The purpose of this study is to understand Archigram's architectural works by analysing Archigram, which was a little magazine issued from 1961 to 1974. Studies on the Archirgam's architectural works have been mostly focused on their projects themselves, not within the context of the medium, Archigram (little magazine). However, Archigram as a little magazine worked as a platforms where ideas and projects could be developed and communicated among the members. Therefore, this study focused on the distinct features of Archigram's architectural works which were influenced by its little magazine, Archigram. The major conclusion of this study is that Archigram's architectural works worked as media themselves; Archigram's architectural works are open-end conclusions which can be transformed and developed by other members; Archigram members created new temporality, creating 'up-to-the-minute' architecture.
In this study, the basic information and study design characteristics of the Building Outer Wall Vertical Greening were analyzed. Recorded according to the type of research and analysis, through numerical statistics. Building Outer Wall Vertical Greening design the most appropriate and effective ways to present and try to guidelines. The scope of the research of Building Outer Wall Vertical Greening(2001-2013) was selected the most representative examples. Theory and statistical data analysis and case study research was conducted. The main academic monographs, Library Literature, specializing in design magazines and excerpts from the 28 cases analyzed specifically. Building Outer Wall Vertical Greening should be designed synthetically geographical features of the project, existing material, to consider the value of the building. Architect must be designed depending on accident and comprehensive expertise for architectural design of Building Outer Wall Vertical Greening. Building Outer Wall Vertical Greening requires the professional and comprehensive design approach depending on support of the government and people. However, purpose of use, plant, color, Formative expression, culture, locality, maintenance is properly applied in the design process is not easy.
In this study, in order to analyze customers' space satisfaction, ten modern high-class Korean restaurants, five in New York and another five in Seoul, that were opened or remodeled after 2008 were selected and satisfaction characteristics survey of 197 customers who use these Korean restaurants was conducted by using Likert 5-point scale. The study results(a high reliability was obtained showing the Cronbach's alpha coefficient of average 0.895 for all questions) were analyzed for the frequency, percentage, mean, etc. and the mean between groups were comparatively analyzed by conducting the t-test, Duncan's test by using the SPSS 18.0 statistical program. The results are as follows. First, the results of customers general characteristic comparative analysis, all the Seoul and New York customers have comparatively high academic ability, high income and eating-out expenses. The main customers in Seoul were the women in their thirties and forties while those in New York were mainly in their forties and fifties both men and women at similar rate. Second, as to the satisfaction with the interior, the satisfaction with finishing materials was little higher in New York as Seoul (3.30 points) and New York (3.86 points). The satisfaction with color was relatively higher in Seoul (3.66 points) and relatively lower in New York (3.18 points). As the satisfaction with furniture and decorating accessories was relatively lower in both Seoul (3.10 points) and New York (3.48 points). The satisfaction with space size in Seoul (the total space size: 3.99 points, private space size; 3.90 points) was relatively higher than that in New York (the total space size: 3.46 points, private space size; 3.28 points). The satisfaction with interior and exterior in both Seoul (exterior: 3.63 points, interior: 3.40 points) and New York (exterior: 3.28 points, interior: 3.39 points) were average. For the satisfaction of environment, Seoul (3.42 points) was slightly lower than that of New York (3.56 points). Third, the result of customers' satisfaction in Seoul and New York showed no commonality. Therefore in order to be renewed as the Korean restaurants with high customer satisfaction, it is expected that the Korean restaurants located in Seoul and New York need to plan the space by considering their customers' characteristics and satisfactions.
The purpose of this study is providing a systematic method of exterior, interior finish materials and color scheme for elementary school and the actual color plans of elementary schools in Busan was analyzed to support the study. As a powerful design tool, a finish materials and a color are very effective to alter the perception of a building and a view. Most of the school, a shape and a material of elevations are monotonous and uniform and it makes students are hard to attach to their schools. As a place for learning and school life, the inner space of elementary classroom needs to be considered very important. The new basic guideline for developing and planning of architectural design could be achieved by researching a current plan and a finish material in elementary school. As a result, this study will benefit in planning both the exterior and interior environments of color.
