German architect Hans Scharoun (1893-1972) has long been known as an Expressionist Architect, but recent scholarships reveal that his architectural pieces represent a profound idea of modern functional building. In this context, his architectural tendency can be constructed as an advanced functionalism. In the early twentieth century Germany, many young architects were not given chances to build due to economic hardship after World War I, and they were naturally led to imagery sketch designs for future architecture. Scharoun began with utopian fantasies as one might easily notice through his watercolor paintings in the Glass Chain period, but further developed his vision into a more concrete idea on organic building which he believed to be a modem functionalism. This paper intends to exemplify Scharoun's modern functionalism through a detailed analysis of his design of Weissenhofhaus presented at Stuttgart Deutscher Werkbund Exhibition in 1927. Weissenhofhaus is often rebuked for its expressionist qualifies by famous critics such as Sigfried Giedion and Nikolaus Pevsner, but the house also suggests other possibilities within the Modern Movement in Architecture. In particular, Weissenhofhaus is chosen for its historical importance linking two world war eras in German modern architecture.
This study investigates and analyzes Catholic cultural traits in Gaudi's architectural designs on the assumption that the cultural identity of Spain has been built heavily on Catholic cultural tradition. Through examining thoroughly six residential buildings Gaudi designed, Catholic cultural traits were found in their interior ornaments, space formation, and expression of form. This study shows, first, that by making good use of interior ornaments, Gaudi sought to Catholic cultural uniformity among buildings that have different cultural characteristics. Second, with regard to space formation, he tended to build a chapel or an oratory inside structures which encouraged residents to worship in their home. Also, as for expression of form, his designs, expressing Catholic cultural features in various ways, succeeded to form visual uniformity among buildings and structures with a variety of styles. Lastly, by using properly Catholic cultural elements explained above and making those traits easily recognized even from a long distance, his architectural works represent very well the importance of Catholic culture as a foundation of Spain culture.
Digital technology continually makes a space evolves. The real-time behavior design communicates the data with the situation of circumference of the space(visitors moving, interior and exterior situations). The space form was changed because it interfaces in real time. The purpose of this study was finding out the characteristics of real-time behavior space design through the analysis of space formative languages, sensorium, S-R and material. This study will be the one of basic references for the digital space design. The boundary of this study set limits to the works of digital space designer who applies the real-time exchanging data to their design among the digital space design works from 1996 to 2004. But it excepted from the real-time behavior space in virtual realty. Therefore, the objects of this study were the works of onl and NOX(paraSITE, Trans-port 2001, Muscle, MotormeCCa, Handdrawspace, Saltwater Pavilion, Son-O-House, H2O Expo). The method was the contents analysis of space formative languages(Greg Lynn's ten space formative languages; bleb, blob, branch, flower, fold, lattice, teeth, shred, skins and strand), sensorium, S-R and material. The results of the study are as follows: 1) The organizational elements; Space formative languages(bleb, blob, fold, shred, skins, strand), stimulation(Human Participation, Human Moving, Weather Conditions), and response(Spatial Moving, Sound Pattern, Lighting Pattern, color Pattern, Activating Particles, Moving Picture, Virtual Friend) 2) The material Use; Sound, lights, and network have been used in the space. Immaterial matter will be used the main material of space design in 21"'century, 3)The spatial types; formal changing of space, projecting immaterial elements, and changing the sound.
One of the most famous designers of our age, Philippe Starck designed eight hotels among fan Schrager's of which hotels are not so big but have huge popularity all around the world located in major cities such as New York, London, Miami, L.A., and San Francisco. These hotels have brought significant influence particularly to the aspects of their recent fashion and strategies in Boutique hotels. Therefore, this paper intends to examine the space composition and design methods by analyzing the eight hotel projects by him. The research started with reviewing his design background first and analyzed the characteristic of his designs of above hotels. The analysis results were arranged from the aspects of narrative spatial configuration and dramatic presentation. From the aspect of narrative spatial configuration, the hotels by Philippe Starck mainly consisted of 1) boundaries and gateways, 2) spaces of passage, 3) center spaces, and 4) the spaces surrounding the center spaces. For the latter's aspects, it was found that various design methods such as 1) objectification, 2) intended ambiguity, 3) depaysement 4) eclectic hybrid, 5) distortions of scale, and 6) sensuous clues were employed. A study on the hotels by tan Schrager, which owe their big success to the emotional design of Philippe Starck's, not only widens the understanding of his design world, but also serves to the appreciation of today's hotel marketing strategies and design.
