In this study, the change of critical elements of the design evaluation was investigated during two decades at the architectural competition which was held nationwide in Germany. Specifically, the periods of investigation span both from July 1989 to June 1990 and from July 2009 to June 2010. The results of the analysis show that the cost of construction, the maintenance cost, the design of facade and the energy conservation are being magnified for the new important elements. The images of buildings and the economic aspects are meant to be high. The frequency of the critical elements for interior spaces is approximately two times more important than those for the forms and outdoor spaces. Overall, many juries of the architectural competition in Germany were interested in the elements for interior spaces. The field of function accounts for roughly the half of four basic architectural fields such as function, others, aesthetic and construction fields. The critical elements are required persistently such as context, Circulation, organization of space, form, landscape and outdoor space design, arrangement of building, cost of construction, function, design of facade, location of main entrance. These items are regarded as the most important elements of the design evaluation at the competition. Knowing the change of critical elements of the design evaluation, we can understand the trend of architecture in Germany. The results of this study can be applied in Korea to develop the critical elements of design.
This study is to predict the possibilities of phenomenological spatial design, by recognizing that a phenomenological spatial design brings about a change in the type, regime, role and materials of a spatiality due to the effect of contemporary digital technology and by analyzing their characteristics. Therefore, the study is based on the phenomenology of perception of Morris Merleau Ponty, which has the same concept to contemporary out-of-material and out-of-hierarchical paradigm. The case study has been carried out by selecting some of all works since 1980s, which were influenced by Merleau-Ponty. The analyses were performed by substituting the cases into the spatiality of Situation, spatiality of participation and creation, spatiality of retrospect and prospect, and the spatiality of unpredictability, which were the concept of phenomenological space of Merleau-Ponty for the analyses of features of type, regime, role and material of a spatial design. This article has a great significance in expecting the possibilities of changes of phenomenological spatial design by examining the characteristics of phenomenological spatial design.
This research is based on the environmental psychology model of Albert Mehrabian & JAMES a. Russell. The purpose of this research is to search a method of planning a spatial image improving the degree of access that is audience's dependent response to a display space image of a museum for children. A museum for children is the place for education with experience and its main audience is children and parents. It indicates with a basis of the environmental psychology model that a designer needs to consider the emotional response of children and parents in designing the space. The space design starts from a plan of space image that is delivered to audience through the five senses. Image on the space means visual image as people acquire information mostly through the sense of sight. Visual image consists of shape, the feel of a material, and color that is the most influential factor to the sensibility of audience. Therefore, firstly, this research measures the degree of audience's approach and avoidence on image of display space. In addition, this research suggests the improvement method by analyzing differences on the access of each space and audience based on visual image. Secondly, four factors are extracted through factor analysis based on the result of adjective survey result.
Personal creativity could be promoted and improved through many experience, training and various prior knowledge. This researcher had proceeded several preceding studies to find effective using methods of analogy for creativity enhancement. This study, following work of preceding studies aims to verify the effects of verbal and visual analogy for creativity improvement. Effect verification had been progressed by comparing the residential design results of two groups which are classified an experimental group consisted of sophomore college students with a comparative group consisted of sophomore university students. Consequently, the experimental group that had undergone many training on verbal and visual analogy in several preceding studies is superior to the comparative group in terms of creative design rate, sketch rate with high quality. Through this result it is verified that the using methods of verbal and visual analogy is very effective on creativity enhancement in interior design process. But the limitation of this study is that there were a few populations. Nevertheless, interdisciplinary this study will be used as a practical one to suggest a model on a teaching method and a theory for creativity improvement in interior design education.
Danish Modern has been recognized as simple and comfortable design movement that was matched with its unique regional environment. There are various internationally well known designers such as Arne Jacobsen, Verner Panton. Danish Modern movement and International style had vital role to activate these designers' ideas and design quality. This paper aims to study the background and design characteristics of Danish Modern movement as well as some of the spatial projects by Arne Jacobsen. Furniture design of Jacobsen were already throughly studied in various researches. However his spatial projects such as architectural buildings and interior designs were not. This study analyzes three major architectural projects based on the four characteristics of Danish Modern: Formal Simplicity, Simple Functionality, Regional Contextuality, Reasonable Amusement. After the case study, this study discovered that Danish Modern characteristics had unique roles in the design process of Jacobsen's projects. Danish Modern is still valid design philosophy that can be applied to contemporary society.