The research aims to analyze the structural meaning of mobility design on 'Furnitecture' with the works of Andrea Zittel. The study consists of the literature review and the analysis of Zittel's works. The framework for the analysis is divided into four steps: identification of visual forms/structure/function, analysis of the principles of delivering the concept of mobility, interpretation & synthesis of the relational meanings derived from the concepts of mobility, and evaluation of Zittel's tendency toward design/social background/design history, etc. Total fifteen cases are selected from Zittel's works, and each case is analyzed following the above steps. The finding shows that Zittel likes to play with geometrical forms, grid & modular system to create a minimum space for living equipped with critical furnishing. Secondly, Zittel's works deliver the concept of mobility by applying movability, adaptation, combination and transformation. Thirdly, through the concepts of mobility, Zittel reflects the ideas of high efficiency and functionalism, harmony with natural environment, search for liberty, simple & humble life and success of the designers of American modernism. Finally, it is found that modernism from the era of Bauhaus, utopian values derived from constructionism, utilitarianism inspired by Shakers and homestead act & mobile home/capsule unit suggested since 19th century in America mainly affect Zittel's works to reflect the dynamic concepts of mobility through the design of furnitecture.
The rapid growth of economy improves not only the life quality of people in this modern society but also standards of value in connection with how those people would spend money as they engage in various leisure and cultural activities. That being the case, hotels are currently changing into places of new concepts depending on those new lifestyles of these people, and in those new places, people can entertain and experience as enjoying cultures. The marketing collaboration of the hotels with brands can be used as a more inclusive way to enhance brand images. In addition, as having infinite possibilities of the collaboration's being able to create a new-concept space with an identity of a brand included, this collaboration makes it possible for the design hotels to decorate their interior spaces differently from those of other hotels. In the light of that, the brand collaboration is basically divided into three groups which are the fashion collaboration, the technique collaboration and the designer collaboration, and the brand collaboration is also able to express the interior spaces of the design hotels as working on those six components, such as reproduction, events, alteration, messages, culture and image. After all, through the brand collaboration marketing, this thesis expects an interior design of a new-concept design hotel which would play a role as a complex cultural space.
Anamorphosis is highly favored in modern days as the atmosphere of pursuing unusual manners is growing while transformation and distortion of images are freely available. This research is to understand the affect of these distorted images on space designs and the close connection between anamorphosis and visual perceptions, and to identify the new perceptual phenomenon created through it, and the methods of expressing those. Four expressional methods were defined through the process of studying Anamorphosis based on its definition by Niceron, examining artworks such as paintings and photographs, and case-studying example spaces of visual perception experiments. Expressing anamorphosis through visual perceptions are broadly categorized to directional, dimensional, flatness, and optical. The analysis of 10 case projects suggests that the experimental spaces offer joys of finding and interpreting metaphorical forms and meanings caused by the four characteristic categories above. Also, they artificially show the boundaries between reality and virtual spaces in 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional spaces, and form hyper-boundaries, new experience, and an internal mechanism that is vague and chaotic. Therefore, this research concludes that anamorphosis which is a distorted perspective, is not only a simple measure to overcome perspectival errors, but is an existence suitable to the current era, that will extend its potential and value in spatial design.
The Contemporary paradigm to understand the complexity and diversity is moving to 'Becoming' that taken place in reviewing at the relation of various concepts. In Japan, After the collapse of modern architecture has been declared 'Metabolism' was appeared. They tried to apply organism's metabolic system to buildings based on ecological thoughts. But Metaboilsm's projects had revealed limitations of representation that the city on the mechanical system became a huge scale. As a result, It caused a break the cultural context of the region in Japan. After then, Japanese Architects expressed a pluralistic aspects of modern society for the restoration of disconnected cultural context. From this perspective, The thought of 'becoming' is a new role for Contemporary Japanese Architect. This research is focused of projects of SANAA, Ito Toyo, Sou Fujimoto, because they have spatial thought about realizing the space through the ways organizing the various potential possibilities in the simple external form not stimulated. They are realize the 'becoming-space' within the architecture. This 'becoming-space' gives people in building the new characteristics and experience that potential interactions among user, architecture and nature. It is non-representational space not fixed, but changing organically and variably.
