There is a growing awareness that physical barriers affect the level of independence of people with disabilities. Many researchers insist that barrier free design could influence independence living and quality of life of the disabled. The purpose of this study is to find out the effects of accessible design features of house and public facilities on quality of life of disabled people. A total of 189 questionnaires from the disabled who visited public welfare facilities was analyzed. In order to find out what variables among accessible features in housing and public spaces impact quality of life, multiple regression analysis was carried using SPSS 14. The results showed that accessible designs significantly influence quality of life of the disable. The main reason in which the disabled have difficulties when they move outside is a lack of accessible amenities and facilities. Particularly in house design, accessible main entrance route and accessible main entrance door, and removal of floor level significantly affects quality of life of the disabled. For public spaces, accessible main entrance and installation of ramp or removal of floor levels of main entrance and corridor increase quality of life people with disabilities. This paper suggested that the improvement in housing and public space, in which regulation or bylaws do not specify, should be made to increase accessibility for life quality of the disabled.
The purpose of this study is to categorize elderly people's behavior using the questionnaire filling up by oneself for 24hours and to analyze the time required according to behavior and space. Also, through analytical researches, we find a way to develop smart home service. In this study, we carry out a questionnaire targeting a number of 20 elderly people. The questionnaire is to survey elderly people's behaviors for 24hours. Questionnaire items consist of three parts : items for checking time required about a daily behavior, items for analyzing a space in daily lives, generalities. This study is analyzed through descriptive statistics. The results of this study were as follows. Firstly, the elderly people's behaviors were eight categories. Among these behavior's categories, the highest portion is the behavior related to Individual maintenance such as sleep, personal hygiene, nap, etc. by 49%. Secondly, the portion of time required in residence based on daily lives is higher than outside of residence by 73%. Lastly, analyzing each space in residence focused on time required of elderly people's behaviors, bed room is the highest portion by 49%, and followed by living room with 29% and kitchen with 15%, and bath room with 7%.
The study was intended to evaluate common spaces of office building in view point of universal design. The common spaces were access road, main entrance, parking lot, corridor, and restroom. Two office buildings in Centum city of Busan were evaluated by their workers, each 100 ones. The check list for evaluating them consisted of 36 universal design elements which related to five common spaces. First, there were many universal design elements which need to be improved. Second, among five common spaces, restroom has the most elements to be rated low. First of all, at least one restroom for wheelchair should be provided each floor. Third, even though both of two office buildings were recently built, there were significant difference between their users' evaluations. This implies that the concept of universal design is not applied to office buildings well. Fourth, there were significant difference among users' evaluations according to age, especially in case of design related elements. This means that users' age is an important factor to be considered.
The essence of brand identity is to draw an interrelation between user and brand based on user's desire. The housing cultural center is focused on brand identity for satisfaction of user. The purpose of this study is to inquire out the expression characteristics of brand Identity in housing cultural center according to analyze previous studies and case studies. The results of this study are summarized as follows. 'Uniqueness' is directly expressed through brand name or logo or through brand colors. 'Experience' is expressed as auditive expression through stimulation using a body and providing music. 'Relationship' has provided a communication environment or created relationship with brand by leading interaction with others. 'Estheticism' has increased visual satisfactory level by aesthetically sublimating lighting direction or form. 'Functionality' is expressed by providing various programs through smooth flow plan and grafting with the latest technology. 'Non-dailiness' has affected memory territory by inducing curiosity and astonishment through space modification or new and contrasting direction. The housing cultural center needs to be planned as a space where interaction of user and brand will be initiatively activated sensationally and psychologically by pursuing user-oriented brand identity.
