According to Plato's ontology, we lead our lives by establishing a relationship with others in the society. However in rapidly changing era, our lives was gradually moving towards personal tendency. Even for the relationship with family, not with others. Thus, awareness about owning properties has changed due to the sociocultural factors and increase number of single-person households. So in this study, the considerations for single-person housing were perceived through preceding research, and the elements making spatial boundary of shared housing were drawn to make rational space sharing based on the boundary with others and of the living environment. With overall analysis based on the spatial boundary features of planned shared housing, the plan characteristics according to the spatial boundary of the current shared housing is to be drawn and analyzed. Third, The expressive and structural features of spatial boundary as above appear with mutual flexible connectivity, And the result shows that the modularity was the highest. Among them variable coupling modularity of shows how it is possible to combine efficiently and variously the private and public spaces with regularity of 'space of optimal unit'. This study drew plan characteristics from more detailed space border of shared housing. Therefore, The basic framework of the characteristics spin for the cases that newly emerge later on.
Recent changes in the Korean education policies are promoting the advances in science and technology and cultivating people of convergence talent. STEAM (science, technology, engineering, art and math) educational program is Korean styled convergence program for creative competent human resources. Therefore, Therefore the aim of this study is developing convergence hand-on educational program coping with climate change for elementary school students. For development of the program, we investigated the curriculum of the elementary school about the climate change, and allocated in the creative learning standard frame. Also, we selected themes related the climate change in the curriculum and learning activity. For more effective program to build the convergence competency, we analyzed the program based on creative problem based learning process and 4 core competency(creativity, communication, convergence, caring) elements. In conclusion, the STEAM program needs to develop by school curriculum and leaner's ability. For elementary school students, the STEAM program consists with creative problem based learning process. And the convergence educational program would analyze by the creative PBL process and convergence competency elements. So, this developing program has brought the promotion of the creative convergence competent talented person for the future global environment.
The purpose of this study is create a comparative analysis of the characteristics of various materials which were used on the outer wall of F.L.Wright's works. The research results will be summarized as follows: 1) Wright thought that the outer wall was not just a physical object which divides the space of a house but it includes the image of the total exterior form, as well as, the economical factors of the age. 2) He tried to sublimate architectural image of his own style with the change of time because he recognized difficulties and limitations of traditional materials and economic feasibility. 3) He used nature-friendly material like wood and brick which were used in various methods of his natural architectural concept. 4) Some of Wright's early works were acculturated by classical architectural components such as the column to emphasize verticality of architectural form. The columns play a division role in the face of the outer wall creating a dynamic image and this also controls the amount of light that enters inside the house.
The aim of this study is to quantitatively deduce the circulation efficiency and space arrangements of the outpatient department in geriatric hospitals in terms of spatial structure and to find a methodology that could promote the improvement of accessibility and spatial cognition while using the facilities. All space units of the selected twelve geriatric hospitals were located on the first floor. The study adopted the psychological distance concept of space syntax to the unitized spaces, and presented a set of indices, such as TD, PN, RF, PNT and TRF. These indices were calculated according to the standard clinical use procedures. The study evaluated the effectiveness of circulation. The analysis of circulation was based on the four major geriatric illnesses that were selected in this study. The study established the standard clinical use procedure with consideration of the medical treatment, examinations and space units of outpatient departments. The results are as follows: 1) Based on the statistical data, four major geriatric illnesses are examined, and space requirement and standard procedures are established. Development indicators are applied in order to quantitatively deduce the efficiency of spatial cognition. 2) The percentage of the risk of cognitive decline(TRF) has an inversely proportional correlation to the circulation efficiency(PNT) at a certain point. TRF is more influenced by the clinical use procedure than the scale. 3) The arrangement of the waiting space and types of corridor greatly affect the percentage of the risk of cognitive decline. 4) Vulnerable facilities are selected on the basis of the evaluation, and two alternatives that could promote the circulation efficiency are presented. The result of the reanalysis showed that cognitive efficiency had much improved compared to the existing facilities.
