The implications of bank-specific risks and macroeconomic risks on the growth, profitability, and stability of Islamic and conventional banks are examined and compared in this article. The study also investigates whether corporate governance mitigates the effects of both bank-specific and macroeconomic risks on Islamic and conventional banks' development, profitability, and stability. For the period 2007-2019, we examined a panel data set of 22 banks in Pakistan, including both Islamic and conventional banks. We discovered considerable evidence that both bank-specific risks and macroeconomic risks have negative effects on the growth, profitability, and stability of Pakistani banks using a dynamic panel data estimator, the two-step Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) approach. Furthermore, the findings show that bank-specific and macroeconomic risks have different consequences in both types of banking. The impacts of liquidity risk, operational risk, capital risk, inflation risk, and exchange rate risk are higher for Islamic banks than for conventional banks. Conventional banks, on the other hand, are more vulnerable to credit risk and interest rate risk. Finally, the findings show that good corporate governance reduces the negative consequences of both categories of risks on bank development, profitability, and stability. This is true for Islamic and conventional banks alike.
The paper addresses the importance of redesigning strategies for resilient and sustainable regional economic development - by applying strategic approaches to free economic zones for the digital economy. The purpose of the paper is to provide a broad comparative perspective on developed versus developing country efforts to use free economic zone programs to enhance various economic and social objectives. First, the paper introduces the chronicle experiences of free economic zone programs in South Korea and mainland China - developed versus developing economies. The main results of the analysis indicate that (1) achieving the goals and objectives of free economic zones is challenging over time; (2) trying to upgrade the technical component, develop knowledge-based and eco-friendly new industries, or value-added to the economy through free economic zone policies is even challenging; and (3) incentives and other program-specific variables are highly context-specific and not structurally correlated with free economic zone performance. In addition, the paper shows that the initial conception of the role of free economic zones has undergone significant change as individual countries have tried to enhance the contributions and avoid damages from incorporating free economic zones into their development strategy respectively, over time.
This study uses the panel probit model to investigate and evaluate the relationship between exchange rate regimes, political stability, and carbon dioxide during currency crises. To understand currency crisis times, we study a panel dataset of seven South Asian nations that contain annual observations from 1996 to 2020. Furthermore, we created the EMPI exchange market pressure indicator to detect crises. Our results strongly suggested that fixed exchange rate is negatively associated with currency crises, with good regulatory quality and better effective governments. Simultaneously, the floating exchange rate is positively related to the currency crises in those countries where the rule of law has less adequately flowed. However, CO2, exports, and interest rates are buoyantly associated with crises. The floating exchange rate, the rule of law, exports, and interest rate are associated positively and contribute more prone to the crisis episodes. Negatively associated variables contributed less amid crises episodes: fixed exchange rate regime, government effectiveness, and regulatory quality. Meanwhile, CO2 has a positive relationship with a currency crisis and contributes more likelihood to the probability of a currency crisis. Countries that adopted the fixed exchange rates with effective governments and regulatory quality faced more minor currency crises.
This study uses monthly data from January 2009 to December 2020 to examine the effectiveness of foreign currency intervention and its influence on monetary policy in Vietnam using a Hierarchical Bayesian VAR model. The findings suggest that foreign exchange intervention has little influence on the exchange rate level or exports, but it can significantly minimize exchange rate volatility. As a result, we can demonstrate that the claim that Vietnam is a currency manipulator is false. As well, the forecast error variance decomposition results reveal that interest rate differentials mainly determine the exchange rate level instead of foreign exchange intervention. Moreover, the findings suggest that foreign exchange intervention is not effectively sterilized in Vietnam. Inflation is caused by an increase in international reserves, which leads to an expansion of the money supply and a decrease in interest rates. Although the impact of foreign exchange intervention grows in tandem with the growth of international reserves, if the sterilizing capacity does not improve, rising foreign exchange intervention will instead result in inflation. Finally, we use a rolling window approach to examine the time-varying effect of foreign exchange intervention.