This study aims at suggesting the applicability of color combination based upon the characteristics of environmental color perception and the nuance concept of Natural Color System(NCS). The results are summarized below: First, NCS is a scientific coloring system in consideration of the relevance between people, light and environment, to be based on a phenomenological point of view. NCS can be called a psychometric model reflecting our natural color sense. Second, the color triangle established by NCS is one of the methods of expression based on the human visual mechanism, which is classified by two attributes of hue and nuance, not by the three color attributes of hue, lightness and saturation. The nuance concept of NCS implies the impression, atmosphere and tone that are perceived in colors, which are related to lightness and saturation. Accordingly, this paper suggests that the coloring arrangement emphasizing nuance and tone is more useful than hue in color planning. Third, aesthetic impression in environmental color perception is inclusive of instantly perceptive nuance, which is connected with affordance. The affordance is revealed by the different relation of similarity. In this regard, a strong relationship is noticed between color combination and the sense of pleasantness. The hypothesis regarding the complementation and similarity of contrasting nature is judged to provide observers with aesthetic order. Finally, this paper also suggests four harmonizing methods in the NCS color triangle based upon equal blackness, equal whiteness, equal chromaticness and same nuance. At the same time, opposition and a different concept of hue, lightness and lightness are combined complementarily with the nuance value to suggest patterns of color combination.
The purpose of this study is to present the cognition of speculative aesthetics in the architectural space. Architectural space as the subject of the aesthetical study has been ignored such a long period though it should be centered of the whole architectural theory. Even it has not been dealt with independently but just only as a part of aesthetic or artistic field. Also it is also true that academic approach to the architectural space as per the aesthetic recognition has not been done so satisfactorily. The transcendental subjectivity as the aesthetic cognitive viewpoint of the architectural space means speculative aesthetics and the understands the essential meaning of the function and composition The conclusions of this study are as follows : The formalistic cognitive concepts including organic functional space between the whole and the part and anti-cubic synchronous space are included in the architecture of the speculative cognition, and finally the contextual cognitive concepts including the restoring analogical space of the in-depth constituent factors and associated centripetal spaces.
Eugenio D'Ors, the writer of 'Lo Barroco' called Baroque in the 17th century as the ultimate nostalgia of humanity we can see anywhere, and when our exclusive mental state, classic consciousness, is weakened, countless things within self get to be expressed without limitation. He defines this as Baroque ego. In other words, the abyss of a being is expressed within self, and it gets to come into the abyss of art and be settled in it. Thereupon, this study focuses on the characteristics of such effects of abyss expressed in Baroque art to amplify the depth of space in art and architecture and also its productive effects and considers in what types the abyss gets to be expressed in art and architecture. As a result, it shows nonlinear characteristics whose outline of the model and structural body is invisible, depth resulted from overlapping, unity from formal repetition, and temporal continuity from movement. In other words, formative elements which extend the unit area of space conceptually can be summed up by nonlinearity, overlapping, unity, and movement. Also, in art and architecture, this accelerates men's emotional functions and at the same time, has productive effects to extend space visually. Baroque abyss can be seen as a proper solution to overcome problems which modern architecture implies ultimately, that is, the limitations of area definition.
Appreciating the aspect of modem architecture requires not only the comprehension of the nature of design and architects' ways of thinking and expression but also observers' views on buildings and their perceptive/cognitive stages. This calls for an in-depth study on the "system of phenomenological perceptions" that works as a new architectural experience system. The system of phenomenological perceptions makes it possible to specify the individual process of understanding architecture, that is, hands-on experiences, participations, feelings, perceptions, and cognition. The value of user experience and cognition has been emphasized by philosophical and aesthetical concepts as well. Therefore, in order to better appreciate the modern architecture, this study suggests theoretical consideration to "orientation and event" that are crucial elements in understanding a phenomenological view and materializing actual space formation. This offers the cognitive system with which we analyze modem architecture and comprehensive expressional methods. In other words, this study contemplates the system of phenomenological perceptions from an existential spatial perspective by structurizing the system of the orientation and the event in order to segmentalize users' current locations, potential directions, the relations with spaces, continual vie'wpoints as well as buildings' functions and interior and exterior division. The system of phenomenological perceptions helps understand and systemize modern architecture through a system based on relations between sensation, perception, cognition, sensitivity, and rationality. This creates a new cognitive system employing the concept of the orientation and the event, which is different from a normal cognitive system basing on the sense of vision. When observers appreciate space, they tend to relate the space to a certain event and to remember their experiences in it. During the process, they draw borders of the space in which the event takes place and give shape to their experiences including actions, movements, cognition and sensation. The process leads to the formation of "placeness," and here, the concept of the orientation comes in as the location and the center of the placeness. This study proves that a determined orientation coupled with individual experience and events settles the place ness; detailed elements in the cognitive system have close relations with one another; the orientation, actions, events, and places are the factors that materialize observers' architectural experience.
