Since the dehydration packages of offshore plant deal directly with oil & gas, there is a great risk of fire and explosion during operation. Therefore, this study performed risk assessment through HAZard & OPerability (HAZOP) for solid desiccant dehydration package that can remove water component of natural gas in offshore floating liquefied natural gas (LNG) production facilities below 0.1 ppmv. The risk matrix was determined by dividing the likelihood and the severity into five levels separately by asset, life, environment and reputation. The piping & instrumentation diagram (P&ID) of the dehydration package was divided into 9 nodes. Total 22 deviations were assessed in consideration of the adsorption and desorption conversion cycle. A risk assessment based on deviations revealed 14 major hazards. Three representative types of hazards were open/close failure of the control valve, control failure of the heater, and abnormal operation of the regeneration gas cooler. Finally, we proposed the installation of additional safety devices to improve safety against these major hazards, such as safety instrumented functions, alarms, etc.
Environmental problems have showen over the past decades due to the rapid development of the world economy and the continued growth of the population. Ocher has been widely used for water treatment research, but few studies have been conducted on adsorption of air pollutants using ocher and porous diatomite earth for indoor air purification. In this study, ocher and diatomite earth were sintered with filters to remove indoor air pollutants. The four types of TMA, H2S, NH3 and CH3COOH were used to study the adsorption efficiency of ocher and porous diatomite filters. With the proper use of ocher, diatomite and copper catalysts, indoor air pollutants could be adsorbed. Alkaline substances (TMA and NH3) and acidic substances (H2S and CH3COOH) were able to adsorb at 120 and 90 minutes, respectively.
This study was conducted to analyze the physical strain with heart rate monitor in timber harvesting operations in order to reduce occupational accidents. The timber harvesting activities are manual cutting(felling, limbing and bucking) with a chainsaw and extraction by cable yarder. The study took place on Japanese larch stand. The average height was 26m and average diameter at breast height(DBH) was 3 7cm. The havest unit was gentle slope to steep slope. Results showed that the heart rate increases for chocking, felling, limbing and bucking were 94.0%, 87.9%, 84.8% and 56.4% respectively. The rate of Work Load Index was higher in the limbing(61.4%) activity than other activities chocking(55.2%), felling(54.1%) and bucking(32.1%). During 50% working heart rate test it was found that limbing(1.09), chocking(1.05) and felling(1.04) was exposed to high work intensity compared to bucking(0.83). The results showed that maximum acceptable work times(felling, chocking and limbing) were 2.30 hour, 1.85 hour and 1.60 hour respectively. To avoid occupational accidents, timber harvest workers may use a suitable working hour schedule to felling, chocking, limbing.
The purpose of this study is to research dampers, which are applied mainly to buildings adjacent to the coast, such as nuclear facilities, and used for ventilation and can safely protect lives and equipment in emergency situations. Comparing the equivalent stress for three models with hinge reinforcement and support reinforcement based on the early design model for Damper, in the Base model, the highest stress occurred in the part of hinge, especially in the centrally mounted hinge, and after reinforced the hinge, it was occurred in the rear support. For models reinforced hinges and supports, it is considered that reinforcement for stiffness will be required in the future as it entered within the range of allowable stress. For the safety factor distribution, the minimum safety ratio was sufficiently secured at least 1 and was high at the edge of the Damper frame and the Blade. As the hinge was reinforced, the safety factor distribution of Blade was increased, and it was verified that the safety factor was secured through the support reinforcement.
Polycarbonate (PC) materials having electrical insulation properties, are thermoplastic material and are easily processed, have excellent strength and heat resistance characteristics, and also have transparent and hard characteristics. In this study, we tried to derive the ε-N curve of strain-life, which shows the relationship between the strain characteristics and the life of the material when repeated impact loads are applied to the PC plastic material. As the impact load increased to 3.0kg, 4.0kg, 5.0kg, and 6.0kg, the strain also increased linearly to 0.033, 0.041, 0.046, and 0.055. At 3.0kg of mass impact, the test piece broke with 12000 impact cycles, 8400 times at 3.5kg, 7400 times at 4.0kg, 6600 times at 4.5kg, 4700 times at 5.0kg, 3000 times at 5.5kg, and 1000 times at 6.0kg. The number of fractures exponentially decreased as the load gradually increased. Using these results, an ε-N curve for PC plastic was derived.