Because the 'image' is the 'reality' in this era, there are the characteristics dematerialized between reality and non-reality in the contemporary architecture. These are promoting individualization, differentiation and multi-layered time with the development of electronic technology. This trend emphasizes the importance of imagines that are not only homogenized, simultaneous but also overlapped, multi-layered, discriminatory. Perspectives and essential characteristics of the architectural skin are changing in terms of the technical and social awareness and that means the skin has features as a complex body. Recently as an imagine creator, the architectural skin make form of media boundaries reflecting the various relationships between the observer and the external environment and also, the interior space become another sensory skin by removing the boundaries of the internal and external. It is important that making an identity of the architecture defined by the media or the imagine as well as the importance of space in architecture. These changes of skin make the third space based on the viewer's imagination and show the potential of new architectural skin with the expansion space by blurring the boundary between reality and illusion. It occurs to the diversity of the architectural skin with the identity. It will more diversified and be recognized immediately and sensibly through the interface attributes in contact with the city directly. In addition, it is more important that the skin become a unified body related with urban, social and cultural context.
Nowadays when the social and cultural paradigm is changing, the incomplete space is becoming a matter of controversy. In order to figure out the solutions to it, are being held a variety of spatial discourses for spatial essence and meaning to be cleared. Accordingly, this study has tried to seek for any probability to interpret the ontology shown at any traditional space on the ground of Heidegger's Ontological Thinking Structure which has a considerable impact on Modern Space, whose conclusions are the followings. First, Heidegger's ontological space theory, which provided a foundation of Placeness concept, includes not only the character of interdisciplinary learning among philosophy, arts and any related studies but also that of mutual oriental and occidental cultures. Second, between the thoughts of Heidegger and Lao-tzu are considerable similarities from the methodical viewpoint that materializes the meaning of existence as an essence. Third, for a convenient interpretation, the ontological spatial concept of Lao-tzu's philosophy shown at traditional spaces have been categorized into Typology-Incident, Morphology-situation and Topology-meaning generation with Schultz's Existential Spatial Concept based on Heidegger's Ontology as a medium. In particular, the meaning generation which materializes the placeness has the trait of being clarified as the product of interactions between incidents and situations.
"I only went out for a walk, and finally concluded to stay out till sundown, for going out, I found, was really going in." (John Muir, 1938) Building interior and urban interior is understood as a single concept of interior: "the outside is always an inside" (Le Corbusier, 1929). Both are thus related to each other, and under the same system of meaning. Architecture comes from the making of an interior. A city comes out of the making of another interior felt as an undeniable inner demand; a street is "a community room by agreement" (Kahn, 1971) and a square is an open aesthetic room by agreement of community. Urban interior that contains our public life-world is an extension of the concept of interior that building interior contains our private/semipublic life-world. This paper explores the idea of interior and urban interior through literature research. The first site the paper traces is the physical interior, space, and place to figure out their meanings. The second site this paper illustrates is the transposition of the physical interior and the psychic interior, which influences the physical space where we create our own life-world. The last site the paper clarifies is the development of the idea of urban interior and the contextual rationale of urban interior. This ramble from building interior to urban interior discloses a twofold singular interior of both the building and urban interior that explains the meanings of interior, the scopes of interior, and the objects of interior to design and create interior.
This papers is to find out the design theory of total healing environment through the studies on the mutually complementary roles of proxemics, which is the objective and numerical design indicator in the analysis of space and the spacial expression theory, which is the subjective and intuitive design indicator. 3 factors in the elements of total healing environment have the following relationship. And 8 behavioral affordance factors in the elements of spatial expression have the following mutual relationships; The physical factor of total healing environment has the relation with the work&study(+) and circulation(+), the psychological factor has the relationship with the rest(-),visual sequence(-),social exchange(+),refreshment(-) and meditation(-). In addition, the social factor of total healing environment has the relation with the circulation(+),social exchange(+) and community(+). And the work&study(+) and rest(-) of the refuge have the relation with the intimate distance and personal distance, the circulation (+) and visual sequence (-) of the flow has the relationship with the social distance. In addition, the social exchange (+) and the refreshment (-) of the prospect have the relation with the near public distance and the community (+) and meditation (-) of the void have the relation with the far public distance. According to the analysis, the cases in 5 children hospital were studied and the characteristics of total healing environment was evaluated for the spatial proxemics.