In Alvar Aalto's designs, important factors of complex building designs including Wolfsburg cultural center are that they insinuate how to develop each architectural type and how to combine them in a building. The humane and physical background studies, and wholistic and systematic approaches are adopted to fulfill research purposes. Comparison with other buildings are necessary to reveal true meaning of this building. The result of analysis show characteristics of Wolfsburg cultural center as follows; hybrid composition of mass and elevation, spatial effect using level difference and light, massing variation of roof, and creating space for various activities. Wolfsburg cultural center designed in late 1950s has greatly affected Aalto's later works through various architectural experiments because it is the first cultural complex project that combined various architectural types. Especially library in the cultural center has shown transitional characteristics to famous fan-type libraries of 1960s while maintained features about Viipuri library. Wolfsburg cultural center act as an another type which present new principles of clustering, massing and exterior design. Its true meaning lies in forming a humanizing place beyond spatial configuration.
This study aims to figure out diversity and complexity of modern design by analysing surrealistic characters of Jaime Hayon and Marcel Wanders design, who are working actively in diverse design fields including graphic design, product design, and space design. First fundamental theories of surrealism was reviewed, and structure for analysis was made by studying characters of design representation derived by surrealistic concepts. And then design projects in the fields of furniture and product design, interior space design, and project design that were performed by two designers after the year 2000 were analysed. Two designers assume critical attitudes in mass production of functional design which is made by only machines, and they have something in common pursuing creative and imaginative design by making unique artistic elements by using modern technology. In this way, they create surrealistic fantasy in their design. On the other hand Jaime Hayon and Marcel Wanders show interesting differences in modes of expression. Hayon creates unique and organic forms and characters based on his creative imagination, and he enjoys to express boldness and amusement. Wanders shows sophisticated and elegant duality by dramatic balance between intricate patterns and minimal forms. Both designers have important influences in modern design as creative leaders always pursuing new things and representing complex tendency of modern society.
There are a method to analyze reactions or psychological condition and a method to observe visitor's behavioral reaction as methods to measure and evaluate humans' recognition behavior reaction of humans. The measure of the eye movement as a method to living body's reaction and psychological condition has an advantage to measure the information acceptance reaction of view recognition of the stimulus of view composition factors which has been used since a long time ago in other research areas, but almost not studies have been made on the exhibition views in museums. Therefore, on the premise of such recognition, this study aimed at obtaining various types of information through vision angles of visitor in exhibition space of an museum and judging space information, at measuring the condition of information acceptance through attention experiments and observation investigation of and finding out the disposition and characteristics so as to verify the relationship between the exhibition space and exhibition Method.
In accordance with an active development, we now enjoy web 2.0 generation centering bilateral participation through the web 1.0 environment mainly providing the offering information and take a step web 3.0 understanding information by itself. The same time of digital technic development, consumption market arrived at market3.0 generation, also passed by market 1.0 and went via market 2.0 based on bilateral participation and understanding. This change have the marketing implement index changed as well. Nowadays, 7C is generalized of making up sensibility, emotion, communication, relationship, customization and interactive built as a major strategy from the day of 3p focused on customer environment, service process and 4P focused on physical quality of product. It isn't that brand and merchandise create life and experience like as past. It is focused on embodiment of a way of life, culture and creative experience from consumers' own. This treatise, therefore, fixes the object as flagship store positively reflecting the change and examine the change of a marketing code element and social factor stimulating customer behavior change. As a condition of this study, It fixes Maslow Motivation Theory as the main index of customer behavior, and 7C as the marketing code. This treatise ultimately studies the index of flagship store discussion based on domestic outdoor brand cases.
The Japanese housing market has implemented management and operation systems of community service ahead of the Korean market. This paper examines case studies of Japanese community services by reviewing related studies, studying homepages, and conducting in-depth interviews with management staff. The goal of this study is to find marketing strategies and the proper management practices in preparation for the upcoming low-fertility and aging society. The results of this study are as follows: 1) After Japan's bubble economy burst in 1985, so called that incorporated various community facilities with life services were introduced to the Japanese housing market in order to cope with the diversifying family types and lifestyles. This new trend was also due in part to customers' increasing demands for convenient urban condominiums. 2) In Japan, many developers and construction companies have run the management of community service programs and created new business models in collaboration with other affiliated companies. However, many of these programs have been found even more successful and reliable when the facility management companies collaborate with local service providers instead of relying solely on affiliated companies. 3) The early stage of life services began with "front-desk services", but these have evolved into more upgraded "concierge services" that can provide residents with tailored services and conveniences. Furthermore, some of the service providers have encouraged resident participation in the process of designing and implementing their community services. 4) In Korea, most construction companies and developers are still oriented toward providing hardware such as spaces and facilities in developing their community services. Therefore, companies with high market reputations must seek alternative ways to maintain and enhance their brand values by implementing new approaches in collaboration with both affiliated companies and local service providers. This can be done by finding new notions of managing and operating community services through research and development.
