안종남
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.587-594
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    • 2006
  • Gamma-oryzanol was prepared from rice bran, and added at 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15% or 0.20%(w/w) to linoleic acid and ground pork to determine their antioxidant effect. Linoleic acid containing γ-oryzanol had significantly lower peroxide values than the control during the storage of 10 days at 40℃ compared to the control (P<0.05). The peroxide values of linoleic acids containing γ-oryzanol decreased as the addition level increased (P<0.05). Raw ground pork patties containing oryzanol 0.20% had significantly lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values as equivalent with butylated hydroxy anisole(BHA) when stored at 4℃ for 6 days. Cooked ground pork patties containing more than 0.05% of γ-oryzanol showed lower TBARS values than those containing BHA during storage at 4℃ for 4 days (P<0.05). This study indicated that γ-oryzanol can be used to inhibit lipid oxidation for meat and meat products.