This study attempted to identify the type of social network interventions and barriers to implement them. Few empirical studies have been conducted concerning social network interventions as professional activities. Although social support and social network interventions have been noted as important practice concepts, the existing studies ten us little about how social workers perceive and experience social network interventions. This study used seven types of social network interventions identified in the previous studies. And based on "obstacles to social network interventions scale" developed by Biegel, Tracy & Song (1995), a twenty-two item scale was developed by the authors. The results from this study show that social workers little implement social network interventions such as community empowerment, family caregiver enhancement, and support group, and that they perceive organization characteristics and profession-oriented culture as important obstacles to implement social network interventions. The findings from this study suggest various strategies to address these barriers.
Violence against women includes sexual violence, domestic violence, trafficking, etc. It is a serious problem that violates women's rights and basic freedom. In Korea, with the enactment of the laws on sexual violence and domestic violence in the 1990s, counseling centers and protective facilities for the victims began to be established and have been rapidly increasing in number recently. The purpose of this research was to investigate the current status of the counseling services with a focus on their linkage function. 78 out of 109 counselors working in the counseling centers for sexual and domestic violence throughout Korea responded to a mail survey. The questions included the general characteristics of the centers and the counselors, the structural, relationship and process dimensions of linkage function, and the subjective and objective aspects of the degree of linkage. The findings of the analysis highlighted the following problems. First, the counseling centers played limited role in serving the victims of violence due to lack of resources in the service network. Second, the linkage of services existed on a relatively small scale which was mostly based upon informal and unstructured relationship. Third, according to the multivariate analysis, the existence of potential partner agencies, the effort of the line staff to initiate the linkage relationship and mutual cooperation between agencies determined the degree of linkage among services. These findings suggest implications for establishing a more effective system to protect the victims of violence.
In the last two decades, the welfare states have undergone the changes of restructuring towards two ways. One is a restructuring of workfare and the other is a restructuring of the gender model of welfare state. In Korea, the workfare is reflecting on the DJ Welfarism 'Productive Welfare', but the gender model has a little effect on the public policies. By the way, It is imported that has the gender perspective in approaching the self-supporting program in the public assistance representing of the DJ Welfarism. Because almost 60% of the beneficiaries of the program are women. The Gender-mainstreaming strategy criticizes for the laws, the public policies, the public programs that considered gender-neutral or gender-blinded, and then complete the equality between women and men through the modification or development of those. The approach of Gender-mainstreaming is very important strategy for not only women who are self-reliance recipient but also successful settlement of self-supporting program. Nowadays that program is not execute yet. Then we hardly have information about recipients and the results that expected from that. At this point of gender-mainstreaming, this report suggest the strategy to development and settlement of the self-supporting program in the basics of analysis for the low-income unemployed and the government policy response to unemployment. For the gender models of the self-supporting program, the most important thing is throwing the male breadwinner model and adoption the dural-earner model (the gender model) about that program. Then we must produce gender-statistics data, develop programs for public work, job replacement, job training, evaluating system, etc. with gender perspective.
When parents as primary care takers to the mentally disabled adult are no longer taking care of their care-needed offsprings because of their own death or illness, instead themselves. who take care of their offsprings with the mental disability? Therefore, 'permanency planning' is very important for reduction of parents' care burden and social integration of mentally disabled adults. Accordingly, this study aims to find out factors which are related to permanency planning for adults with the mentally disability For the purpose of the study, 192 parents of the adult with the mental illness and mental retardation were conducted a survey regarding type of permanency planning, and its related factors including social functioning level of the mentally disabled, care burden, parents' self-perception of being aged, help from offspring without mental disability, social support, and financial ability. Furthermore, this study examined correlation between these factors and residential planning. Results obtained by the study were as follows: 1) 51% of the parents are having a plan for institution and most parents want other family member to take care for financial planning for their mentally disabled offsprings. 2) As a result of multiple regression for finding out factors which affect parents' permanency planning, social functioning level of the mentally disabled, parents' self-perception of being aged, help from offspring without mental disability, social support, and financial ability were statistically significant influenced factors, which has 23.3% of explanatory power. 3) As a result of step-wise multiple regression, financial ability, parents' self-perception of being aged, and help from offspring without mental disability were the most powerful influenced factors for permanency planning. 4) In case of having a plan for residential types-which are institution and community living-, parents who have a plan for the mentally disabled offsprings' future residence as community living than institution have the offsprings with more social functioning and also have more help from offspring without mental disability. Therefore, this study concluded that welfare policy for mental health and the handicapped which secure various types of community living facilities and income security is strongly needed. At the same time, mental health profession is needed to have more active interest and intervention for permanency planning for their adult clients and parents.
