The purpose of this study is to select and analyze words that represent various emotional states towards a spatial environment. Selecting appropriate words for the sensibility evaluation of a spatial environment is a process of constructing sensibility indicators, so that an accurate selection of sensibility words is very important. To collect basic words for this study, words for expressing sensation, emotional states, and sensibility regarding a spatial environment have been collected first via free association and a literature review of previous studies. In the second stage, the selected words are refined. Fifteen evaluators have participated in the first process of refining words, 140 college students participated in the second process, and than the final list of 277 refined words has been selected. During the third stage, 15 specialists were asked to evaluate the appropriateness of sensibility evaluation words, for that 7 point-scale has been applied. Then, 99 words with an average point of 4.55 or more and a standard deviation of 1.55 or lower were selected. After investigating the similarity in the meanings of the selected words, 55 pairs of contrasting words have been selected as a final list of sensibility evaluation words. During this last stage, 307 college students majoring in related fields were asked to evaluate the appropriateness of sensibility evaluation words for a spatial environment, and 7 point-scale was obtained. A factor analysis, cluster analysis, and multidimensional analysis have been conducted on the data obtained from these survey. According to the results of the factor analysis, the eight important factors are obtained from the sensibility evaluation criteria of a spatial environment(form, texture, function, value, comfort, aesthetics, atmosphere, and affinity). The factors obtained from this study can be used in the beginning stage of evaluating the sensibility factors of a spatial environment. In addition, the results of this study can be used as basic data when constructing a list of evaluation indicators to select various complex sensibility words for a space; or as general indicators when evaluating various spatial design factors.
The purpose of this study is to examine the design characteristic of the facade of the main adminstration building in university. The main administration building which is a basic of educational facilities has various administration setups, such as the register's office, the student affairs section, the planing department, the general affair's office and so on. This building performs academic, administration, facilities management, and admissions service. Also, the building has an ideological, historical, and symbolic image, having an organic relationships with the other educational facilities. This study choose one hundred seven universities, except universities that does not provide information easily and the second campus which does not have the main administration building, as the subjects of the study. The analysis is derived from the design elements applied to facade design of the main administration building and this is divided into design principles(balance symmetry, contrast, rhythm), the formal composition(geometrical, linear), and the style of architecture(classical architecture and modern architecture). The results of the research are summarized as follows: The design characteristic of the facade of the main adminstration building in university has chronologically changed. First of all, in the 1940's, symmetry emphasized on the center of building, superimposition, division, pediment, and arch were marked. Then, superimposition was prominent in the 1950's and symmetry emphasized on the center of building was shown in the 1960s again. Flat roof was in the 1970's, 1990s and 2000's. Finally, pediment was dominant in the 1980's. The design elements of the main administration building can be samples of chronological styles of architecture. Facade design, with proper design of the past and recent times, includes the meaning that achieve the great purpose of the university by emphasizing visual images.
Light has primary function to enlighten the darkness. However, as development and progresses in media has caused big change in our life, the range of usage and application of light is broadened. And these days, light is actively used as a communication tool in a space. This thesis is based on an idea that a new prospect of light is required and at the same time the theoretical foundation should be established to take active advantage of light. In Chapter two, analysis criteria are established to verify study hypothesis. The applied methodology is to analysis the contents based on literature review. Key words related light in space design are extracted and the frequency of those key words are quantitatively measured. Taking advantage of the result, the characteristics of light are divided into three categories, 'light as symbolic information', 'light as communication medium' and 'light as topological form'. In chapter three, analysis of cases is performed. The cases are selected based on space analyzing criteria established in Chapter two. Qualitative analysis is performed on the cases categorized into natural light and artificial light. Basic analysis elements are evaluated for each case. And each case is allocated to one of three categories, 'light as symbolic information', 'light as communication medium' and 'light as topological form'. Through this analysis, it is found that light in space has prevailing characteristics of 'light as symbolic information' and 'light as communication medium'.
The objective of this study is to find a educational method that is able to increase creativity using both left and right directed thinking with complementary cooperation. The premise of experimental study is that analogical inference is a great help to make a creative design, and design tasks of commercial space, fashion shop and herb cafe are given to 25 students, voluntary participants in experimental tests. Tests make a clear distinction between a case using verbal analogy from many keywords and another case using verbal visual analogy from keywords and visual images. Consequently, when students use both verbal and visual analogy in solving design tasks their creative ability qualitatively as well as quantitatively is higher than in using verbal analogy. However, when students are classified with high and low sketching group verbal visual analogy is effective for students with high sketching ability to enhance both practicality and originality. Even students with low sketching ability can improve originality remarkably by using verbal visual analogy. In experiment there is time limit, a hour, but in actual studio class it is desirable that an educator guides the latter to make up for the weak points in practicality of their design taking time. Further study will be progressed with the design tasks of residential space to compare with the findings of this study.