Observation about space is looked steady in an instant, but in continuous movement, one's observation unconsciously stays at different points. In department store, customer actually observes around the store for buying, not focusing on certain point. By studying customer's movement and observation feature, buying desire and interest can be found. For analysis of the different searching-features according to the continuous-observation depending on sex, the study is set up to record movements of customers at women in Department store. The following are the findings. First, Men observed 0.2-0.4 units more in I-II section which are assumed as predominant. The result shows that men can focus on more section (around +0.4%) and longer (around +5.7%) than women do. Second, the same feature of observation depending on sex is that both men and women observe left and right section while keep focusing on middle section. Third, according to the fact that right-focused observation magnificently occurred in the image curved to right, the Space-composition has influenced on the observation of both men and women on the space. Forth, excessive number of display can cause avoidance of observation. Moreover, observation does not stay on the coverage due to wall or post, but is attracted to the brand name. As brand name causes right-focused observation in the image [(8)], brand name can be one of the reasons to attract observation in women apparel store. To sum up, this study is noticeable as it researches about continuous-observation. Furthermore, verifying the result that the composition of space and the placement of products can cause big differences in the observation feature is meaningful outcome.
A study on how fire officer's job satisfaction factors influence space satisfaction rates. This article will conduct regression analysis for the study on these three problems. 'What are the factors of fire officer's job satisfaction?', 'Does space satisfaction rates influence job satisfaction rates?', 'Which job satisfaction factor influence space satisfaction rate?' Therefore, variables were set based on the prior study, and before regression analysis was conducted, variables were purified through analysis on primary factor and reliability analysis, and hypothesis test was done via variable calculation. According to the prior study, factors that influence job satisfaction rates are as following; self-regulation of tasks, ethics and responsibility level, relationship with colleagues, job identity. And regression analysis showed that space satisfaction rates do not influence job satisfaction rates. The writer thinks that it's showing that Korean fire officers tend to prioritize colleague relationship and job identity over space improvements. And the factor that influence job satisfaction rates turned out to be the self-regulation of tasks, and the writer estimates that it's reflecting the hierarchical organization culture of current Korean fire officers. Therefore, future Korean fire station design plans need to consider a space plan that provides fire officer's private self-regulation of tasks.
This paper aims to describe a case study of parametric interior design based on BIM (Building Information Modeling). As the practical use of BIM-based design grows, its influence expands into the field of interior architecture design. BIM makes possible to check various design plan, reach decision making in an effective way, and change design plan in an efficient method. Therefore, BIM is also promising field in interior architecture design. However, compared to other fields in architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry, there have been less research and projects on BIM in the field of interior architecture. For increasing the feasibility of adapting BIM in interior architecture design, this paper describes a case study-projecting images for designing interior panels using parametric modeling. This process needs elaborate, delicate, and precise steps for harmonious output. For continuous use of building, users look forward to the design which variable and changeable according to user's preference and environment. Therefore, demand for parametric design in the interior design part such as panel pattern design for various decoration is growing. Treated process in this paper deals with an advanced phase which much effective in decreasing time consumption and useless part of process. Finally, this paper suggests the possibility of using BIM in the interior design process and field where BIM can be applied.
The purpose of this study was to suggest ways to vitalize residential container architecture by identifying the building process of domestic residential container architecture and analyzing various problems appeared in the process and status of construction related to planning, design, and construction. Conclusion and suggestions of this study are as follows.; firstly, according to the current situation of domestic residential container architecture, the usage was planned mainly for accommodation. Secondly, For planning background of planning preparation stage, economic benefit for long-term residence individuality and diversity for long short term complex residence were the primary planning backgrounds. Thirdly, for floor planning of planning design stage, space planning for various purposes is necessary as creating inter-space, wide LDK space, and loft by using narrow and long container for the long-term residence. Lastly, For construction stage, ways to reduce personnel expenses are being required by reducing the term of works and simplifying the processing stage by running factory production and field construction in parallel. If reduction method of construction cost through energy saving and mass production system is considered in the future, it would be possible to expand the development to dormitory and community housing for university students who are pressured by housing cost.
