Recently, the drone's equipment development and software technology have dramatically improved. With such developments, the applicability is increasing in various fields that require rapid geospatial information, and in practice, regulations and systems have been established, and the fields in use are increasing. Also, in Korea, corporations and public institutions are actually using and researching drones in fields such as aircraft development, communication technology development, construction site use, and surveying. However, there are no fields where drones are actually used in road construction sites. Therefore, in this study, to utilize drones that have been actively used in the civil engineering and construction fields for road construction, we investigated the current status of the Korea Highway Corporation's field drone use research and classified the possibility of drone introduction by road construction. Finally, a method of using drones at road construction sites was proposed to prepare a method for using drones at road construction sites.
Social costs are increasing in Gangwon-do east coast due to coastal erosion. Long-term coastline change information is essential for analyzing this phenomenon. In this study, aerial photographs immediately after liberation are used for 1950's coastline extraction. The study area is from Sokcho Cheongho beach to Yangyang Seorak beach. The aerial photograph is geometrically corrected using DLT(Direct Linear Transformation) method to extract past coastline and compare it with present data. Coastal erosion and deposition areas are calculated in study area. Artificial structures such as harbors and breakwaters have caused changes in ocean currents and sediments from river estuaries. In most cases, the deposition occurred at the southern area of artificial structures and the erosion occurred on surrounding beaches. Coastline information extracted from past aerial photographs can be useful to provide information on long-term changes.
Recently, reciprocating cryogenic pumps are mainly developed for small-and-mid sized fuel supply systems. Centrifugal type pumps are not actively developed. Most cryogenic submerged pumps are imported. For transportation, cryogenic liquefied natural gas requires the liquid pump technology that can works in extreme evironments. In order to transport liquefied natural gas, it is necessary to apply pump technology. This is the fundamental research for developing the submerged pump technology applicable to the transportation and storage system equipment of cryogenic liquefied system. It tries to secure basic design materials through reverse-engineering in the cryogenic submerged pump development. Regarding materials, STS-304 and STS-431 which are stainless materials widely used in the cryogenic area are applied. Aluminum alloy is applied to impeller and upper manifolder and the pump rotates at the high speed of 6,000rpm.
Recently, in Korea, various technology developments have been made to utilize 3D space and facility data such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and laser scanners with the goal of improving productivity at construction sites. However, the lack of related regulations for 3D laser scanner surveying has been a barrier to using the technology across the surveying industry. As a result, owners, contractors, and construction supervisors are reluctant to introduce and apply technology to the site. In this study, the guidelines (drafting and inspection work to be supervised by construction supervisors when constructing earthworks using laser scanners) was developed and presented so that the earth surveying and quantity calculation technology using a laser scanner could be applied and diffused in a construction site. Through the development of this guideline (proposal), it is judged that the supervision and inspection of earthworks quantity using a laser scanner will be activated in the field.
In recent years, measurement in a smart-phone environment is attracting attention in various fields due to its easy set-up process, various functions, convenience and expandability. Even in the field of safety evaluation and maintenance of large-scale infra-structures, the appropriate application of these effective and convenient measurement techniques can be of great help. In this paper, an experimental study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness, problems and complementary methods of applying smart-phone accelerometers to the measurement in infra-structure such as bridges. In model bridge subjected to impact and moving loads, the measured accelerations using a smart-phone and a professional accelerometer were directly compared in time domain. And the statistical and frequency characteristics of the measured signal and transfer function were also examined in frequency domain. The results show that the accuracy of measurement using smart-phone sensor is primarily affected by its incomplete sampling performance. In conclusion, smart-phone sensors cannot be considered suitable for precise assessment, where measurements must be accurate over a wide frequency range, but we can say that the technique is still useful and fairly accurate for some purpose over a limited frequency range, such as the low pass frequency range, which is a major concern for civil structures.