The drilling mud is essentially used in oil and gas development. There are several roles of using the drilling mud, such as cleaning the bottomhole, cooling and lubricating the drill bit and string, transporting the cuttings to the surface, keeping and adjusting the wellbore pressure, and preventing the collapse of the wellbore. The fragments from rocks and micro-sized bubbles generated by the high pressure are mixed in the drilling mud. The systems to separate those mixtures and to keep the uniformly maintained quality of drilling mud are required. In this study, the simulation is conducted to verify the performance of the mud tank's agitation capacity. The primary role of the mud tank is the mixing of mud at the surface with controlling the mud condition. The container type is chosen as a mud tank pursuing efficient transport and better management of equipment. The single- and two-phase simulations about the agitation in the mud tank are performed to analyze and identify the inner flow behavior. The convergence of results is obtained for the vertical- and axis-direction velocity vector fields based on the grid-dependency tests. The mixing time analysis depending on the multiphase flow conditions indicates that the utilization of a two-stepped impeller with a smaller size provides less time for mixing. This study's results are expected to be utilized as the preliminary data to develop the mixing and integrating equipment of the onshore drilling mud system.
In this study, the optimal support span determination of pipeline system was carried out in consideration of the effects of seismic loads. The theoretical support and structural analysis were used to determine the optimal support span of piping system according to pipe diameter using theoretical and structural deflection criteria. The reliability of the analysis results was secured by comparing the structural and theoretical results. In particular, the optimum support span of piping system was obtained by considering the effects of seismic load, and the optimal support span of pipe diameter and piping system tended to be proportional to each other. When considering the effects of earthquakes on different pipe diameters(300~2,500mm), the span length is reduced by up to 48% at the allowable stress criterion, and the pipe span length is reduced by up to 5.9% at the deflection criterion. It can be seen that the effect of the seismic load on the determination of the piping span length has a greater effect on the stress than the displacement.
Because suicide accidents sometimes were happened in grand bridges over rivers or sea water recently, it will be necessary that prevention measures be made preparation in advance from now on. Additional safety facilities must be needed in addition to existing safety facilities in such a way as this prevention measure. In order to make cable-stayed bridge safe on wind for additional safety facilities, main girder models with added safety facilities for wind-tunnel tests was made, and wind tunnel experiments was carried out to measure aerodynamic force coefficients. Also, wind-resistant analyses of 3D cable-stayed bridge were performed on the basis of wind-tunnel test results. From the wind experiments, force coefficients of main girder with added safety facilities were assessed, and it is known that there are little possibility of galloping and rotation of steel main girder. Finally, from the wind resistant analyses, it was concluded that wind-resistant safety of cable-stayed bridge was secured on wind speed 60.6m/sec.
In this study, It is necessary that we should study on more effective use about reciprocating engines because there are huge increase of air pollution. Diesel Engine is operated by injecting fuel directly to combustion chamber with high pressure. Diesel Engine has greater thermal efficiency and durability than Gasoline Engine. Also, Diesel Engine emitted low harmful exhaust witch caused by Gasoline Engine. There are many ways to improve of performance and decrease of harmful exhaust by controlling injection timing, changing amount of fuel and engine speed and so on. Especially, development and application of common rail direct injection Engine cause the increase of thermal efficiency by controlling a various of operating conditions. In this study we analyze characteristics of performance by changing a various of operating conditions.
In this study, seismic verification of the bellows used in the plant field was conducted. The pressure used in the analysis was analyzed by applying the design pressure of 15.7bar. For the seismic analysis, the natural frequency of the bellows system was obtained and the stability of the system was evaluated by static seismic analysis comparing the lowest order natural frequency with the dominant frequency of 33 Hz. The material of the bellows system is STS304, and the safety factor is obtained in comparison with the allowable stress. For the seismic analysis, the design response spectrum was prepared and the maximum acceleration was applied to the static seismic analysis and the stability of the entire system was confirmed. Compared to the structural analysis results, the maximum stress of the bellows system increased by about 16.4% and the maximum strain increased by about 3 times when seismic analysis was performed.
The optimal shape modeling of core parts through 3D modeling and structural analysis for the development of small and medium-sized ships. The goal is to improve the efficient structure of the hydraulic system for controlling the rudder among the core steering parts in small and medium-sized ships. Through 3D modeling and structural analysis, a new concept of tiller parts and a double-acting hydraulic cylinder control system were proposed and operational structural stability was evaluated. Structural analysis of the three different tiller designs that can be replaceable onto existing fishing vessels was conducted to derive the final shapes. The emphasis was placed on evaluating the structural stability of the key drive components, the tiller, pin, and cylinder rodin the maximum torque condition of the hydraulic cylinder.