The relevance between organisms and their external environment covers everything including humans, natural and artificial surroundings, regarding which academic and scientific understanding has continued. Relevant elements established by inter-dependence between humans and environment and the unity of life should be translated from the perspective of a whole, not of unit elements or reduction. That is, a space is formed by its own program and assumes sustainable relevance based on interactions between internal and external spaces, not building an independent system. The present study aims to present the feasibility of a potential mutant space formed by invisible arenas between individuals and evolutionary space formation based on an ecological paradigm Accordingly, this study suggested that evolutionary attributes as the major power source of biological changes could verify the virtual multiplicity of a new space formation, and that the potential form generation of hybrid mutant space of emergence and infinite formative capability could be supported. The suggestions made here will hopefully contribute to extending applicability of evolutionary space generation in the field of space design. To derive the potential mutant forms from biological space, a preliminary study was conducted regarding the characteristics of evolutionary form generation. For the purpose of this study, three evolutionary perspectives of reproduction, mutation (variation) and selection were taken. First, the theory of evolution was defined and characterized. Also, the relevance between the characteristics generated and hybrid mutant space was analyzed to consider relevant characteristics. The present study helped to understand that the hybrid mutant space had an evolutionary space structure based on a biological paradigm. It was also found that the mutant space structure built by mutant polymorphism assumed a systematic correlation between space and environment.
The purpose of this study was to examine the importance of eco-friendly design elements related to residential space by residents and what element they prefer. To achieve this, 18 eco-friendly design elements related to residential space were selected from the Green Building Certification Criteria and the relevant research papers. These elements were categorized into four areas; the ecological environment area (4 elements), the indoor environmental climate one (4 elements), the energy and resource saving one (6 ones), and the material one(4 ones). On the base of these 18 elements, the importance degree of each element was examined by using 5-point Likert scale. The subjects were 299 housewives living in apartment houses in Jangyu new town, Gimhae. The subjects perceived strongly the importance of eco-friendly design elements, but many of them did not know about Green Building Certification Criteria. Overall importance of 18 elements by the residents was very high. Also, the indoor environmental climate area was considered as the most important one, followed by the energy and resource saving area, the material area, and the ecological environment one.
This study analyzed the observation characteristics with the subject of observation data through defining the change of the observation degree as attention /conscious observation /visual understanding. Furthermore, by obtaining the formular with which to estimate the subjects' observation amount, this study suggests a potential method for easier analysis of observation characteristics. The conclusions from the study are as the followings. First, the observation frequency was being generated with wide deviation among subjects while there was a flow-on characteristics depending on the degree of observation. These characteristics enabled the study to obtain the formular with which to estimate the observation amount. Second, the study could establish the area frequency by grade from the entire observation data. The area I was at most 4% for the area frequency but accounted for 18.2% of the entire effective observation time, and the area II 16% and 38.7% respectively. Accordingly, only considering the observation area distribution of the area I or the areas I and II shows which position of the space the subjects were observing. Third, with the subject of the relatively higher observation time at at the subject's observation characteristics, as the observation phase was getting higher, the observation time decreased more. Forth, by obtaining the formular to estimate the observation amount for observation data according to the change of observation degree, the study could find the estimating observation characteristics of additional subjects. The formular shortens the analysis time and facilitates the analysis process.
With a theoretical focus on the emotional experiences created via the interface, and the relationship between human beings and space, this study aims to corroborate and clarify the formation and verification of emotional interactions between human beings and space using body movements. It follows the method of Coining "Movement Phrases" through the analysis of body movements in the experimental space, thereby developing them into a complete scenario to produce the story of emotional expression. This study has hereby generated the following outcomes: First, the "pocket-type" exhibition displays a higher frequency of body movements than the "general" exhibition. It has close connections with emotional vocabularies: "Curious," "interesting," "warm," and "fun." The "general" exhibition records a relatively high frequency of emotional vocabularies like "natural," "efficient," and "free." Second, it is possible to analyze the story of space using a scenario, just like drama, based upon attributes and serial relationships. The "exposition" section reveals a high degree of "curiosity" and a large number of body movements, while the "development" section indicates high degree of "surprise" plus slight body movements. The "transition" sections manifest high "interest" and many body movements, and the "climax" section shows a high frequency of "surprise" and many changes in body movements. The "conclusion" section finally invokes images together with body movements.