As various materials and new methods can be used due to developments in science and expansion of thinking, modern architectural color composes extensive possibilities exceeding its physical role of the past. In particular, rather than the initial external expression, the secondary connotative interpretation is more important in interpreting architectural color. This is because color interpretation changes the meaning of space based on light. Also, the development of digital technology has shifted the use of architectural color from passive realization to a more proactive concept and value. In other words, such shift leads to a new discussion on architectural color such as non-representation, invisibility, and non-physicality as the concept of fixed time, space and movement has been weakened. This paper begins by conceptualizing the digital space, a term widely used to interpret the architectural color of digital space. And it will be categorized as non-representational architectural color, invisible architectural color, and non-physical architectural color, by combining the characteristics of digital space with the modern architecture's color examples. Digital space overcoming the space time is differently interpreted from the past color expression. Modern architecture's color which substitutes the passive view with active body takes a role delivering various axes of discussions with synaesthesia.
Nowadays, public rental apartments' community facilities emphasize only their quantity aspect without considering residents' characteristics, leading their installation regulations to be based on only the number of households, which is problematic. As a result, in many cases, residents, after moving in, alter the facility usage or remodel the facilities for their use. Hereby, this study conducted focus group interviews with public rental apartments' residents as to find out space conditions of and improvement demands for the community facilities. Two public rental apartment complexes in Seoul and Gyeongi-do which were built after 2007 were selected for this study. As for the survey method, workshop panel was employed. Four people in each age class of infants, children, adolescents, adults, and seniors were formed into one group, and a total of 40 people in 10 groups were surveyed. The survey was continuously conducted from February to March in 2009. The study findings can be summarized as follows. 1) Among community facilities, there were more satisfactory outdoor facilities than satisfactory indoor facilities. Residents expressed satisfaction with the facilities linked with natural environment. The causes of unsatisfactory facilities were mostly poor management. 2) The facilities demanded by the residents included ones relevant to study, exercise, and hobbies. As public rental apartments are resided mostly by low-income families, study and hobby activities bring them cost problems. Therefore, it is needed that the apartment complexes support diverse such activities 3) As for facilities demanded for usage alteration, a residents' meeting room accounted for the most popular opinions. As it was used only once a week, its usage was very low. It should be opened to the residents and allowed to be used in various ways. 4) As for demands of changing spatial characteristics, outdoor exercise facilities accounted for the most opinions. Although they were installed in most cases, they were damaged and poorly managed, therefore being in need of improvement in operation and management. In order to maximally utilize public rental apartments' community facilities, facility planning in consideration of various age groups from residents' viewpoint and sustainable systematic management are required.
The purpose of this study is to be applied with the basic data for the design method in the housing space which is differential. So, we analyzed the expression method and the application characteristic to materials of units in housing complex. To that, we researched on the condition of finishing material about the kind of material, color, texture and pattern for components in living room space. The results of this study are as follows : First, at the present time, the Object concept is expressed by 'mixing' and 'juxtaposition' of material, texture and pattern of finishing materials in housing space. But, we could find that the Object concept was used restrictively in housing space. So, we have to find different expression methods to be the effective and differential design by being applied Object concept for the housing space. Second, the 'mixing' which is the method to express the Object concept is showed in only 'art wall'. so, we can estimate that the method is the limited method to plan the varied housing. It is needed various expression methods to design components for the housing space. Third, it showed that the 'mixing' was a passive expression method using a little differential for design of housing space. We could estimate that similar methods were applied to the housing design. By results of this study, we can think that the develop study is needed to find design methods for expression of the Object in housing space.
The purpose of this study is to develop the basis data for methods of the plan to make the office space of the psychological environment by survey of preference to users in Department Store. The results are as follows : First, we could know that the space plan has to be considered the privacy and sociality for the psychological environment in office space. Second, we could know that there are efficient methods of space plan to use the cutoff division by partitions, the psychological division by furniture and the sensitive division by material for privacy in office and resting space. For sociality, there are efficient arrangement methods to plan by division type in office space and by opening type in resting space. And it is good method to use by color that is one in esthetical elements. Third, if we considered users, it is good method to use partitions to cutoff from the floor to the ceiling for privacy in office space and to use movable furnitures to cutoff for privacy in resting space. Forth, we could know that there is the difference in methods of space plan to be preferred by user's variables for privacy and sociality in office and resting spaces. Thus, i think that we have to study considering user's variables and types of department store.