Liquid-phase-sintered (LPS) SiC materials were briefly examined with their microstructure and mechanical property. Especially, effect of high-temperature exposure on the tendency of fracture toughness of LPS-SiC were introduced. The LPS-SiC was fabricated in hot-press by sintering powder mixture of sub-micron SiC and sintering additives of Al2O3-Y2O3. LPS-SiC represented dense morphology and SiC grain-growth with some amount of micro-pores and clustered additives as pore-filling. The strength of LPS-SiC might affected by distribution of micro-pores. LPS-SiC tended to decrease fracture toughness depending on increasing exposure temperature and time.
Multi-wire sawing is the prominent technology employed to cut hard material ingots into wafers. This paper aimed to research the effect of diamond toughness index on the cutting performance of electroplated diamond wire. Three different toughness index of diamond abrasives were used to manufacture electroplated diamond wires. The cutting performance of electroplated diamond wire is verified through experiments, in which sapphire ingot are cut using single wire sawing machine. A single wire saw for constant load slicing is developed for the cutting performance evaluation of electroplated diamond wire. Choosing the cutting depth, total cutting depth, cutting force and wear of electroplated diamond wires as evaluation parameters, the performance of electroplated diamond wire is evaluated. The results of this study showed that there was a significant direct relationship between the toughness index of diamond abrasives and the cutting performance. Results demonstrated that diamond abrasive with a high toughness index showed higher cutting performance. However, all diamond abrasives showed similar cutting performance under low load conditions. The results of this paper are useful for the development of cutting large diameter ingots and cutting high hardness ingots at high speed.
In the era of super-aged societies, research and development (R&D) projects related to aging are very important agenda for establishing the direction of future R&D planning and technological competitiveness in the country. In order to respond promptly to this agenda, it is essential to establish a national-level convergence R&D policy. In this study, we utilized the global R&D funding project data from major nations (US, Europe, Japan), and then standardized them with the same fields. To analyze the current status of global R&D related to aging, we performed cluster analysis based on the co-occurrence matrix to explore convergence R&D areas in the US, Europe, and Japan related to aging. In addition, comparative analysis by country suggested that different points on the interdisciplinary area and the convergence of aging-related R&D by each country. These results provide fundamental understandings for the status of convergence in aging-related global R&D, the current technology trends, and establish the direction and strategy of R&D policy.
355nm UV pulse laser is irradiated on the surface of polyimide (PI) by LDW (Laser Direct Writing) method to produce a high sensitivity flexible humidity sensor using a simple one-step process. The LDW method continuously investigates 2-D CAD data using a galvano scanner and an F-lens. This method is non-contact, so it minimizes physical strain on the PI. Laser-induced graphene (LIG) produced by lasers has a high surface area due to its high flexibility and numerous pores and oxidizers compared to conductors. For this reason, it is highly useful as a flexible humidity sensor. The humidity sensor produced in this study was attached to the inside of a mask filter, which has become a hot topic recently, and its applicability was confirmed.The measurement of humidity measured the sensitivity, reactivity, stability and recovery behavior of the sensor by measuring changes in capacitance and resistance.
In this paper, we analyzed the optical properties of the LED module for dental care, which has the effect of promoting cell regeneration and scar treatment. The LED module is a U-shaped module suitable for the shape of teeth. It is manufactured with an LED module (632 nm) and an LED module (632 nm + 870 nm), analyzes the results of optical properties, sets the irradiation distance, irradiation time, and is effective in healing skin wounds. Evaluation was conducted. It was tested in 6 test groups according to the light irradiation conditions, and light was irradiated to the scar site every other day for 7 days, 1 day and 3 days. As a result, it was confirmed that the effect of scar treatment was the highest when the combined wavelength of 632 nm + 870 nm was irradiated in pulse mode than when the single wavelength was irradiated and the composite wavelength was continuously irradiated. In group C group irradiated with PW Mode: pulse mode (period 36 ms, pulse width 35 ms) using a composite wavelength with LED module (632 nm + 870 nm) than group A without light irradiation, the length of scar reduction was 19 %, the area of the scar was further reduced by 10%, and it was confirmed that it is effective in treating scars in the wound area.
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