It is recognized that one of the major issues in jail management is responding to the needs of a growing number of inmates with mental health problems. The purpose of this study was to assess the nature and severity of mental health problems among inmate population. The mental health status of 1,500 (1,337 responded) inmates of the 30 prisons located in nationwide area was examined using Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). And the scores on MMPI were examined in relation to some offender characteristics such as type of offence, treatment classification, frequence of discipline. The result indicates that the percentage of inmate population with scores over 70 on every sub-categories of the scale is higher than that of general populations reflecting high rate of deviation from average normal mental health. It seems likely that many of inmates are in need of specific mental health treatment services. The nature and severity of mental health problems varies depending on offender characteristics above mentioned. It is also notable that the inmates are heterogeneous in terms of mental health status, and that severe offences such as robbery, assault, and rape or sexual assault are highly related to the scores on 'antisocial' sub category. The study also reveals that there is a relation, if not causal, between mental health problem and frequency of discipline while in prison. Under basis of these findings, this study concludes that a number of inmates in our prison have mental health problems requiring mental health treatment services and suggests five key steps to effectively respond to the prevalence of mental health problems in prison at both the level of the clinical interventions and at the level of system structure and organization. Specially, the importance of collaborative service strategies of the correctional system with mental health systems are underlined.
This Study concerns therapeutic effects of the Therapy Dog Assisted Program (TDAP) on autistic children. Subjects participating in the study are two groups of Korean elementary schoolboys of the same age (twelve years old) : an experimental group and a control1ed group of equal number of children (sex children in total). Thirteen different sessions of TDAP interventions were performed over a three-month period. Evidence from the present study indicates that the children participating in the TDAP program achieved a greater degree of improvement in their social interactions as well as in their individual activities in comparison with the preTDAP counterparts. The present study also demonstrates significant changes in the TDAP group in comparison with those in the non-participating control group. The results from this study supports that the proposition that the Therapy Dog Assisted Program can be applied effectively in treating people experiencing severely damaged social functioning. Such a program may serve as an effective treatment modality in a variety of clinical social work settings. The questions of long-term effects of the TDAP intervention and possible interference with other behavioral side-effects on the part of the intervened subjects need to be addressed in future studies.
The conventional framework of welfare politics, based on class concepts, tends to fail in explaining the recent social changes. Theoretical response from the social science diverges into two blocs. One is the postmodernist approach that denies possibility of structural cleavage; the other is the alternative trial that seeks to find various kinds of cleavages. The former approach is to be rejected because there is few empirical supports for it. The latter is too sparse to be applied to the studies of welfare politics that requires a comprehensive analysis. This study starts from critical investigation of such approaches, aiming at providing a theoretical framework that combines merits of existing studies on welfare politics. The theoretical framework of three statuses of welfare rights and duties, which is to be presented as an alternative to the conventional class counterpart, does not only underscore the expansion of welfare rights but also the burden of welfare duties. Hence, it can comprehensively subsume complex existence of interest cleavages of welfare politics. To make a long story short, individual interest, related to the welfare state, will effect individual attitudes toward the welfare state and their ways of political support.
The purpose of this study is to analyse the realities of fundraising and distribution of the local community chest in Korea. Until now little empirical study has been conducted concerning the culture of giving. Using the sample of 900 citizens selected from 7 cities and another sample of 230 from policy-making group in 16 local community chest, this study analysed empirical1y how the capacity, motivation and opportunity of the prospective donors are related to giving and the current issues of fundraising and distribution. According to the results of analysis, the level of motivation in giving culture is very low. Also it was found that religious beliefs is the most important motivating factor in giving. Participation in volunteer activities is another important factor to influencing giving. Some effective fundraising strategies are suggested including strengthening the motivation of prospective donors, workplace donation and joint-fundraising with religious organization or other foundation, coordinating fundraising activities between the community chest and other social welfare agencies. Program-oriented distribution and change of some distribution standards are stressed as an effective distribution strategy.
This paper describes the results from a prevention program for low-income mothers of children under the age of 13 aiming at the positive change on parental attitudes toward their children, parenting satisfaction and attitudes toward the use of corporal punishment. The program duration was 8 weeks and consisted of two parts: parent education on understanding parent-child relationship, communication skill improvement, techniques of problem solving, non-punitive child rearing techniques; and the recognition and use of existing social support network including networking of the neighborhood resources. The pre-post test control group design was employed. The results are: the program is effective on bringing some positive changes on an three variables: parental attitudes toward their children, parenting satisfaction and attitudes toward the use of corporal punishment. Increased social support was found to have significant positive effect on the above variables except the attitudes toward corporal punishment. To decrease the risk factors as well as to increase the protective factors of child abuse, well designed parent education and social support program is recommended on every community level.