Due to prolonged recession and limited spending of the consumers, domestic fashion brands are putting their efforts in pursuing competitiveness in order to survive in an intense competition, and because of this reason, VMD is being considered significant as a strategy for store environment improvement. An empirical research regarding analysis for systematic strategic VMD configuration factors of fashion retail store and relationship of repurchase intention that have effects on increase in sales was conducted. Thus, this study considers importance and spatial interrelation of VMD configuration factors of fashion retail store through theoretical consideration, and based on this, VMD configuration factors were restructured into reconcilability, attractiveness and epidemicity. An empirical validation through theoretical hypotheses and survey for relationships among VMD configuration factors, brand preference and repurchase intention was conducted. As a result of path analysis, VMD configuration factors reconcilability, attractiveness and epidemicity have effects on repurchase intention, and it was analyzed that epidemicity has the biggest effect on consumers. Also, it was found that brand preference has effects on repurchase intention and through this, as favorability and customer satisfaction for brand has effects on repurchase intention, it is judged that creating a strong brand image and brand image building is important the most for improving brand preference.
The objective of this research is to suggest new geometric possibilities in digital architecture by investigating the characteristics of hybridization in digital geometry. The research begins with theoretical background research such as defining hybridization, investigating hybrid thinking, and studying the theory of digital geometry, along with the four conceptual characteristics of hybridization that could be drawn, such as temporality, liquidity, complexity, and connectivity. Based on these characteristics, the generative method of hybrid digital geometric languages such as Blob, Particle, Morph, Loft, and Boolean was analyzed with case research in contemporary digital architecture. As a result, diverse hybrid geometric keywords were extracted; these keywords suggest potential meanings of hybridization such as accidentality, mobility, diversity, and identity. Different elements represent the "mobility" in time by the force and wave, and they are "accidentally" combined in gradual change. The united species in "diverse" characters are seamlessly connected and emerge as a new "identity." The research maximizes the generative possibilities in digital geometry and provides a theoretical basis to apply the digital hybrid methods to architectural design by suggesting the potential meanings and possibilities in hybridization.
The objective of this study is to address Effective Learning Methodology by subjects to acquire National Certification which is an essential requirement to get employed. For this purpose, analysis was completed after conducting a survey on the class to obtain Interior Architecture Engineer Certification. 23 applicants were selected based on effectiveness of each subject, level of difficulty, degree of understanding, mentoring effect, self-driven learning, and group discussion. Results are as below. Upon the first written test, Interior Design Theory and Chromatics showed a high learning effectiveness in self-driven learning and mentoring. Ergonomics showed a high learning effectiveness in mentoring, self-driven learning and group discussion while Building Materials, Architecture Construction presented a high effectiveness only in mentoring and group discussion. Architecture Environment showed average learning effectiveness in mentoring and group discussion and showed a low effectiveness in self-driven learning. Upon the second practice test, Interior Architecture Construction and Planning/Management of Construction Materials presented an average learning effectiveness in mentoring and group discussion. Process Control and Adding Up(Supply Calculation) showed a low learning effectiveness in self-driven learning and presented an average to below average learning effectiveness in mentoring and group discussion. Lastly, Interior Design Plan, Interior Design Drawings presented average learning effectiveness in mentoring and group discussion however they showed a high effectiveness in self-driven learning.
In the Russian 'spirituality' which played an important role in realization of 'abstraction' in modern arts, the three elements of Universalism - Oriental thoughts, Universal ideas, and Froebelian influence - can be found with no difficulty. More notable is the fact that, along with theosophy, the emergence of modern existential thoughts such as Bergson, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche is a new search and a new recognition of nature and human as views of panentheism and humanism, essentially of Humane and Divine. Therefore, it goes without saying that the thoughts constituting the Suprematism or Constructivism in Russia are, in a word, implicit in the existential humanistic ideas of Panpneumatism or Panentheism that is explained as the nature of Russian religious ideas. Furthermore, which is not only Suprematist's metaphysical principle but also the expression of universal thoughts; interestingly, which is closely akin to several Oriental mystic ideas including Taoist thoughts, as well as the contents of Universalism including mystic Christianity, by extension, which ideas and principles have a remarkable resemblance with thoughts and principles of Froebel.