The relationship between income inequality and capital account openness is empirically investigated in this study, where macroeconomic variables have opposing effects. Panel data used in the study from the KAOPEN Index and World Bank consists of 28 Asian countries and has been examined; it contains annual observations from 1970 to 2018. The data is examined using a random-effect model based on GMM estimates. Income inequality and capital account openness are positively and significantly related, according to our findings. Overall, the findings imply that increasing income gaps reduced capital investment in nations with large discrepancies. The growing economic discrepancy is being caused by the rich's increasing income share at the expense of the poor. In Asia, inward capital account openness exacerbates income inequality, while outward capital account openness exacerbates it. As a result, income inequality slows economic growth, leading to inflation, unemployment, and increased government spending in several Asian countries. Our control factors, GDP, and other secondary school enrolments, all had a statistically significant negative relationship with income inequality. Income disparity has a positive and statistically significant association with government spending, inflation, population, trade openness, and unemployment. Income disparity has a negative association with capital account openness, gross domestic product, and secondary school enrollment.
The study intends to investigate a short-run and a long-run causality among money, income, and prices in the Keynesian and Monetarists framework. This study emphasizes the importance of unrecorded money, which exists alongside legal monetary assets and plays a dual function in determining economic prosperity. The underground economy, which is a hidden component of aggregate economic activity, is determined using Tanzi's monetary approach (Tanzi, 1980). This research uses a time series of annual data from 1990 to 2019 for this purpose. The data is extracted from the World Bank database for the monetary and development indicators. The study keeping in view the trending nature in data follows a unit root testing followed by the Autoregressive Distributive Lag Model (ARDL) to assess the long and short-run dynamics of causality among the variables. In both the pricing and income equations, the study finds a significant level link among the variables; however, there is no evidence of the presence of a level association in the money equation. The short-run causal relationship provides evidence of bi-directional causation between the supply of money and national income. The outcome of this study advise that though the view point of both the Monetarist and Keynesian school holds in both short and long run, however, in Pakistan only the Monetarists' role of money supply and income holds in Pakistan. This evidence would be of precise interest to the policy-makers.
The aim of this study is to see how government spending on education, health, and social security affects ratios in Indonesia. The third sector has a critical role to play in reducing the dependency ratio. It also aims to lower unemployment and poverty rates. This study uses the GMM panel data model. This model can determine the dynamic response of the ratio that comes from a number of variables. This study uses data from 33 provinces from 2010 to 2018. The results show that government spending in the education and health sectors has a positive effect on the dependency ratio, both in the short and long term. Social security has a significant effect on the dependency ratio in the long term, but not in the short term. Government spending in the education sector and health sector and social security sector have a positive and significant effect on disease and illness. The study's findings show a high level of poverty with a large standard deviation. The high ratio value is due to the large number of restrictions placed on a number of regions. Each province has made a significant contribution to overcoming these challenges, particularly in terms of the comparative ratio.
The necessity for a theoretical explanation of the negative association between capital structure and company performance is identified in this study. By focusing on accounting metrics of business performance, this study is the first to investigate the moderating effects of firm size between these variables using logical reasoning. Due to the possibility of endogeneity, this study applies a two-step system GMM approach with data from 285 non-financial enterprises from PSX over a 21-year period. For robustness, we employed pooled OLS, fixed effect, and two-step difference GMM. Our data show that leverage has a detrimental impact on business performance, with size acting as a moderator in the same direction. Our analysis empirically supports some studies while refuting others due to inconsistent results in the literature, but no study has theoretically justified their negative link. We believe that because larger companies have more and easier access to capital markets, they focus primarily on the amount of return, even if the investment is inefficient in terms of the rate of return, but small businesses do not. As a result of this thinking, firm managers' performance suffers as a result of leverage.
The goal of this study was to see how big data analytics (BDA) affected external audit procedures in the Middle East. The measurement model and structural model of this investigation were evaluated using PLS-SEM (3.3.3). The study sample members were (361) auditors who work in auditing companies in Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Bahrain, Egypt, Lebanon, and Iraq. A questionnaire was chosen to the study sample members electronically, and the study sample members were (5093) auditors who work in auditing companies in Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Bahrain, Egypt, Lebanon, and Iraq. To choose the sample, the researchers used a stratified random sampling procedure. The findings show that BDA has an impact on audit procedures at all phases of the auditing process, where it contributes to information delivery that helps auditors understand the client's internal and external environments, which in turn influences the choice to accept the audit assignment. Furthermore, by providing essential information, BDA enables auditors to simply run analytical procedures, estimate client risks, and understand and evaluate the internal control system. As a result, auditors must develop their abilities in the BDA field, as it adds to the creation of additional value for both auditors and their clients.