As the existing paradigm of consumption has changed, companies have been actively engaged in targeting culture-oriented emotion, creating added values through appealing to customers' emotion and improving the values of culture and art. Each company has created differentiated space and inner space to lead trends, and has provided space for various experiences as an innovative marketing area to attract customers and promote consumption. In this aspect, we should focus on space marketing which considers cultural background or emotion as a main target Therefore, this study selected a cultural program as a strategic means to identify space marketing in terms of experience. The study speculated marketing in terms of space experience and analysed space for cultural programs with differentiated experiences in order to use the results as basic data for identifying the marketing values of the cultural programs and their uses. The results of the study are presented as follows: when space experience is a factor of marketing and the cultural program is a tactic in terms of marketing, their specific relations are speculated through a certain module. The order of using the cultural program for space experience, features of space representation and tactics for experience were different and the strategies evoked very complicated and mixed experiences.
Under the rule of Japanese Imperialism, there were two kinds of architectural government organizations inside the Chosun(朝鮮) Governor-General which designed To(道) and Pu(府) government office buildings; one was the organization inside the central government office and the other inside the local government offices(To and Pu). By the administrative approval procedure of the Chosun Governor-General, the local architectural organization planned site and floors of the building in the schematic design stage, and in the detail design stage not only the central but sometimes the local planned the building design. The design accomplished by the local in schematic stage was believed as a kind of guideline in detail design and the local organization was able to insist their own needs to the central and to change the central's planning. Even though the central had the authority of the design, the local took part in the planning of To and Pu government office buildings at least in the schematic design stage.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the development and characteristics of Dymaxion housing by R. B. Fuller, who is generally known as a structure engineering, architect and his influences. A document research method was used to analyze and classified of his dymaxion housing projects focused on the late of 1920's. Through this study, the following conclusions have been reached; 1) In order to obtain the productivity and efficiency drawing from the industrialized housing in the early of 1900s, the planning concepts of 'Dymaxion', 'Ehemeralization' and 'Autonomy' were proposed. 2) The planning characteristics of Dymaxion housing projects are classified as three aspects. The first is 'formative aspects' which was focused on the round-shape, transparency and lightweight material such as aluminium for movable and flexible dwelling. The second is 'functional aspects', focused on the mass-production, mobility, flexibility, high-tech and systemizing mechanical equipments for efficiency of household affairs. The third is 'environmental aspects', focused on the energy-saving and environmental control for sustainable dwelling. Dymaxion housing projects of Fuller, an aggregation of high-tech mechanical equipments, had a great impact on the development the concept of mobility and influenced radical and utopian architectural groups' ideas of 1960's. Especially, considering today's high cost of energy and the limited natural resources, Fuller's Dymaxion theory must be re-evaluated.
The purpose of this study is to propose cognitive ecological effects of fractal patterns in space design. This study investigated the perception and cognition problems regarding landscape patterns showing fractal properties from the cognitive perspective instead of the traditional speculative approach. In particular, the researcher has verified that fractal geometry theory and fractal pattern concept provide insight in space aesthetic values and cognitive effects. Research results are as follows. First, most environmentally-friendly fractal urban forms provide cognitive connectivity. In particular, this space provides a positive emotional response and preference to humans and displays self-organized complexity. This study found that such complexity of space form has characteristics corresponding to parallel cognitive structures of the human brain. Simultaneously, the researcher suggests that the fractal landscape pattern is an alternative for stiff and homogenized modern space. Second, fractal patterns provide hierarchical connectivity within the brain through continuous difference and repetition. In particular, self-similarities of fractal patterns administer significant visual grouping and coherence in human perception. It can be determined whether scaling coherence facilitates easier organization in cognitive organization. Third, fractal patterns in space design provide the basic method for achieving the connection between concept, construction, and urban factors. As a result, the researcher has suggested that scale distribution of geometrical factors, such as fractal patterns, an be a design method to connect various space typologies.
This study describes development process of residential architectural space in the Richard Meier's residential works through chronological analysis. By analyzing house layout, floor plan, elevation, materials and colors and light entering of his residential works, changes in his architectural space has been studied. Richard Meier's early work is designed as three-dimensional shape, and places emphasis on geometric form. However, recently completed residential works by Richard Meier focuses on the horizontal sun shading louvers, which has ability. In addition, teak and a special UV protective glass are used to control natural environment. Through this research, it was found that Richard Meier has maintained his architectural language in terms of the design layout of the house and planar with colors that appear on the initial project. Using light input methods and materials used for active development, it was found that many design elements were applied and developed.