City gas buried pipes are managed by corrosion protection to prevent corrosion. In the case of the press-in section, the double pipe and the main pipe may cause corrosion under the influence of stray current, which can shorten the life of the pipes. In addition, if the insulator is filled in the press-in section, the press-in section itself is a single structure, and can be directly affected by external impact, and when the surrounding ground subsidence occurs, the stress may be concentrated, resulting in serious consequences. In this study, a serration-type shock absorber in the form of a sliding support was proposed as a new buried double piping construction method using EPS. The serration-type shock absorber can contribute to the improvement of the integrity of the buried double piping, as it can utilize the gas piping's own ductility and stress distribution characteristics with proper anti-corrosion management and shock-absorbing material properties by preventing contact inside the buried double pipe. However, for application to ground piping, there remains a task to supplement the vulnerability against fire due to the characteristics of EPS materials.
Automatic lubrication devices are applied in various fields, such as huge machinery, construction machinery or commercial vehicles, to lower maintenance costs and protect the devices. In addition, the automatic lubrication device reduces frequent component failures cause by friction and allows the machine to replace the lubricating oil replenishment work carried out by the manager. However, the automatic lubricating device used in large machinery or commercial vehicles is relatively large, containing a large amount of lubricant in the space to be lubricated. On the other hand, a smart factory, such as a home appliance or cosmetics factory, lacks space to install large automatic lubrication devices, and it is difficult to distribute electricity. Therefore, there is a need for an automatic lubrication device that can be used in various environments that require lubrication. In this paper, a small automatic lubrication device is proposed for smart factories that have changed parts of existing factories, such as electronics factories, to minimize friction arising from mechanical parts, etc. In particular, the structure of lubricating pumps and component parts that are the core of automatic lubrication devices was described so that they could be utilized in various fields. Finally, a test bed environment is established for the proposed automatic lubrication device to evaluate its performance and verify its applicability.
In the injection molding process, the controlling stability of products quality is a very important factor in terms of productivity. Even when the optimum process conditions for the desired product quality are applied, uncontrollable external factors such as ambient temperature and humidity cause inevitable changes in the state of the melt resin, mold temperature. etc. Therefore, it is very difficult to maintain prodcut quality. In this study, a system that learns the correlation between process variables and product weight through artificial neural networks and predicts process conditions for the target weight was established. Then, when a disturbance occurs in the injection molding process and fluctuations in the weight of the product occur, the stability control of the product quality was performed by ANN predicting a new process condition for the change of weight. In order to artificially generate disturbance in the injection molding process, controllable factors were selected and changed among factors not learned in the ANN model. Initially, injection molding was performed with a polypropylene having a melt flow index of 10 g/10min, and then the resin was replaced with a polypropylene having a melt floiw index of 33 g/10min to apply disturbance. As a result, when the disturbance occurred, the deviation of the weight was -0.57 g, resulting in an error of -1.37%. Using the control method proposed in the study, through a total of 11 control processes, 41.57 g with an error of 0.00% in the range of 0.5% deviation of the target weight was measured, and the weight was stably maintained with 0.15±0.07% error afterwards.
This paper considers the development of the dynamic analysis model and simulation-based operation safety estimation of A-Frame to be applied to the test evaluation support vessel for real sea test. The support vessel will be manufactured by modifying the existing offshore support vessel. Also, development and installation of various sensors and supporting facilities for test evaluation are under preparation. Among these facilities, A-Frame is an equipment that transfers marine equipment from ship deck to the sea floor, and is being designed to transfer up to 50 ton class equipment. However, the A-Frame is a moving equipment using hydraulic cylinders. When the 50 ton equipment is attached and transferred to A-Frame, the buckling of cylinders may occur or A-Frame becomes inoperable due to the influence of huge inertia. For this reason, safety verification should be performed using dynamic analysis techniques that can take into account huge inertia forces in the design of A-Frame. Therefore, in this study, A-Frame and ship behavior were modeled using dynamic analysis method, and the applied loads of various equipment including hydraulic cylinder of A-Frame was measured and the operation safety review was performed.