In buildings on the street, indiscriminate redevelopment are being made by overlooking the relationship with surrounding landscape to create their own unique meaning, due to industrialization progressed rapidly with human needs of longing for something constantly. Selection and methods of two plans, conservation and utilization should be required, considering heritage values on industrial buildings which are being lost and aged in this redevelopment higher. The attempt for the use of modern industrial heritage becomes a hot topic, and several experimental challenges are being made. However, there are rather many cases of causing industrial buildings' depreciation and one-size-fits-all reproduction performance as it applies other examples as standards by recognizing the reproduction of modern industrial heritage as one trend, not focusing on the trend of the times or paradigm, what the times want. To minimize these problems, we focus on how to utilize industrial buildings beyond the importance of industrial buildings' reproduction, considering the quality of local residents' life as well as the expected effect obtainable due to security of local identity and reproduction of buildings, focusing on the concept of community design that offers and forms a way of community life as the design of shares based on unspecified individuals' common life. Community design's core can be called to have diversity rather than undifferentiated unity by pursuing whole unification, since local residents become those who plan design and all people participate in it. In addition, community design achieves integration with other fields as an enlarged design area without limiting in an environmental area, by making indigenously natural characteristics combined with cultural factors in one context so that people may understand the flow of the place. The importance of effects acquired from modern industrial heritage's reproduction has well-known, and the attempt for utilizing aged heritage as a new value and a function has constantly been made. Now, it's time to focus on how long it lasts through this method, rather than modern industrial heritage's reproduction itself. There can be a significance in this study in proposing methodological solutions on modern industrial heritage's reproduction, not to cause depreciation of industrial buildings by recognizing contemporary trends and uniform regeneration performance, multifaceted research is needed for creative, effective development on modern industrial heritage which will occur constantly.
Since Seoul city supplied 'Sangsang Children's Park', domestic children's parks are changing from formal facilities to creative play space recently. From eco-friendly safe playground model development project, the awareness of eco-friendly playground, namely children's park is increasing and its necessity is magnified. However, we could not know how well most children's parks aimed at the eco-friendly playground reflect eco-friendly features and whether they are eco-friendly or not because there are not the specific planning guidelines and evaluation standards for making the eco-friendly playground or children's park. Therefore, in this study we established the environment-friendliness evaluation standards of children's parks and estimated the environment-friendly features of the 9 parks built on the subject of green among Sangsang Children's Parks. In the observational survey of the 9 parks, we evaluated the environment-friendliness of these parks in the 8 fields(location and placement, ecological environment, play space, play equipment and facilities, additional facilities, materials and resources, energy saving, environmental load reduction) according to the levels(suitable, partial reflection, unsuitable, non-reflection) of reflection of eco-friendly planning factors. The assessment results showed that 4 items (location and placement, additional facilities, play space, play equipment and facilities) were suitable and others (energy saving, environmental load reduction, ecological environment, materials and resources) were partial reflection or unsuitable. Therefore, on the basis of these results, this study proposed the planning indicators to be considered first and the planning factors that should be complemented and improved in the construction of eco-friendly children's park in future.
Adolescence is differentiated from other development stages for the significant physical and emotional changes a person goes through that stage. This study has surveyed communal residencies in the Seoul area and the community facilities within them and has analyzed their correlation with the adolescents' emotional reactions according to their school age. This study is concerned with evaluating the perceptions of teenagers towards learning, cultural, and exercise facilities. These adjectives were positioned on the IRI adjective images to obtain representative words such as "noble", "gentle", and "cheerful" for the purpose of analysis. Furthermore, each representative word was assigned a color and then made into a simulation for the EEG experiment. The EEG signals of the teenagers in different educational levels indicated that EEG signals of high school students were more activated compared to that of middle school students and both groups responded to the "cheerful" images with high EEG signals. Therefore, in order for community facilities within communal residencies to actively support and activate leisure and academic activities for adolescents, they have to be connected to their emotional characteristics. It is also important to minutely plan according to their school age.
The domestic distribution environment of electronic goods has been placing more emphasis on securing each company's own interests and maintaining the existing customers as the most important purpose of marketing due to the change in consumption environment, the excessive cutthroat competition between retailers, the saturated number of branches for each company, weak revenue structure and declining competitiveness. In addition, the target of marketing has been shifted to specific consumers and the concept of a consumer is sub-divided into a "user" of a product and a "shopper" who buys a product. The purpose thereof is to increase the in-store purchase rate by analyzing the psychology and behavior of a shopper who actually visits a store for purchasing a product. Thus, the purpose of this study is to identify the correlation between the buying behavior of a shopper and product display based on "Digital Plaza" among the domestic electronic goods brand shops, which is selling products at various prices. This study is meaningful since it is utilized as data to plan store display for promoting purchase.
