• Title/Summary/Keyword: $\gamma$-aminobutyric acid

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Optimization of gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Bioconversion by Recombinant Escherichia coli (재조합 Escherichia coli를 이용한 gamma-Aminobutyric Acid 전환 반응 최적화)

  • Le Vo, Tam Dinh;Hong, Soon-Ho
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.127-130
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    • 2012
  • In this study, the effects of pH, temperature, IPTG concentration and substrate (MSG) concentration on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production in engineered Escherichia coli were investigated. Glutamate decarboxylase and glutamate/GABA antiporter were overexpressed in GABA aminotransferase knock-out strain for GABA production. The result of optimization study showed the GABA bioconversion was optimized at pH 3.5, $30^{\circ}C$, 0.5 mM IPTG, 10 g/L MSG. At this condition, 5.23 g/L of final GABA concentration of was achieved from 10 g/L of MSG, which corresponded to a GABA yield of 85.77%.

Enchancement of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Production by Co-Localization of Neurospora crassa OR74A Glutamate Decarboxylase with Escherichia coli GABA Transporter Via Synthetic Scaffold Complex

  • Somasundaram, Sivachandiran;Maruthamuthu, Murali Kannan;Ganesh, Irisappan;Eom, Gyeong Tae;Hong, Soon Ho
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.9
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    • pp.1664-1669
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    • 2017
  • Gamma-aminobutyric acid is a precursor of nylon-4, which is a promising heat-resistant biopolymer. GABA can be produced from the decarboxylation of glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase. In this study, a synthetic scaffold complex strategy was employed involving the Neurospora crassa glutamate decarboxylase (GadB) and Escherichia coli GABA antiporter (GadC) to improve GABA production. To construct the complex, the SH3 domain was attached to the N. crassa GadB, and the SH3 ligand was attached to the N-terminus, middle, and C-terminus of E. coli GadC. In the C-terminus model, 5.8 g/l of GABA concentration was obtained from 10 g/l glutamate. When a competing pathway engineered strain was used, the final GABA concentration was further increased to 5.94 g/l, which corresponds to 97.5% of GABA yield. With the introduction of the scaffold complex, the GABA productivity increased by 2.9 folds during the initial culture period.

Co-Localization of GABA Shunt Enzymes for the Efficient Production of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid via GABA Shunt Pathway in Escherichia coli

  • Pham, Van Dung;Somasundaram, Sivachandiran;Park, Si Jae;Lee, Seung Hwan;Hong, Soon Ho
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.710-716
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    • 2016
  • Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid, which is an important inhibitor of neurotransmission in the human brain. GABA is also used as the precursor of biopolymer Nylon-4 production. In this study, the carbon flux from the tricarboxylic acid cycle was directed to the GABA shunt pathway for the production of GABA from glucose. The GABA shunt enzymes succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (GabD) and GABA aminotransferase (GabT) were co-localized along with the GABA transporter (GadC) by using a synthetic scaffold complex. The co-localized enzyme scaffold complex produced 0.71 g/l of GABA from 10 g/l of glucose. Inactivation of competing metabolic pathways in mutant E. coli strains XBM1 and XBM6 increased GABA production 13% to reach 0.80 g/l GABA by the enzymes co-localized and expressed in the mutant strains. The recombinant E. coli system developed in this study demonstrated the possibility of the pathway of the GABA shunt as a novel GABA production pathway.

Bioconversion of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid from Monosodium Glutamate by Lactobacillus brevis Bmb5

  • Jeong, Anna;Yong, Cheng Chung;Oh, Sejong
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.29 no.11
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    • pp.1745-1748
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    • 2019
  • Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays important roles in host physiology. However, the effects of GABA are greatly restricted due to its low bioavailability in the human body. Here, a high acid-tolerance GABA-producing strain, Lactobacillus brevis Bmb5, was isolated from kimchi. Bmb5 converted glutamate to GABA (7.23 ± 0.68 ㎍/μl) at a rate of 72.3%. The expression of gadB gene, encoding the enzyme involved in the decarboxylation of glutamate to GABA, was decreased upon incubation. Our findings indicate GABA production in Bmb5 is not directly correlated with gadB gene expression, providing new insight into the mechanisms underlying GABA production in Lactobacillus.