This paper deals with identification of probabilistic design using reliability based robust optimization in structure design of automatic salt collector. The thickness sizing variables of main structure member in the automatic salt collector were considered the random design variables including the uncertainty of corrosion that would be an inevitable hazardousness in the saltern work environment. The probabilistic constraint functions were selected from the strength performances of the automatic salt collector. The reliability based robust optimum design problem was formulated such that the random design variables were determined by minimizing the weight of the automatic salt collector subject to the probabilistic strength performance constraints evaluating from reliability analysis. Mean value reliability method and adaptive importance sampling method were applied to the reliability evaluation in the reliability based robust optimization. The three sigma level quality was considered robustness in side constraints. The probabilistic optimum design results according to the reliability analysis methods were compared to deterministic optimum design results. The reliability based robust optimization using the mean value reliability method showed the most rational results for the probabilistic optimum structure design of the automatic salt collector.
A number of investigations and studies have been conducted in various fields regarding the sediment disasters of Mt. Woomyeon that occurred in July 2011. We collected and compared the topographic information of the general points where debris flows did not occur and the collapse points where the debris flow occurred in order to find out the characteristics of the collapse points in Woomyeon mountain. The collected topographic information is altitude, curvature, slope, aspect and TPI(topographic position index). As a result of comparison, there were relatively many collapse points at an altitude of 210m to 250m, and at a slope of 30° to 40°. In addition, the risk of collapse was low in a cell where the curvature was close to 0, and the risk was higher in concave terrain than in convex terrain. In the case of TPI, there was no statistical difference between the general points and the collapse points when the analysis radius was larger than 200m, and there was a correlation with the curvature when the analysis radius was smaller than 50m. In the case of debris flows that are affected by artificial structures or facilities, there is a possibility of disturbing the topographic analysis results. Therefore, if a research on debris flow is conducted on a mountain area that is heavily exposed to human activities, such as Woomyeon mountain, diversified factors must be considered to account for this impact.
In recent, the machining of difficult-to-cut materials such as titanium alloys, stainless steel, Inconel, ceramic, glass, and carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) used in aerospace, automobile, medical industry is actively researched. Abrasive waterjet is a non-traditional processing method in which ultra-high pressure water and abrasive particles are mixed in a mixing chamber and shoot out jet through a nozzle, and removed by erosion due to collision with a material. In particular, the nozzle of the abrasive waterjet is one of the most important parts that affect the machining quality as with a cutting tool in general machining. It is very important to monitor the condition of the nozzle because the workpiece is uncut or the surface quality deteriorates due to wear, expanding of the bore, damage of the nozzle and clogging of the abrasive, etc. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a monitoring system based on Acoustic Emission(AE) sensor that can detect nozzle condition in real time during AWJ processing.
Currently, the K-Water uses various valves that can be remotely controlled for optimal water management. Valve system fault can be classified into rotor defects, stator defects, bearing defects, and gear defects of induction motors. If the valve cannot be operated due to a gear fault, the water management operation can be greatly affected. For effective water management, there is an urgent need for preemptive repairs to determine whether gear is damaged through failure prediction diagnosis.. Recently, deep learning algorithms are being applied for valve failure diagnosis. However, the method currently applied has a disadvantage of attaching a vibration sensor to the valve. In this paper, propose a new algorithm to determine whether a fault exists using a convolutional neural network (CNN) based on the voltage and current information of the valve without additional sensor mounting. In particular, a normalized Lisasjous diagram was used to maximize the fault classification performance in the CNN-based diagnostic system.
This paper considers a method of reproducing abnormal and fault operation for smart monitoring of thrust bearing used in wave power generation system. In order to develop smart monitoring technology, abnormal and failure data of actual equipment are required. However, it is impossible to artificially break down the actual equipment in operation due to safety and cost. To tackle this problem, a test bed that can secure data through reproduction of a faulty operating environment should be developed. Therefore, in this study, test bed that can reproduce each situation was developed and the operation result was analysis after identifying the situation to be reproduced through the failure factor analysis of the thrust bearing.