Light is the essential and symbolical entity In architecture. But the meaning of light has been changed as time has passed, and today it has plural meaning and more sophisticated role. Since 1960's 'Light and Space Art' has accomplished many successful experiments through light and space as artistic media, and they have changed the understanding of light from the electrical source to the phenomenological energy and sensual medium. And also the role of space in their works takes the more human-oriented field constituted from the coherent relationship of internal parts including human being. Light could be 'an object' and 'material' under 'Light and Space Art' artists' persistent efforts. They revealed another realm of spatial experiences such as extension-the metaphysical space, heterogeneous relationship-the complex space, and dematerialization-the illusionary space. The secondary and inclusive effects by 'Light and Space Art' can be found In the phenomenological architecture, the post-modern architecture, and the immaterial tendency of contemporary architecture. However, the more close connections between 'Light and Space Art' and the specific architectures are still left as a portion aside for the further research.
Compared with a lot of comprehensive and alternative studies on elderly housing facilities until now, specialized studies of dimensional and detailed standards have hardly made. Therefore we intends to examine the status of bathroom planning on representative elderly housing facilities in Korea. As the methods of this study, we executed a field study into five representative elderly housing facilities in Korea. We visited each two units out of the outstanding 5 facilities and surveyed the total ten bathrooms. Then we analyzed the space planning of them and the state of bathroom commodities, and measured the bathroom equipment. In addition, we collected questionnaires about satisfaction, preference, and problems from the residents. As a result, most of the bathrooms had powder rooms and were furnished with bathtubs(4) and shower stalls(6). One or more grab bar and emergency calling system were provided but the heights of the handles were different from each bathroom. The floor material of bathroom should be installed with no-slippery material.
The purpose of this study is to examine the physical factors of work environment and to establish the evaluation factors for office design for wheelchair users. This study is based on the existing research for office environmental factors; and then clarifies the physical factors that are suitable for circumstances of wheelchair users. These factors are composed three physical factors which are space, furniture arrangement, and ambient condition and then each of these factors has detailed several elements. Futhermore, comparing physical factors between a non-wheelchair user and a wheelchair user with work environment is analyzed on the assumption using the system furniture on the market. This study is expected to be used as basic information to provide the way of improving office space plan for wheelchair user in workplace. This resource can serve as a checklist when renovating, re-designing or building a new office space for wheelchair users. The evaluation of office environmental factors for wheelchair users who work in public and/or private companies is needed for the next research.
This study shows the present conditions and the appraisal of Public-Toilet in ammusement park of Kangwon-Do. The areas of Public-Toilets are various from over $30m^2\;to\;230m^2$ and the construction costs are also various. The exterior designs aim at Provincial characteristics, traditional images, or modem minimal styles. The floor plans are usually symmetric forms by rectangular or circular spaces. There are some laws and manuals from related association to regulate Public-Toilet. By appraising with these laws and manuals we can notice that there are many problems to improve in Public-Toilet. As the survey, we can find that the unpreparedness of the cognition equipment about whether someone uses the public-toilet has most frequency in related laws. And by the laws about multipurpose toilet, the insufficiency of the accessing space to the chamber pot has most frequency. By the manual of related association, there are much more indications - for example, the unpreparedness of wind protection room or etiquette bell, so on - than by related laws. For the improvement of the culture In Public-Toilet, we should not only improve the related laws, but also activate the deliberation about the appropriate planning in Public-Toilet.
The considerable increase of the elderly with dementia is expected annually and when we think about the family members' and the patients' suffering, it could be painful. Above all things, it imposes heavy economic burdens on the family members that have patients who suffer from diseases of age like dementia or paralysis that caring them at home and also, it is not desirable for those old people in point of physical or environmental circumstances for medical care. Thus, it is needed urgently that the expansion of specified facilities and improvement of services for these old people. Under this present condition, it is the special feature that the subject of research is people/facilities that offer services, not the elderly with dementia-the main user of those facilities. Thus, it is the time that we need various accessing plans that can grasp the patiences' activities and specialties and solve these problems in view of designing interior space. So, I tried to make designs that manage the elderly with dementia effectively and adequate to run facilities with considerations on the state of domestic specialized long-term care facilities for the elderly with dementia and researched guiding principles on physical healing surroundings with analysis that focused on the patients' activities, especially.
According to the new multi-media appeared as a result of rapid growth of the information and science technique, the school library must be changed to the integration of the teach-study media resource from the existing print media. It means that the school library has to play a role of the study center with a different media from the existing teaching material, teaching instrument, facility and opportunity. The Information education must be conducted in the way of an integrated education course and able to do both information transaction and problem settlement. The education facility to solve this problem is the school library. Therefore, the school library becomes important more and more. It means that the school library is the center of entire study and education material for the teacher and student is focused on it. It is urgent to make the standard of the school library In order to cope with the new education and information environments. And especially it is very important to make a plan about the location and scale of the school library to improve the quality of the children's studying activity. The location of the school library is decided under consideration of the relationship with other room of school house and the proper scale of it is between 2.5units and 7.0units of classroom based on the number of class.