Recently, it is considered that the fashion flagship stores are being standardized as they are focusing only on external decorations and that they are hardly expressing their own intrinsic identities. That being the case, the fashion flagship stores are, now, pursuing diversity and are trying for any experimental designs in order to make their spaces more unique than those of other fashion flagship stores are, and regarding customers who would visit the stores, they have this desire to experience spaces, which are all unusual and different, just quickly while they shop. The topic of this study, depaysement which is making it unfamiliar, applies some unfamiliar a stimulus to people, and that makes the users remember this realization of original images and psychological stimuli as long as possible as leading the users to experience those spaces of special values. In the light of that, this study categorizes the features of depaysement into those groups, such as distortion of scales, juxtaposition of foreign materials, fantasy and ambiguity of a boundary, and analyzes the interior spaces of the fashion flagship stores. After all, this study applies depaysement to the fashion flagship stores' interior spaces, which have been all familiarized and standardized through some habitual relations, and works on different stimuli in order to invite the users to experiences of those totally new senses which are different from what the users have been felt in their daily lives. In the end, the study aims to propose ideas for how to design a place attractive enough to make the users revisit the place as after going through such memory process mentioned on the above.
The internal streets of mixed-use commercial complexes, which are the extension of urban streets, are being changed from a mediating space aiming at movement to a staying-type space according to the change of mixed-use commercial complexes. And they function as a resting place of user with court and plaza, and act as an urban public space, and accommodate an activity arising from the gathering of many people. As a result, a role of new relaxation and community space is played in the center of the city. And the aspect of publicness is brought into relief. Hence, this study is intended to examine the characteristics that the internal streets of mixed-use commercial complexes have, and furthermore, it is intended to show the planning characteristics in the contemporary mixed-use commercial complexes. With regard to the method of research, first, space configuration and role of internal streets was examined according to the change of mixed-use commercial complexes on the basic of precedent research and literature review. And the internal streets of mixed-use commercial complexes were classified into doorway part, traffic line, and open space. And the characteristics of internal streets in the mixed-use commercial complexes through the concept of architectural 'publicness' were derived as accessibility, amenity, perceptibility, openness, connectivity and symbolism. The internal streets of mixed-use commercial complexes should be changed by the space planning to secure continuity with the city on the basis of accessibility and connectivity and to reinforce visual openness in the internal streets in order to improve amenity and perceptibility, accordingly the mixed-use commercial complexes will be also born again as symbolic public space in the city. Variously changing elements to improve publicness very importantly act on the planning of internal streets in the mixed-use commercial complexes, and therefore researches should be continuously carried out.
As office workers tend to spend more time indoors nowadays, the importance of physical environments has been emphasized. Those who work longer hours in the office are likely to get more stress from the environments. A number of studies have proved that the plants (natural elements) were effective in relieving stress. Therefore, it is concluded that interior landscape is effective on enhancing the psychological wellbeing of office workers. The purposes of this study were as follows: (1) to determine the best modulized designs through rating psychological indices, and (2) to prove its effectiveness by applying those designs onto actual office environments. This study was conducted from April, 2012 to November, 2012. The subjects of the study were comprised of 154 juniors and seniors in Seoul Women's University. They are university students who are seeking jobs upon graduation. To this end, field investigations, surveys, and literature reviews were conducted. The results of the study indicated as follows: First, the most optimal models for psychological wellbeing have been derived. Second, the interior landscape had a positive effect on the psychological wellbeing of the office workers. On the basis of these findings, interior landscape with greens plays a big role in promoting the psychological wellbeing of the office workers. Also, its effect can be maximized when modulized design is combined with interior landscape. The limit of this study lies in its simplicity of design elements as emotional design aspects were quantified for statistical processing. In the near future, further studies focusing on various design elements need to be carried out. To sum up, the researcher hopes that these findings contribute to psychological recovery of the office workers, and interior landscape becomes more prevalent in the workplace.
This study is regarding the accessibility for the disabled in the catholic churches. The purpose is to check the current condition of the accessibility for the disabled and to suggest the improvement plans targeted at 10 churches located in Yuseong-gu, Daejeon metropolitan city. Especially the current condition of the obligations and recommendations specified in the accessibility enhancement law for the disabled was performed through field investigation. Firstly, the accessibility for the disabled of each church was evaluated qualitatively as well as quantitatively. And then sequential improvement plans divided into three stages were suggested. Above all, the parish, management authority of catholic churches should establish medium and long-term plans besides legal standards. Even though the scope of this research was limited to catholic churches of certain areas, the result of this research is expected to help investigation the current condition of the accessibility for the disabled and to suggest the improvement plans in other catholic churches.