Government provides financial support to the 74 Home help service centers, 36 Day care service centers, and 18 Short stay service centers for the elderly. The number of service centers that receive financial support from the government is far less to meet the potential demand for the community care services. This paper applies cost-benefit analysis to evaluate the net social benefit of the services provided by the 3 types of the community care service centers sponsored by the government to justify the expansion of the government support. The benefit is calculated as community care services are provided privately in the market without financial support from the government. The potential market price is regarded as the benefit or value provided to the elderly. The price levels that potential users are willing to pay for these services are surveyed in the Census for the Elderly by the KIHASA, 1998. The market prices for the community services are generated by equating limited amount of service supply, as in number of users in one year in 3 types of community care service centers, and potential demand for the services. Market prices are multiplied to the number of users of 3 types of community centers to get the total benefit. Total operating cost of the community care service centers is regarded as cost. According to the cost-benefit analysis, Home-help service centers generated net social benefit of 137 billion Won, Day Care service centers generated 15 billion Won, and Short stay service centers generated 6 billion Won. Significant amount of net social benefit indicates that government should increase level of financial support to these service centers.
Although economic crisis is allaying in Korea, the more effective unempoyment policies are requried in this present. So in this paper, we analyze the effects of relevant factors, especially job search behaviors of the unempyoed on reemployment and look for implications to the improvement of unemployment policies. Major findings are as follows: First, we find that job search behaviors, especially the effectiveness of job search activity and job search attitude are significantly different between the unemployed and the re-employed. Second, we find that the variables of job search behaviors - the effectiveness of job search activity (number of job offers), job search attitude (reservation wage), positive use of job search methods - significantly affect the re-employment of the unemployed from logistic regression analysis results. These findings' implications are as follows: First, the approach based on search theory may be useful in finding out determinants of re-employment. Second, the effects of job search behaviors on the reemployment and their implications should be actively accepted to policy makers in order to improve the effectiveness of un-employment policies. It meams that the effects of job search behaviors must be carefully considered in making or restructuring unemployment policies and their administrations.
From Foucault's Perspective of power, this study is trying to illuminate the characteristics and limitations of 'empowerment' which is widely accepted as a central value and practice skill of social work. Notwithstanding the superficial consensus on the empowerment, the author shows that it is a confusing concept with contrasting expectations and conflicting methodologies or only a wishful rhetorical jargon. Furthermore, he argues that the empowerment is not just a value-free intervention skill working outside the ruling power but a ruling-discourse or power-mechanism of a liberal society which makes citizens responsible voluntarily. For a theoretical background for these arguments, the 2nd chapter reviews Foucault's theory of power. The 1st part of the 3rd chapter summarizes the historical background of empowerment practice and its methodological characteristics and meanings, the 2nd part reviews the existing critics on the conceptual and practical limitations of empowerment, and the last part reveals, based upon Foucault's theory of power, that the empowerment is a typical mode of ruling power in liberal societies. The author expects that this study may warn the moral and intellectual superiority complex of social work discourse and help stimulate the ethical sensibility and responsibility in social work practice.
The purpose of this study is to measure the home helpers' knowledge about facts on aging and attitude toward the elderly in Korea, and to find out the variables that may influence their attitude. Four hundred and thirty eight home helpers working in a home help agency were given the questionnaire containing the Kyung San Facts on Aging Quiz to measure the level of knowledge about aging and Yoon (1988)'s scale to find the direction of attitude toward the elderly. The results of this study are analyzed as follows: (1) The home helpers' level of knowledge about aging was 59.1%, which was lower than nurses' level (65.0%) and social workers' level (65.3%). And the paid home helpers' level of knowledge about aging was 61.2%, which was significantly different from the unpaid home helpers' level (57.0%). (2) Using 5 points scale, mean of home helpers' attitude toward the elderly was 2.56 (51.2%), which was different from nurses' attitude (40.6%) and social workers' attitude (62.0%). And the paid home helpers' attitude toward the elderly's action (29.9%) was significantly different from the unpaid home helpers' attitude (32.6%). (3) Using multiple regression analysis, the home helpers' levels of knowledge about aging was the most significant predictor to explain the home helpers' attitude toward the elderly. The other variables that are also statistically significant predictors of the home helpers' attitude were sex, voluntary experience for the elderly, age, city size, and personal experience with the elderly. Especially the significant predictors to explain the paid home helpers' attitude were their levels of knowledge about aging and city size. On the other hand, the significant predictors to explain the unpaid home helpers' attitude were sex and age. Based on the research results, implications for practice and future research are discussed, and education methods for making home helpers' attitude toward the elderly more positive are also suggested.
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