The purpose of this study is to classify the epistemological critique between philosophy and architecture. Although there are various interpretations and criticism about the architecture, the fundamental critique of architecture is difficult. It is necessary to approach by the philosophic paradigm rather than architectural one. Therefore the procedure and method of study is to define the epistemology within philosophy and architecture, and present the classification viewpoint and the architecture case. The conclusions of this study based on purpose and process are as follows : The First, the philosophic epistemology is to mean the unity of subjective and objective. And the epistemological viewpoint of architectural philosophy is to define the construction's universality. The second, the architectural philosophy is a kind of the philosophy of art, and It is associated with the basis of aesthetics. Thus, the category of architectural philosophy like the aesthetics is classified with function directivity and form directivity, content directivity. The Last, epistemological critiques between philosophy and architecture are as follows ; 1) subject-object-integrated recognition critique (function directivity), 2) object-oriented recognition critique (form directivity), 3) subject-oriented recognition critique (content directivity).
The purpose of this study is to suggest a strategy of creating sustainable city's streets by extracting a elements related the task related with society, economic, and environment. The method of this study is as follows. First step, we extract main task for developing sustainable settlements through studying literature review. Second step, based on the task for sustainable settlements, we generate various elements for developing sustainable street environments. Third step, we carry out a survey targeting experts related to field of urban environment. Fourth step, we analyze their priority about developing elements and the difference between groups. Last step, through correlation analysis between three task and elements for developing sustainable streets, we discuss the specific application around developing elements. The result of this study is as follows. Firstly, from a social point of view, the task related to connecting of historical and cultural characteristic is the most important thing. In a environmental view, it illustrates that application of technologies based on IT is more important than use of sustainable land. In a economic paint of view, it presents that the elements of city security & disasters are important.
Recently, the public design plays a role in improving the residents' quality of life and activating the local economy as an axis of the regional development. However, during the development process led by the local government, the public space has been changed to a place where only the function is emphasized without considering the local history, culture, and life. Since the opinions of the regional residents are not reflected, the public place lacks public benefits and has difficulties in continuous improvement and development. Here, we studied on the participation of residents in public design. Firstly, we discussed public design that residents can participate voluntarily and actively as users, managers, and beneficiaries. Secondly, it is necessary for the residents, who are not experts in the public design, to have easily understandable and well tractable communication media which facilitate communications with a group of the design experts and the public service personnel. We explained the types and specialities of the communication media. Thirdly, it is necessary for the residents to contribute much to the local development by active participation in the sustainable and consistent public design through using the easily accessible communication media.
This study researched about gender color preference as basic data for color application of fashion shop Facade. A HUE TONE system from V(vivid) to DK(dark) was used based on 10 colors of the IRI-120 color chart, color preference according to gender was investigated through a survey on males and females of over teenage years, and it was analyzed and presented as a color matching chart. And it was suggested as a color guideline through comprehensive analysis. Few definitions can be given through the results of this study. First, the preference degree according to gender was similar but different senses were shown visually even though the same adjective expressive vocabulary of a color image was suggested. This means there is an unchanging basic conservative disposition that males and females do not have and therefore they infer different ideas according to various environments and factors. Second, females showed more sensitive response to colors than males in the gender color preference result, which confirmed the deviation of each color group that is characteristically preferred according to a category. Third, high preferred color matches according to gender were shown for each vocabulary in various senses such as similar color matching, complementary color matching, separation color matching, and accent color matching. A universal empirical theory by general sensibility was obtained as the purpose of this study. This study suggested securement of a color design planning as basic data and the extent of usability by quantitatively showing the order of priority through the survey and analysis. Thus, the results of this study will be a great help as basic data for invigoration and commercialization of a color planning for designers and users.