Characterization of the Production of Biogenic Amines and Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid in the Soybean Pastes Fermented by Aspergillus oryzae and Lactobacillus brevis

  • Kim, Nam Yeun;Ji, Geun Eog
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.464-468
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    • 2015
  • The production of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) using GABA-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been considered to be an attractive strategy. However, some LAB may produce biogenic amines (BA), which may be of concern from the safety viewpoint. The aim of the present study was to characterize the production of GABA and BA in the soybean pastes fermented by Aspergillus oryzae (A. oryzae) FMB S46471 and GABA-producing Lactobacillus brevis (L. brevis) GABA 100. After a ripening period of 90 days, the levels of BA (putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, and tyramine) and GABA in the fermented soybean were assessed by highperformance liquid chromatography. The soybean pastes fermented by A. oryzae and L. brevis showed a range of 7,130-11,592 mg/kg for GABA, 178-305 mg/kg for tyramine, 139-163 mg/kg for putrescine, 7.4-10.8 mg/kg for histamine, and 7.1-7.9 mg/kg for cadaverine, whereas the soybean pastes fermented by A. oryzae only showed a range of 30-1,671 mg/kg for GABA, 0.8-189 mg/kg for tyramine, 1.3-85 mg/kg for putrescine, up to 3.6 mg/kg for histamine, and 0.2-2.4 mg/kg for cadaverine. The results showed that the production of GABA was accompanied by the increase in the production of BA, even though the production levels of histamine and cadaverine were very low. This is the first study to simultaneously characterize the production of BA and GABA in GABA-enriched fermented soybean pastes, and warrants further study to minimize the production of BA while optimizing the production of GABA.

Wound Healing Activity of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) in Rats

  • Han, Dong-Oh;Kim, Hee-Young;Lee, Hye-Jung;Shim, In-Sop;Hahm, Dae-Hyun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.10
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    • pp.1661-1669
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    • 2007
  • Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid. It is well known for its role as an inhibitory neurotransmitter of developing and operating nervous systems in brains. In this study, a novel function of GABA in the healing process of cutaneous wounds was presented regarding anti-inflammation and fibroblast cell proliferation. The cell proliferation activity of GABA was verified through an MTT assay using murine fibroblast NIH3T3 cells. It was observed that GABA significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of iNOS, IL-$1{\beta}$, and TNF-${\alpha}$ in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. To evaluate in vivo activity of GABA in wound healing, excisional open wounds were made on the dorsal sides of Sprague-Dawley rats under anesthesia, and the healing of the wounds was apparently assessed. The molecular aspects of the healing process were also investigated by hematoxylineosin staining of the healed skin, displaying the degrees of re-epithelialization and linear alignment of the granulation tissue, and immunostaining and RT-PCR analyses of fibroblast growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor, implying extracellular matrix synthesis and remodeling of the skin. The GABA treatment was effective to accelerate the healing process by suppressing inflammation and stimulating re-epithelialization, compared with the epidermal growth factor treatment. The healing effect of GABA was remarkable at the early stage of wound healing, which resulted in significant reduction of the whole healing period.

Enhanced Production of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid by Optimizing Culture Conditions of Lactobacillus brevis HYE1 Isolated from Kimchi, a Korean Fermented Food

  • Lim, Hee Seon;Cha, In-Tae;Roh, Seong Woon;Shin, Hae-Hun;Seo, Myung-Ji
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.450-459
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    • 2017
  • This study evaluated the effects of culture conditions, including carbon and nitrogen sources, L-monosodium glutamate (MSG), and initial pH, on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production by Lactobacillus brevis HYE1 isolated from kimchi, a Korean traditional fermented food. L. brevis HYE1 was screened by the production analysis of GABA and genetic analysis of the glutamate decarboxylase gene, resulting in 14.64 mM GABA after 48 h of cultivation in MRS medium containing 1% (w/v) MSG. In order to increase GABA production by L. brevis HYE1, the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on GABA production were preliminarily investigated via one-factor-at-a-time optimization strategy. As the results, 2% maltose and 3% tryptone were determined to produce 17.93 mM GABA in modified MRS medium with 1% (w/v) MSG. In addition, the optimal MSG concentration and initial pH were determined to be 1% and 5.0, respectively, resulting in production of 18.97 mM GABA. Thereafter, response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to determine the optimal conditions of the above four factors. The results indicate that pH was the most significant factor for GABA production. The optimal culture conditions for maximum GABA production were also determined to be 2.14% (w/v) maltose, 4.01% (w/v) tryptone, 2.38% (w/v) MSG, and an initial pH of 4.74. In these conditions, GABA production by L. brevis HYE1 was predicted to be 21.44 mM using the RSM model. The experiment was performed under these optimized conditions, resulting in GABA production of 18.76 mM. These results show that the predicted and experimental values of GABA production are in good agreement.