The aim of this study is to review Norberg-Schulz's architectural phenomenology to find out its meaning and limitations in contemporary architecture. His phenomenological trilogy, 'Existence, Space and Architecture', 'Genius Loci' and 'The Concept of Dwelling' are main texts to examine background, characteristics, meaning and limitations of his theory in relation to Structuralism and Heidegger's thoughts. Heidegger's phenomenology, especially his dwelling concept, had great impacts on forming Norberg-Schulz's architectural phenomenology. However, since his architectural phenomenology was strongly influenced by Structuralism, his theories present unstable combination of phenomenology and semiotics. And this results in instrumentalization, and overlooking body movement and socio-economical elements in his theory. In spite of these limitations, his theory also shows possibility to go beyond the theory of Modern architecture and plays important role in suggesting direction for better environment through applicability from single building to city in Postmodern architecture. Another meaning of his theory lies in presenting theoretical background for new way to interpret regionalism and specific policy tool to make town planning in Finland.
China has already entered the aging society and is predicted to become a super-aged society in 2020. The recent studies identified that the elderly has more interest in 'Aging-in-Place' which emphasizes deinstitutionalization since welfare facilities such as care homes and silver towns have separated the elderly from their local communities where they used to live in. The aim of this research is to propose a promising way for smart housing services who support the elderly's living in their homes, China. This research is to investigate the elderly's life and to identify their demands on housings for implementing such smart services. The elderly's living in apartments in Luoyang city, China, were investigated through interviews using a questionnaire survey. The results show that smart housing services should be provided to support the elderly's health, safety, leisure activities, comfortable living, and social relationships sustainably. In addition, such smart housing services should be intuitive since the elderly need to use easily smart services for their autonomous life in their homes. The smart housing services should be developed in the direction of enhancing the elderly's healthy and desirable life, and lessening their discomforts due to aging.
The purpose of this study is to investigate household Items and storage of kitchen and to suggest basic data for the desirable storage space. For the study, the samples were taken from 30 families living in 3-bedroom apartment. The personal interview and physical trace method were used to analyze the types and quantities of household Items and the storage conditions in kitchen furniture. The result was as follows : first, a total of 210 types of household Items were found in the kitchen, and the items ranged widely in purpose, from cooking and dining tools, hygiene products, and general household goods, which indicate that a variety activities in addition to cooking and eating are performed in the kitchen. Second, regarding the quantities of household Items, the majority of them were used for cooking and dining. Also the types and quantities of household Items varied according to the age of the child. Third, regarding storage of household Items in the kitchen by furniture type, the majority of the items were stored in the wall cabinets, base cabinets, and countertops and, as a storage method, simple 'placement' was most common. This suggests there is lack of three-dimensional storage in the kitchen. The findings show activities and storage in the kitchen space vary according to the age of the child, and household Items are stored by using several common methods.
In modern society which changes from quantity-seeking society to value-seeking one, people's various lifestyles have great effect on consumption patterns and work as an important factor in choosing hotels. The fact that design hotels, which provide unique experiences with differentiated and sensitive designs by reflecting various lifestyles, recently attract attention can be understood in the same context. As a matter of fact, design hotels recently serve as destinations as they become cultural and artistic icons which reflect customer lifestyles. Especially, the designs of lobby spaces in hotels play deciding role in customers' choices while representing the nature of hotels. In this respect, under the premise that the kinds of accumulated experiences are different depending on lifestyles and preferences for specific interior spaces are influenced by association mechanism formed by experiences, this study analyzed lobby spaces of design hotels which focus on specific lifestyles from the perspective of association mechanism based on experiences. As the method of analysis, this study classified the types of lifestyles and conducted case analysis to investigate what association mechanism works to enhance the preference of design hotels by types. Study classified lifestyles into experiential activity type, social meeting type, fashion-pursuing type and hideout-preferring type and analyzed cases of lobby designs in design hotels. The results of this case analysis are as follows; First, experiential activity type mainly utilized quasi-association and approach association through senses and social meeting type utilized quasi-association and memory association through emotions while fashion-pursuing type utilized quasi-association and presumption association through intuition and hideout-preferring type utilized quasi-association and approach association through thoughts. Second, it was found that most lobby designs are characterized by association mechanism in visual formative nature and that in temporal spatial nature working in complex way, and, through such process of association expansion, space stories are created. Stories of spaces created this way become unique identities of design hotels that provide new experiences for customers.