Lately due to the sudden growth of the construction of an apartment complex in domestic market, many construction companies are eager to provide various public facilities to increase the apartment distribution rate. An introduction of a fitness center is popularized as a part of such development. There has been a continuing development in a private fitness based on analyzing the user's data. However a public fitness is quite different from the private in terms of a user's classification, preference rate, the pattern of use, and location which requires a different facility plan. Nevertheless, all these days a public fitness in an apartment house has been developed without a specific facility plan based on relevant materials. It is worried that such development would cause the facilities not to function as appropriate resident facilities and sink to idle ones. Therefore the purpose of this paper is to make the standard considered in facility planning in future and the base to guide an applying method. In the paper the present condition of fitness centers inside apartment houses has been compared to analyze the progress of the existing facilities and the appropriateness of the organization and the structure division. The result of the research shows that public resident facilities is not the place to perform passive role for fixed activities but one to form a community through the human relationship based on the facility. Therefore a fitness center inside the apartment complex have to be designed to provide service and leisure space as one of main community facilities for residents. To obtain this purpose, when choosing facilities of an apartment complex, first of all the residents' standard of living, apartment size, residents' distinction rate of age and sex, the needs of the times should be fully considered Secondly, the size of each facility space have to be decided based on the practical data analysis in facility use such as space preference, average staying time. Also, future living culture requires the change of the function and space according to the change of social values, so continuing research and data analysis are required to related to fitness center inside an apartment complex in order to present systematic approaching method and the paper will be expected to be a little step toward it.
To plan more effective exhibitions, exhibitions should be evaluated and verified through research. This is Important in that it will present measures for improving shortcomings in exhibition goals and procedures; and it will also provide new ideas and goals for future exhibition plans. The purposes of this study are to investigate the applicability of evaluation methods by organizing related theories systematically through a literature review and to provide more practical and valuable information about the methods by applying them to actual museums. For this study, the National Science Museum was investigated since it uses various themes and exhibition methods, compared with other science museums. Exhibition structures and presentation formats were first analyzed, and then the methods of trace and observation were used to investigate how visitors use the museum. Surveys were also conducted at two different times. The results of the analyses showed that problems of exhibits, arrangement methods of exhibition space, or guide systems are more prominent than those of the presentation format itself. Based on these results, measures for improvement are suggested as follows: First, new formats of exhibition halls using new window frames or holes should be explored to stimulate visitors' curiosity and to lead viewing traffic flow in the museum. Second, in presenting representative exhibits, a gate can be installed at each exhibition area, and representative exhibits are displayed by the gate or between exhibition booths. Third, if a small space is provided at the end of each exhibition area, it can be used to give an orientation on the next exhibition or used as a resting place.
The advancements of the society aggravate ecological problems, and it is at a point where our living environment is under a serious threat. To resolve such problems, environmental friendly design concepts are evolving through various naming conventions such as conservation of global environment, environmental symbiosis, friendly environmental, nature-friendly, environmental friendly type, green building and eco-construction. Accordingly, in this research, for the purposes of healthy living environmental construction, nature as the subject of its design and highly praised as a new design arena, floral art design theory and its functions, as well as its examples are explored. With the Information available, I was able to confirm that, in interior decorating, floral art design is used as a tool for expressing environmental friendly space, and gradually its necessity and the scope of its application have been broadened. Therefore, utilization of floral art design is to fabricate environmental friendly interior space; and it is expected as a substitute for accomplishing green amenity, and its study should continue for the years to come.
Recently, it is not too much to say that the world of hospital architecture in Korea is in a time of transition that undergo big changes. Each hospital .pursues their transformation not only for patiences' changing demands on medical services but to cope with rapid environmental changes that pouring like boundless competition, opening tendency and to get an advantage of competition to attract patiences with other hospitals. It is because national expectations and standards on medical services have risen and they are not satisfied with hospitals that run for doctors and medical care that served technically any more. With rising interests in health, it is emphasized not the functions of hospitals to prevent diseases but the purpose of treatment and securing other facilities according to rising economical incomes except medical facilities.
This study could begin with the improvement of computer graphic technology The graphic technology is the standards of computer technology level and up-to-date technology intensive. Above all, the technology of virtual reality has developed rapidly and the development of the program has changed from professional one only for the experts to easy of access ones for the space designers. Moreover, the program which major internet user's can experience the virtual model has been made, as the development of virtual reality technology that is based on the web. These graphic technology and the development of the web helped to extract human experiences on the space design step. However, to find the meeting point with real recognition is not easy though the virtual reality technology develops. Because the real space is made up of various senses that people feel in their surroundings. But, this study was possible because most of the space recognition is based on the visual organ, even though it can't satisfy all sensible factors that we feel in reality. Therefore, the significant of this study is the standards and criteria of evaluation, the technological proposal, expecting to make more advanced alternative design than before.
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