The objective of this study is to find a possible application of small space utilization of GangSo Housing, so called compact-but-effective housing, through analyzing that of Japanese small housing. We analyze openness of view and flexibility of spaces divided by the physical and architectural aspects as first component and the psychological and interior space aspects as second component. The results showed that Japanese small houses have various unit plan compared to uniformity of Korean houses. Openness of view in Japanese small housing is accomplished by letting in light from the outside using position and shape of the window, looking more spacious using courtyard, void spaces, or sliding door hanging from the ceiling, and creating deception of view using floor-wall plan and appropriate materials. Flexibility of spaces is achieved by combination of first and second components, multipurpose of space and furniture, and variety of storage methods. It is necessary to improve spatial efficiency with consideration of volume-metric planing rather than flat-plane and develop various unit plans to meet residents' needs and demands on compact-but-effective houses.
One of critical issues in the housing area is what strategies should be adopted for revitalizing contemporary communities in housing complex. It is expected that those strategies could encourage neighbourship and recover the existing community spaces. Based on the assumption that contemporary communities might have different characteristics from those of the traditional communities and spaces, this research aims to explore the possibility of new communities in a current context. With the development of the information communication technologies (ICT) and hardware systems, the environment would be capable of anticipating people's needs and then provide them with customization options to tailor the environment to their requirements. By incorporating the 'smart' paradigm, this paper introduces the concept of a smart community and space with the potential of mobile Augmented Reality(AR) as alternative strategies for activating the communities. The residents believe that existing common spaces need to be extendable and augmented by combining new technologies. The smart communities and spaces are expected to extend people's interaction to virtual world in aj real context, further combined with social network, it enables sustainable relationships among residents, contributina to a new type of community.
Korean living culture raised the users' needs for sub-kitchen. In the traditional Korean house, there was large space related to kitchen area for preparing food and stock big and bulky housing stuffs. As apartment housing became dominant as Korean dwelling, sub-kitchen has been planed in the balcony that is not included in the sales area. In this study, the case of the apartment housing in Esiapolis, Daegu was analyzed. To plan the user-oriented sub-kitchen, the consumer research was carried out. Consumers needed a pantry, more storage near the kitchen, and wanted to place washing machine and washing stand in a sub-kitchen. Sub-kitchens were planed to meet those consumers' needs. Through this case study and former studies analysis, sub-kitchen's function unit was derived: wash, storage, auxiliary work. By combining each function unit, sub-kitchen was classified into 3 types, wash & auxiliary work, wash & storage, and wash & storage & auxiliary work. For each sub-kitchen type, components of function units, available layouts, and minimum size were recommended.
The purpose of this study is to use as the basic data for design method in commercial space. So, we analyzed whether any emotion was induced by finishing materials in the commercial space. And we was to suggest expression methods of finish materials to induce in the emotional space. The results of this study are as follows : First, we could know that the emotional design is needed to enhance satisfaction of consumers. The role of finishing material is very important in emotional expression in the commercial space. Second, we extracted the adjectives vocabulary(14 pairs) to evaluate the space emotion. we could educe the four kinds of space emotion by Factor Analysis. In addition, we could arrange the emotional words to represent each space type(Decoration : 5 pairs, Expand : 4 pairs, Limitation : 3 pairs, Hierarchy : 2 pairs). Third, to use finishing materials and wall is very effective to induce the emotion in the emotional space. To use the color is good among the elements of finishing materials. Fourth, We could find that the center of the types of emotional space was induced with the boundary and the decoration. If we use contrasting colors and accent colors in the commercial space, we can induce the center and the boundary together. And if we use colorful or unusual patterns, we can induce the center and the decoration together. Fifth, To induce the expand, we should finish with one color in space. And To induce the center, we should finish with one type of the color or pattern and then we should partially use the contrast color and special pattern. the case of boundary, it is good method to part emphasize by color, texture and materials. And we can induce the decoration with materials and patterns.
One hand shopping center provides a public space for people, the other hand it is a place for commercial purpose. Although it gives an entertainment, eating and shopping places to people nowaday, owners and tenants aim to make profit from it. According to this demand designers should plan a shopping center for a comfortable place for eating, shopping and playing and they make shops and retails to increase sales by exposing those to more people at the same time. For successful shopping center architects are requested an approach with commercial strategy that shopping center raises exposure of retails and makes stay costumers longer and visit more frequently. Recently space is regarded as a mean of marketing, so-called "place marketing", because it can influence on brand image and improves the image of product. Therefore, it need to be approached with commercial consideration. Analyzing the armature this study will take a look at spatial strategies in shopping centers which especially the Jerde Partnership, one of influential firms on commercial space, designed. And it will examine how spatial strategies can be applied to commercial strategies in relation to customer information process(exposure-attention-interest-comprehension-memory) which marketers are using in advertisement for marketing and what kind of role spatial strategies can be. This study is to be basic considerations when a shopping center project will be planned.