An attempt is made to illuminate the characteristics of Korean high-rise apartment plans built after the 1990s in Seoul. Unlike the typical slab block plans of the past century, these plans were accommodated in a super-highrise building which normally integrates some portion of commercial areas on the lower floors. Thus, they are much different from the pre-1990s plans, so needs to have different strategy to adapt to the Korean dwellers' domestic requirements. This study reveals the topological patterns that appear in these new plans, and tries to relate these patterns to the old configuration patterns of the slab-type apartment houses. From the analysis, it was found that some important Korean dwellers' characteristics are still preserved, but at the same time, some unprecedented patterns were beginning to be absorbed into the spatial arrangement. At the end, suggestions are made on how this emerging trend of super-high rise can be better understood and evolved to enhance the living quality in a new multi-unit setting.
The purpose of this study is to grope for plan methods through analyzing preferences on expression methods of materials for visual differentiation in hosing space. The results are as follows : First, we could know that finish material is the important element to make differential design in housing space. It is a effective method to use the color and material of finish materials. Second, we could find they preferred woods in materials and Y color, N9.5, bright and light in colors through grasping preference about types in material elements. The preferred texture is soft and the preferred patterns are solid and geometry. Third, it is a good method to mix materials which give us different season feeling, and to mix colors which are different tones to lead the differential design by materials in housing space. In case texture and patterns, what we mix similar things is the effective method. Fourth, preference of the expression method is manifested differently depending on the selected elements. so when we plan the housing, we have to consider that. lastly, I think this study will be a basic data on a study to differentiate the design of the residential space.
A studio type urban lifestyle housing was recently introduced as a new urban multi-housing typology. It was particularly created to meet the increasing housing demand of one-person households due to the population change and the shortage of housing supply. However, some concerns have been raised, because the government's policy has been focused on expanding housing supply by easing certain legal regulations in construction. Poorly planned and managed urban lifestyle housings might degrade living conditions for one-person households and ultimately harm urban environments. As such, this research is conducted to investigate the design characteristics of the studio type urban lifestyle housing from selected construction precedents in Seoul. Critical evaluations are made for the facilities and uses in site plans, unit plans, and shared public spaces. As a result, problem areas are found in the lack of design varieties, privacy protection in units, control of natural environment conditions, and the absence of community spaces. Improvement strategies can be suggested by comparing with some overseas' housing precedents: Design variations can be extended through flexible structure, facility, and furniture systems. Privacy and natural environment can be controled through the integration of interior space configurations and exterior envelope systems. The housing policy needs to be reconsidered to improve a variety in design, residents' social interaction, security, and management. Thereby, the studio type urban lifestyle housing should be holistically approached in terms of design and policy to enrich urban living experiences by residents and communities.
This study analyzed the ways of expressing materials to create visual perception spaces in "commercial spaces". The result is as follows. First, it has been discovered that expressing materials in commercial spaces plays an important role in creating various visual perception spaces as well as discriminative spaces, in commercial spaces. Hence, it will be necessary to make a multilateral study on how you can express materials to create visual perception spaces. Second, by referring to earlier studies, four types of space have been deduced as visual perception spaces. These are: "expansion", "central", "borderline" and "decoration" spaces. Third, by considering the space types and characteristics as well as the expressing materials, the criteria for the ways of expressing materials to create visual perception spaces in commercial spaces. Finally, looking at these expression methods, images of "expansion" spaces have most commonly been expressed indistinctly by using the materials and patterns. The profound images of "central" spaces were displayed using the materials and their symbolic images have been shown using the materials and colors. In the "borderline" spaces, the areas have been distinctly segmented or expressed in limited spaces by using the materials and colors. Visual designs were displayed in the "decoration" spaces by using materials from other space fields. All these phenomena have demonstrated that various new materials are being used to create various distinctive designs in commercial spaces. The result of this study shall act as basic reference materials in devising visual designs needed in creating various visual perception spaces.
Modern museums that started from 17th century in Europe have played a role of storage for collections of the upper class as a form of private museum. Since 18th century the publicity has been more emphasized in the society of Europe and there became a public museum that serves as a institution for social education. In addition to this, the mass production that began with the Industrial Revolution relieved the working hour of the public and they started to spend their more time for visiting museums to have social education. In korea there constructed a lot of public museums after economic development and people experienced the social education and the cultural events. However, there raised questions on security issue regarding relic because of growing number of visitors to the museums. Due to this, the museums asked a surveillance system for their relic. But the museums don't have enough research on this nor understanding the current situation. Because the relic in museums of history has a money value, the anti-theft system is more focussed. In addition to the direct surveillance system with staff or closed-circuit television(CCTV), the indirected system with visitor's mutual surveillance in conjunction with spatial structure has to be researched. This study is to understand the relationship between surveillance system and spatial structure with reference to korea's national and public museum of history. With the results of the research, the study provides a planning guideline to the museum architecture to prevent security problem.
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