Characteristics of Potential Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid-Producing Bacteria Isolated from Korean and Vietnamese Fermented Fish Products

  • Vo, Thi Thu-Thao;Park, Jong-Hyun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.209-221
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    • 2019
  • Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a neurotransmitter that exerts several physiological functions and positive effects on human health. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize the strains that had GABA-producing abilities from various fermented fish products. A total of 91 acid-producing strains were isolated from 41 samples of fermented fish products, and 27 strains showing GABA-producing abilities were identified by the 16S rDNA sequences. Among the strains, 31% strains tolerated at high-salt environment of 10-20% throughout the fermentation of fish sauces. The 27 isolates that produced GABA at various concentrations did so in the range of 5 to 454 mM. These GABA-producing isolates were identified as lactic acid bacteria of 14 strains, which included twelve Lactococcus lactis, one Enterococcus faecium, and one Lactococcus pentosus; eight Bacillus cereus group, which included seven B. thuringiensis and one B. cereus; and five Staphylococcus spp. Interestingly, with Vietnamese fish sauces, we mostly identified species of B. thuringiensis and Staphylococcus spp., while with Korean fermented fish products, the majority of the strains identified belonged to L. lactis. Among the strains, B. thuringiensis LH2134 produced the highest levels of GABA at 366 mM among the strains identified from Vietnamese fish sauces, whereas L. lactis LA43, a new strain isolated from Korean jeotgal (salted shrimp paste), produced the highest amount of GABA at 454 mM and the glutamate concentration in the medium was essential for GABA accumulation. Therefore, such the isolates might serve as good starters for development of more GABA-reinforced foods among fermented fish products.

Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Production from a Novel Enterococcus avium JS-N6B4 Strain Isolated from Edible Insects

  • Jo, Min-Ho;Hong, Seong-Jin;Lee, Ha-Nul;Ju, Jung-Hyun;Park, Bo-Ram;Lee, Jun-ho;Kim, Sun-Am;Eun, Jong-Bang;Wee, Young-Jung;Kim, Young-Min
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.933-943
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    • 2019
  • Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing strains were isolated from four edible insects and subjected to 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Among the four GABA-producing bacteria, Enterococcus avium JS-N6B4 exhibited the highest GABA-production, while cultivation temperature, initial pH, aerobic condition, and mono-sodium glutamate (MSG) feeding were found to be the key factors affecting GABA production rate. The culture condition was optimized in terms of glucose, yeast extract, and MSG concentrations using response surface methodology (RSM). GABA production up to 16.64 g/l was obtained under the conditions of 7 g/l glucose, 45 g/l yeast extract, and 62 g/l MSG through the optimization of medium composition by RSM. Experimental GABA production was 13.68 g/l, which was close to the predicted value (16.64 g/l) calculated from the analysis of variance, and 2.79-fold higher than the production achieved with basic medium. Therefore, GABA-producing strains may help improve the GABA production in edible insects, and provide a new approach to the use of edible insects as effective food biomaterials.

Effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid and piperine on gene regulation in pig kidney epithelial cell lines

  • Shin, Juhyun;Lee, Yoon-Mi;Oh, Jeongheon;Jung, Seunghwa;Oh, Jae-Wook
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.9
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    • pp.1497-1506
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    • 2020
  • Objective: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and piperine (PIP) are both nutritional supplements with potential use in animal diets. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of GABA and/or PIP treatment on the gene expression pattern of a pig kidney epithelial cell line. Methods: LLCPK1 cells were treated with GABA, PIP, or both, and then the gene expression pattern was analyzed using microarray. Gene ontology analysis was done using GeneOntology (Geneontology.org), and validation was performed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Gene ontology enrichment analysis was used to identify key pathway(s) of genes whose expression levels were regulated by these treatments. Microarray results showed that GABA had a positive effect on the transcription of genes related to regulation of erythrocyte differentiation and that GABA and PIP in combination had a synergistic effect on genes related to immune systems and processes. Furthermore, we found that effects of GABA and/or PIP on these selected genes were controlled by JNK/p38 MAPK pathway. Conclusion: These results can improve our understanding of mechanisms involved in the effect of GABA and/or PIP treatment on pig kidney epithelial cells. They can also help us evaluate their potential as a clinical diagnosis and treatment.