This study is aimed to examine the characteristics of library space, in which user experiences and social networking are central in its design. Today, a library is a place to provide diverse accesses and experiences to information networks, where various individuals and user groups come and share mutual understanding and experiences. Library users developed social ties and a sense of community through library experiences. As a multipurpose space of a community, a library has the characteristics of urban public space like sidewalks and plazas. The eight case studies of libraries are analyzed from the viewpoint of each factor of library experience, including landscape, sidewalk, and plaza experience. The study drew its conclusions as follows. First, a library is a regional landmark for the users. Thus, it tends to be designed to allow transparency on its surface which introduces inner and outer landscape into the inside of the building. Second, the users experience a library similarly as they experience an urban street where they interface, browse, and interact with people and information. As they interact and share experiences, they develop solidarity and social ties among them. A library is designed to preserve continuity to adjacent streets, which increases accessibility to the building and hosts street activities into the building. Third, a library today is designed to be a flexible open space with information networking as well as community networking which allows library users diverse activities within it. For example, a multipurpose grand stairs in the middle of the main circulation of a building allows the users diverse activities. A large open stack with reading areas gives the users the feeling of an urban plaza where they can move vertically and horizontally. In conclusion, all findings of this study imply a user-oriented design for a library building.
According to data from the national office of Statistics Korea and Ministry of Health and Welfare, as the elderly population increases, the dementia elderly population continues to increase and its future population growth rate is expected to be even faster. In particular, the Dementia Management Act has been in effect since February 2012, and active efforts has been made for a policy for the dementia management. The purpose of this study is to establish standards on building plans based on the appropriate scale and spatial configuration on facilities planning for the elderly with dementia. Specifically, the basic data were collected with a request for a total of 103 points on the basis of a database of group homes in the survey managed by the Japan Association of Group Homes. Specific information of the research includes the management body of facilities operation, scale of the facilities, number of units and configuration of personal living space, and the collected survey data and drawings were statistically proceed and analyzed using the SPSS WIN 20.0. analysis results are summarized as follows. first, most of the group homes come to the small size of the 1-2 story home ; the approximate number of units is one or two per home, and each unit consists of nine rooms. second, a number of group homes with the building area of $300m^2$ have the U-shaped arrangement which is advantageous in the extension and facilities maintenance. In conclusion, this study is to be the fundamental data for judgments that can be used to establish standards for the facilities for the dementia elderly whose population continues to increase. In addition, further study is necessary to establish suitable design conditions of our country.
This study has been performed to come up with any rational way for responding to the functions of fire-fighting spaces newly required by the changing social paradigms and to seek for the approach to designing fire-fighting spaces by taking into account the psychological and behavioral factors of fire-fighters who are exposed stress of operations. In particular, it is to satisfy any physical and functional requirements as special working-spaces and to reflect the psychological and behavioral approach to the workers who are forced to be at standby for a long time, which is the characteristic of their operation, to designing. Accordingly, for fundamental appreciation of whether or not such space programs as space organization needed for operational function are being practiced actively, the fire-fighting headquarters of Incheon City has been selected for the research. First, in the process of assessing the trend of organizing the space at safety centers for the recent 20 years, those built more than 20 years ago were left out from the space selection for the research. Second, those with less than 20 operators also were excluded. Third, among those completed in the same year, only one was selected, which was to avoid overlapping, with the consideration its regional representative nature for applying the safety centers in the jurisdiction of the headquarters equally. The study was performed through the visits to and the actual inspections by surveys at the selected 119 Safety Centers as well as the reviews of literature based on case studies. And for the assessment of significance, surveys and analysis of reliability and factors were carried out. The actual users of Safety Centers were picked as objects for the assessment of significance of space factors at 119 Safety Centers, which revealed that there are five types of dimensions for factor-analyzing standard with which users estimate any significance, which are "Area of Mobilization Preparation and Return" "Area of Standby" "Area of Working Activities" "Area of Employ Welfare" and "Area of Support".
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