This study analyzed characteristics of visual circulation in the modern museum architecture while carrying out space syntax and visibility graph analysis side by side in order to solve problems of visitors' movement having been suggested as the point at issue at modern museum architecture that has become big scaled and layering so as to satisfy various social demands. Also, the result of this analysis is same as followings. First, visitors become to watch the exhibition with clear position that can make themselves in right allocation, and thus visual and perceptual confusions were shown as relatively low in case physical position and visual one were matched at major space of atrium type or mediation space. Second, it was appeared a lot at the museum having exhibition space of room type in case the physical position and visual one were not matched. Visual circulation in the exhibition space of room type has a merit of forming the circulation where free selection is possible. However, it have raised concerns that visual passageway of visitors could be in a stalemate or crash at the opening part, not at the exhibition hall. Third, though analysis of space syntax had a merit of analyzing total modern museum architectures having became compounded and big scaled, but it was dropped in reliability from the visual circulation's analysis that was decided by flows of space and time. In contrary, visibility graph analysis was shown as having a merit to analyzing the flows rather than that of total structure, and also appeared as being able to supplement the disadvantage of space syntax in methodology. Upon the above analysis, a lot of architectural elements such as allocation of exhibition hall, location of door and window etc. were appeared as affecting influences to forming visual circulation of visitors, not to mention of allocations of major space, mediation space, and exhibition one. Through this study, various possibilities of quantitative analysis on the visual circulation in the museum architectures can be confirmed. However, this study expects that in-depth subsequent researches objecting to various museums could be realized afterwards because there are still limitations in its analysis.
The studies published up to now, related to the correlation between spatial structure and visitors' behavior in a museum are rather relatively lacking when it comes to the in-depth consideration for the effect of the actual exhibition environment. So the main purpose of this study is to define the correlation between the light environment and the visitors' behavior. Towards this end, this study uses 'space syntax' to quantify the spatial structure with 'integration', 'connectivity' and 'control value'. Meanwhile, 'tracking score' and 'tracking frequency' were selected as the scope among the indices of behavior's analysis. The results of this study are as follows; First, integration and correlation of tracking score and tracking frequency are lowest when it comes to the extra large historical museums where the difference of intensity of illumination by each convex space. Meanwhile, the most considerable effect is exerted by control value. Compared to tracking score, tracking frequency is closely related to 'syntactic variables'. Second, visitors do not take the short cut the dark exhibition space even when very dark exhibition spaces continue after passing through relatively bright space. Analysis of visitors' behavior by control value in the exhibition space composed of this type of intensity of illumination environment is not valid. Third, visitors move to relatively brighter transitional space compared to the exhibition space with low intensity of illumination when passing through dark exhibition continually. Meanwhile, when visitors pass through the exhibition space there is some difference intensity of illumination they move to relatively dark exhibition center among the subsequent exhibition spaces. Accordingly, when the composition of exhibition space that continues onto the environment of low intensity of illumination is inevitable, differentiating intensity of illumination appropriately would be effective in inducing visit to the subsequent exhibition space.
This study intends to understand the change of the library's bookshelves shape, composition and arrangement based on the social-culture in each period. For this purpose, this study analyzes the morphological shift of the library's bookshelves and knowledge information focused on the history of western libraries from the ancient libraries to the modern public libraries before the 20th century. And the results are follows. 1) We can make sure that the changes of the library's bookshelves are based on the environmental factors like social cultural political factors and also understand that the knowledge information are developed based on the function which is decided by the needs of the times and the serious necessities of users. With this reason, the morphology and the function of the library's bookshelves have been changed. 2) The characters and meanings of the library's bookshelves are changed with the times from movable type to fixed type, from closing type to opening type, from privileged use to public use, from religious contents to general scientific contents. 3) The morphology of the library's bookshelves are shifted from cylindrical box to Chest type Press type and Lectern system, Stall system, Wall system and advanced to Mixed(Stall+Wall) system. 4) The construction and arrangement methods of the library's bookshelves are determined by the convenience and efficiency of the installation for the perusal environments as well as the regarding to the social-cultural factors. The arrangement criteria are determined by the security topics in the earlier stage, after that determined by the lightening topics and nowadays the access topics to the information. These analysis results are very useful to research the technology of the library's bookshelves to be changed continuously and also to forecast the morphology of the library's bookshelves can be planned in the spaces of the future libraries.
The goal of This study is to predict medical fee by accidents at home and the factors of accidents, and also to suggest the conditions of housing adaptations for elderly people. As the result of in-house accidents, on average 2.97 million Korean won was to be spent for medical care. Furthermore, 2808 billion Korean Won, which was predicted by multiplying the number of older people with the reported accident rates of 2.0% by the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2005, can be estimated to pay on medical care in 2005. And in addition it is analyzed on residential conditions and 65 cases of elderly housing. According to the 65 safety problem cases, it examines that in-house accidents of older people generally happen at the steps, toilet and bathroom. It is necessary to adapt physical conditions and it is more effective. As the result of research, medical fee by accident at home has been increasing and also it could be predicted to spend 280,800million won in 2005. To reduce medical fee, it is necessary to promote physical environment by renovation. When be decided to renovate a housing, we know that it is more effective to use a checklist of space using at home. And also it is suggested to amend a checklist with other factors including physical conditions and health condition and so on to promote a correctness.
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