This study aimed to analyze the types and characteristics of space forms according to performance types in the space of performing arts centers through the cases of modern performing arts centers. As for the space forms according to the performance forms, the performing arts centers devoted to dramas made a small space or turned into multi-purpose ones entering the modern days. Added to the proscenium, the main stage, was the back stage for the stage background. The area of the stage and auditorium grew similar with some kind of separation between the stage and audience. The concert halls have close relationships with the audience and their stage contacts the auditorium on many sections. The stage space is smaller than the auditorium and usually either the complex or entry type. In the opera theater, they commonly create a space for social gathering in addition to the main stage of proscenium, back stage, side stage and auditorium. They're also distinct from other performing centers for having an orchestra pit between the stage and audience. The stage is twice as big as the auditorium and the separate type. In today's performing arts centers, the sizes of the stage and auditorium can vary widely, and the performances of many different genres are put to multiple purposes.
Since a private museums started in Europe 17C, many private museums established for high-class people like aristocrats to collect and to keep art works and to appreciate for limited members. After the French Revolution in 18C, the publicity became an important social issue through all European regions, and the museum gradually changed into public ones. Like that, as the concept of museum changed, its social role as well as its function was also changed. The concept of collection and display or preservation changed into the concept of exhibition and appreciation featuring the publicity. With the year-round exhibition, a classical concept, the planned-exhibition, a new active concept set as an important factor for a museum's projects. The latter concept embraces new social issues. Therefore as the space for planned-exhibitions reflecting social issues every season was needed, a museum sets its planned-exhibition space with the changeability, and gradually expands this kind of space in size. It is expected that planned-exhibition spaces characterized as the changeability may give some changes on the flow of a museum's overall space, and may have substantial influences on the flow. To recognize the changes in a planned-exhibition space's influence on the museum, this study selected some national, public museums having the planned-exhibition space, and investigated their influences on each museum's overall space structure through the analysis on space syntax. This study assumed the change of planned-exhibition space as the changes in the number of convex spaces, and measured it. And to understand the planned-exhibition's changes on a museum's overall spaces, such changed assumed as the numeric changes in convex spaces and measured them. In addition, the numeric changes's influence on the overall space structure was analyzed by measuring the overall space's average integration level. Through the above two factors, the 3 research methodologies and analyzed results were drawn out.
I.M. Pei, 2nd generation Chinese immigrant to America, has been one of the most recognized architects who designs museum architecture through out the world for completing significant projects such as the East Building of National Gallery of Art(1068-78) as well as Le Grand Louvre Renovation(1983-89) to name a few. His museum architecture, in particular, reveals his detailed consideration on viewer's artistic experience by providing well balanced architecture design to support exhibiting objects while showing his sensitivity on overall functionality of space. In recent projects such as Miho Museum in Japan, Suzhou Museum of China, and Museum of Islamic Art of Qatar, reveals his growing interests in considering "local context" in museum architecture. Therefore, the purpose of this study is focused on analyzing I.M. Pei's three museum projects having its concept focused on local context. Through out the paper, above mentioned museums were analyzed and compared to summarize his design characters and concept including site plan, spatial organization and architectural form. As a result, it is evident that I.M. Pei had put full effort to apply oriental context with modernism through out his museums. In particular, his site plan, spatial organization, and architectural form shows visible connection to comply with nature which is fundamental idea in oriental philosophy. While his basic design philosophy has been borrowed from the tradition, his ultimate design concept shows nature friendliness as well as theoretical system of thoughts and emotion and most of all, his design excellency in representing local context.