Among the many packaging materials used in cushion packaging, there is a lack of optimum design for packaging trays and cushion pads used in pear packaging for export and domestic distribution. It causes over-packaging due to excessive material input, and can be solved by applying various parameters needed to optimize the design of the packaging tray and cushion pad considering the packaging material and the number of pears in the box. In the case of a cushion pad for pears, the economic efficiency of material and thickness should be considered. Therefore, it is possible to design a packaging tray and cushion pad depending on eco-friendly packaging materials (PLA, PET) used by applying appropriate design parameters. The static characteristics of the materials used for the packaging of pears were analyzed using FEA (finite element analysis) simulation technique to derive the optimal design parameters. In this study, we analyzed the contact stress and deformation of PET, PLA tray (0.1, 0.5 1.0, 1.5 and 2 mm) and PET foam (2.0, 3 .0 and 4.0 mm) with pears to derive appropriate cushion packaging design factors. The contact stress between the pear and PET foam pad placed on PLA, PET trays were simulated by FEA considering the bioyield strength (192.54±28 kPa) of the pears and safety factor (5) of packaging design, which is the criterion of damage to the pears. For the combination of PET tray and PET foam buffer pad, the thickness of the PET foam is at least 3 mm, the thickness of the PET foam is at least 1.0 mm, the thickness of the foam is at least 2 mm, and if the thickness of the PET tray is at least 1.5 mm, the thickness of the foam is at least 1 mm, suitable for the packaging design. In addition, for the combination of PLA tray and PET foam pad, the thickness of the PET foam was not less than 2 mm if the thickness of the PLA tray was 0.5 mm, and 1 mm or more if the thickness of the PLA tray was not less than 1.0 mm, the thickness of the PET foam was suitable for the packaging design.
As the battery ages, the internal resistance of the battery increases, so the loss due to the internal resistance increases at the same charging current, causing the battery temperature to rise, which further accelerates battery aging. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the charging conditions according to the aging of the battery or the current charge amount, and to accurately estimate this, estimation of the parameters of the equivalent circuit is most important. This paper proposes a new measurement technique that can measure the internal resistance of a battery by analyzing a specific high frequency voltage and current applied to the battery. In addition, in order to test the validity of the proposed measurement technique, the current charging amount was estimated based on the measured internal resistance, and the terminal voltage of the constant current charging mode was automatically set and operated. As a result, good results were obtained regardless of the battery voltage. If this equipment is installed in the charging device, it is believed that it will be of great help in the stability management of the aging reusable battery.
Offshore drilling units have a very dangerous working conditions due to the harsh working environment of the ocean and the high possibility of fire or explosion. This study would identify the hazards that emerge from the marine environment in the operation and maintenance phase of offshore drilling units and show how these hazards can be reduced through risk assessment/management. Various risk reduction and management measures were first reviewed, and Job Safety Analysis (JSA) was selected as the risk assessment technique of this study. In order to understand the characteristics of offshore drilling operations, accident statistics of onshore and offshore drilling were analyzed and compared with each other, and major risk factors for offshore drilling were derived. The jobs in which offshore drilling accidents occur more frequently than onshore drilling was analyzed as the job of fastening, transporting and moving pipes and various materials. This result is due to the limited space of the ocean and the work environment that is prone to being shaken by wind, waves and ocean currents. Based on these statistical results, the job of picking and making up drill pipes was selected as a high-risk job, and JSA was performed as an example. A detailed safety check procedure is proposed so that workers can fully recognize the danger and perform work in a safe state that has been confirmed.
In this paper, a novel 3-DOF hybrid robot with enlarged workspace is presented for high speed applications. The 3-DOF hybrid robot is made up of one linear actuator and 2-DOF planar parallel robot in series. The actuation consists of one ball-screw to make one linear motion and two rotary ball-screws to transmit rotational motion to 2-DOF parallel robot. The workspace can be enlarged according to ball-screw stroke and the moving inertia can be reduced due to locating all the heavy actuators at the fixed base. The inverse kinematics and workspace analyses are presented. The robot prototype and PC-based control system are developed.
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