As the dark side of society, Idle spaces, which occurred with the paradigm change due to rapid modernization and industralization, has been existing as a severed part in cities. But with the periodic change, interest in the existing place and regional regeneration, and the necessity of reconsidering about the idle spaces values of space, city environment, socio-culture, and economy was proposed. I estimated that the change of relational aesthetics aspect of modern arts resulted in the consideration of recognizing 'place' of art, through the study, it was revealed that the form of modern arts and change of enjoyment were related to space, and the fact that this had a relation with the rise of artistic regeneration of idle spaces. mutually communicative relationship formation and practical form of arts was deducted through the interpretation of relational aesthetics, Idle spaces and artistic regeneration space can be categorized into forms of experiential space, creative space, and cultural space, depending on the formation of relationship between author-art-audience. Through the comprehensive analysis, Artistic regeneration space by relationship formation is Vitalization of various forms of art and participation program eliminates the boundary between creation and enjoyment, and the space itself can be said to contain extensive, integral, and nonterritorialization meaning as a place of experiencing art. In other words, Artistic regeneration space of idle spaces forms a close relationship with the local society, and is placed within the context of daily domain as an open space, straying off from the existing separative and closed artistic space configuration. and artistic changeover of idle spaces is not only the appearance of space that simply fulfills function according to transfiguration of modern art, but signifies that art is coexisting with space as an indivisible relationship, and can be said to be the foothold of new relationship creation as the practical 'place' of art.
Chronic patients and staffs in healthcare facilities cannot avoid long-term stays indoors. Therefore, they need to get adequate amounts of sunlight to prevent diseases caused by vitamin D deficiency. This is a case study on the advanced daylighting systems installed to healthcare facilities for therapeutic environments as serving natural light therapy and a pleasant atmosphere. This paper shows daylighting devices that overcome the structural limits of architectural design solutions for inducing natural light. This study presents appropriate daylighting technologies to the purpose and types of healthcare facilities by analyzing therapeutic environmental factors. Natural light delivered through daylighting devices help directly patients recover. In addition, it can improve healthcare providers' performance and productivity, and reduce their errors, thereby creating therapeutic environments for patients, indirectly. Excellent color rendering of solar illumination is also a powerful tool for navigation and wayfinding in the buildings, and for aesthetic treatment in dental office. Furthermore, daylighting systems are streamlined and require the least material and space to attract sunlight up to the deeper inside. But because of expensive cost, they have not yet been widespread. Though daylighting devices are typically more expensive than artificial illuminations to install, the running cost savings can compensate for the initial installation cost. With the development of technology in the future, the market price of them is expected to be formed properly.
The purpose of this study aims to investigate the characteristics of architectural association methods which apply Hall's poetic concept by looking into how Hall extracts languages and images under what circumstances and by analyzing how the extracted elements are integrated into an architectural space through what association processes. First of all, poetic association functions in the architectural process are compared, and the value of using visual associations in architectural designs are investigated based on the results of the analysis. Next, Steven Holl's poetic concept is investigated in the context of the concept extraction step, the idea expansion step, and the space composition step in order to find out how such association methods work in the process of architectural designs. The methods of reproducing, changing and using Steven Holl's poetic concept can be summarized as follows in relation with experiential associations, multi-meaning associations and morphology associations: 1) Steven Holl's experiential associations are a method of expressing perceived images in the form of languages in the process of interpreting land and programs. This method has the characteristics of reproducing various architectural ideas by generating a relationship between invisible characteristics of land in images and languages. 2) Steven Holl's multi-meaning associations are a method of directly associating a project with related objects and incidents, or of coming up with a hidden meaning. It has the characteristics of changing ambiguous images of metaphoric, figurative or ironic languages into concrete architectural images. 3) Steven Holl's morphology associations is a method of expressing morphology images and languages which are directly related to the images. Morphology associations have the characteristics of regenerating sensory experience elements into languages or images, which can be seen experiential associations; or they use metaphoric images in architecture by substituting them with other architectural elements, which can be seen in multi-meaning associations.
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