After The Ramsar Convention took place in Korea in 2008, public interest in environment heightened, and the government has been allocating its budget for conserving our environment. Therefore, the present study focuses on eco-friendly spatial images particularly shown in ecological museums in Korea which recognizes the value of the environment and the ecology and tries to both protect them and alert people about it. The purpose of this study is proving what consist of eco-friendly spatial images by analyzing the expressive word of eco-friendly images and the image of space, providing a basic data for future space planning of ecological museums. To do this, the present study proceeds in three steps. First of all, the base of research in analyzing stage is firmly established by grasping general theories and terms regarding spatial image. As a second step, the composition and the characteristics of exhibition is clarified through on-spot investigation to provide comparative data for spatial image assessment in the future. Also through this step, we could understand how the exhibits are designed currently. In the last stage of research, expressive words regarding eco-friendly spatial images are extracted and used to analyze the spatial image of ecological museums. And the following three conclusions is deduced. First, the expressive words of eco-friendly spatial image that are extracted are as following: "healthy", "coexisting", "clean", "blending", "warm", "soft", "lively", "pure", "cool", "fresh ", "comfortable", "relaxed", "mild", "free", "harmonious", and "healing". As the second conclusion, color, and material, the formation which is an architectural factor did not have a great impact on forming eco-friendly image, but the color and the material did. The third conclusion was that the display with natural aspects actively utilized increased eco-friendly spatial image.
This study aims to propose the improvement direction of spatial organization of orphanage facilities by reflecting the international trend of child welfare facilities including 'enhancement of habitability', 'opening to the local community' and 'multi-functionality' on the basis of ideas of 'right of housing' and 'normalization'. Orphanage facilities are evolving from 'facilities' to accommodate unfortunate children to the concept of the 'community-care', and the residential space is also rapidly shifting to 'cottage' type resembling a residential type of ordinary family so as to enhance the self-esteem and relationship. To suggest the future-oriented changeability of current orphanage facilities, the present study conducted a nationwide survey of child welfare facilities and four Visiting researches of cottage type orphanage with different locations to investigate the appropriateness of housing type, organization of common use space, mode of management and facilities criteria. The results of this study are following: 1) For enhancement of habitability it is suggested that cottage type with various plans in the form of ordinary housing is appropriate, that the number of children per cottage is six or so, and that the number of less than two or three children per room is recommended. At the same time the adjustment of facilities criteria, simplified or complex, is suggested to support a similar residence pattern to ordinary home. 2) Specialized programs must be introduced to establish a base of welfare-network for community children according to features of location and a complex management must be sought in the connection with neighboring public facilities. 3) To secure the residential environment and quality of life for children, the concept of a simple playground space by the current facilities criteria must be broken away to reinforce the network of various outdoor spaces closely connected with living space.
Healing Environment is to cure the user as a whole by considering his social, psychological aspect, beyond the functional aspect of treatment. Various design elements of healing space have been developed so far, but they were mostly described with same rank. Even though every element is significant, facilities such as nursing homes tends to run with low budget, and they can't fulfill them all at the same time. It is important to find the sequence between design elements. The purpose of this study is to reorganize the design principles of healing environment by Maslow's hierarchy of needs(Physiological needs, Safety needs, Love/Affilitation needs, Self-Esteem needs and Self-Actualization needs), and analyze elderly nursing homes and examine the framework itself by application. Research method was consist of literature review on healing space design elements and hierarchy of needs, reconstruction of design elements with hierarchy, and application on 5 Korean nursing home cases. As the result, Maslow's hierarchy of needs and design elements were linked with good balance. Analysis of 5 nursing homes revealed that lower needs were short of environmental support compared to higher needs. Especially design elements related to Physiological needs should be improved. Also, new framework had strength in not only providing gasps on current situation in detail, but also suggesting elements for improvement with hierarchy and sequence. Through this research healing environment design elements and human needs were linked. Nursing home is the last environment for the elderly, which should help to heal their body and mind and also support them to accomplish self-actualization.
The demand of elderly care facilities due to aging population has been increased and the trend of developed countries implies the necessity of innovate approach for elderly care in Korea. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the flexible elderly housing alternative which has been introduced showing adaptability and small scale. This elderly housing alternative was designed to fulfill the condition of residential facilities for various aging phases from the independent elderly to dependent elderly. The workshop method was used for pre-evaluation of the flexible elderly housing alternative from the viewpoint of administrators, care givers and the elderly. The pre-evaluation is to estimate the facility before finalizing the design so that it facilitates more effective and suitable plan by reducing the trial and error beforehand, unlike the post-evaluation. Major responses of plans were positive and the needs for improvement about some concerns were revealed. Thus, relevant aspects of architectural drawings were amended according to workshop participants' needs and features that require to be reflected during further planning procedures were also improved. The result of this research will develop the flexible elderly housing alternative and contribute to foster environment for the elderly as well.
The bathroom is a space where humans fulfil certain daily needs, but for the disabled, it can be the most difficult space to use and may even be a cause of accidents and a source of danger. Previous studies on the bathroom have mostly proposed an ideal model of bathroom, but the majority of disabled people live in small homes of about $50m^2$ in size. As their bathrooms are usually very small, and existing houses have various structural limitations, more research should be conducted on the remodeling of residential bathrooms. This study analyzed a number of remodeling items in bathrooms, all of which were listed in previous studies. Based on 17 cases of residential bathroom remodeling in the homes of disabled people residing in Incheon in 2009, this study analyzed several remodeling items required according to the subject's characteristics, such as a lifestyle, gender, and family composition; and proposed the following remodeling requirements and improvement measures for ambulatory-disabled persons and sedentary-disabled people. First, as ambulatory-disabled people have lower-limb impairments, they required bathroom remodeling designed to improve their mobility in the bathroom. These subjects desired the installation of grab bars, as well as the elimination of floor level differences, the installation of non-slip flooring, a counter-top, a sink stand, and a shower holder whose height can be adjusted. Second, sedentary-disabled people move around in a sitting or crawling position, so many of them asked to eliminate floor level differences and vertically-installed bathroom furnishings. Basically, both people with ambulatory disabilities and people with non-ambulatory impairments requested the elimination of floor level differences and the installation of non-slip flooring and grab bars for the toilet and bathtub. They also asked for the heights of sinks, faucets, mirrors, shower holders, and cabinets to be adjusted to suit their needs.
According to a progress in the quality of life and economy, recent years have seen an increase in interest in the cruise travel. However, it is important to provide them the optimum embarkation environment since there are to be many and unspecified persons staying for a long period on the cruise ship. In the architectural design field, a wide range of efforts are being recently made to meet customer's requirements by considering the rapidly changing society, environment, and economic trend. The most representative one of such efforts is the inclusive design concept. This concept means to perform design satisfying all the function, convenience, aesthetic appreciation, and utility, regardless of sex, age, ability, nationality, cultural background or any kinds of disabilities. Regarding this trend, the convenience-oriented design of a cruise ship using the inclusive design concept was performed in this study. To do this, the composition of cabins and swimming pools, and the exterior of the cruise ship were classified into several groups through literature survey. Then, in the point of view of the inclusive design concept, inconvenience matters of passengers about the cabins, swimming pools, and exterior were also extracted from literature survey. Next, basis designs for them were selected among the classified groups in order to solve such inconvenience matters. Finally, the convenience-oriented design of the Emerald Princess Cruise considering the inclusive design concept was performed by applying the basis designs. As a result, we can see that the inclusive design concept can be applied to cruise ship design.
The purpose of this study is to deduct influence factors by analyzing preferences for public design that can increase user satisfaction through differentiated identity of regions. The study methods are as follows. First, consider a concept and semantic change of public design through the relevant literatures and precedent studies and then understand application status of domestic and overseas public design. Second, extract design elements for regional differentiation through precedent studies and reclassify regional resources that have an effect. Third, understand the necessity level of public design for regional differentiation by targeting experts and research the extracted design element and the degree of reflection about regionality. Lastly, understand a correlation between design elements and influence factors about territorial regionality of public design based on the researched contents, and analyze the degree of reflection between each other. As a result of this study, a plan that used 'material' and 'color' had high preference on the aspect of design elements and this is an important element that can show regional differentiation of regions. public design of showing regional differentiation. Thus, it is considered that various methods of using 'material' and 'color' must be planned. 'Public space' among design territories was most effective, and the following was 'public facility'. In particular, 'public space' has high preference of using 'natural resources' and 'industrial resources', and therefore an effect of a plan that uses these is judged to be positive. This study can use these results as basic data that suggested the standard for utilization of regional factors for regional differentiation of public design.
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