This study aims to obtain empirical evidence regarding the link between tax avoidance (TA) and the readability of financial statements. This is a quantitative research using Ordinary Least Squares regression analysis which is then processed using STATA 14.0. A total of 278 companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange during the period 2017-2019 is the data of this study. In detecting TA in a company, this study uses the ETR and CashETR and for the measurement of financial statement readability, this study uses gunning fog index and length of the document. The findings of this study suggest that tax avoidance and clear financial statements are mutually exclusive in the sense that when tax avoidance is practiced, companies will tend to conceal the information conveyed by financial statements. In other words, it is concluded that the more a company engages in tax avoidance, the lower the readability of the company's financial statements. This study provides in-depth evidence that tax avoidance is indirectly related to the disclosure of information by the company. Users of financial statements will realize that the company seeks to make disclosures that are in their best interests to avoid their tax avoidance strategy being detected.
The goal of this study is to see if there's a relationship between employees' ambidextrous behaviors and macro facilitators of organizational empowerment (such as control over workplace decisions, dynamic structural framework, and fluidity in information sharing) (exploration and exploitation). To acquire data, this study uses survey methods. A cross-sectional survey was done to collect information from academics at five large public sector universities in Pakistan's Balochistan province. Control over workplace decisions boosts academics' engagement in exploration and exploitation, while a dynamic structural framework merely increases their engagement in exploration, according to the findings based on data from 240 respondents (n = 240). The findings also show that information sharing flexibility has little effect on exploration and exploitation behaviors. In conclusion, the results of this study imply that organizational empowerment is critical for academics' ambidextrous behaviors to thrive. As a result, specific organizational facilitators of empowerment (such as control over workplace decisions and a dynamic structural framework) are advised in higher education institutions. This research is significant because it develops and tests a model that explains hitherto unexplored connections between macro facilitators of organizational empowerment and employees' ambidextrous behaviors. In addition, the research provides important insights for managerial practice and research.
The goal of the study was to see how quality management (QMA), strategy (STR), and innovative capability (INC) influence the competitive advantage of a Thai information communication technology (ICT) firm (COA). The researchers collected 431 surveys from Thailand's owners and managers employed in ICT enterprises from the beginning of June 2021 to the end of September 2021using diverse sample strategies. A questionnaire with an index of item-objective congruence (IOC) value of 0.60-1.00 and a reliability value of 0.92-0.96 was used as the research tool. Participants in the survey were requested to fill out a seven-level opinion survey posted on Google Forms. A latent variable structural equation model (SEM) path analysis using LISREL 9.1 was used for the four latent variables, 31 manifest variables, and the five hypotheses testing. The analysis showed that all three causal variables positively affected COA, which had a total effect (TE) R2 value = 80% when combined with the other latent variables. Moreover, the values for the latent variables when ranked by total effect (TE) were STR, QMA, and INC with TE values of 0.95, 0.89, and 0.25, respectively. Finally, there were very strong influences from COA to STR (0.95), INC to QMA (0.86), and STR to QMA (0.71).
The impact of State management factors on transfer pricing activities of foreign direct investment enterprises in Vietnam is examined in this study. This adds to the empirical evidence on factors affecting transfer pricing activities of foreign-invested enterprises in Vietnam. A questionnaire survey of officials directly involved in the inspection of transfer pricing activities is used as the research method. The study yielded 226 questionnaires. The author chose 210 questionnaires after deleting those that were ineligible due to a large number of blank cells. The following procedures are used to process the data from the satisfied votes: Cronbach's Alpha test to measure the reliability of the scale; Exploratory factor analysis to break down data into smaller sets of variables to discover the underlying structure; Descriptive analysis to describe the underlying quantitative features of the data; Correlation and regression analysis to evaluate the relationship between variables with the support of SPSS 25 software. Inspection pressure, professional inspector qualifications, and inspector role, State control organization, inspector professionalism, legal corridor on transfer pricing control, macroeconomic situation, and investment environment have a positive impact on state management on transfer price operations, according to research findings. The author has provided solutions to increase the efficiency of State management on transfer pricing operations of foreign-invested businesses in Vietnam based on the research findings.
Despite the importance of the insurance business for financial and economic development, few studies have looked at the factors that influence its growth. This research adds to the body of knowledge by empirically examining the impact of numerous factors on the development of the insurance business in 15 Middle East and North African (MENA) countries from 2000 to 2017. The study looks at macroeconomic, demographic, and institutional factors as potential drivers of the insurance industry's growth, with the insurance premium as a percentage of GDP as the dependent variable. All variables are stationary at the first difference, according to the IPS panel unit root test. The Pedroni residual cointegration test, Kao residual cointegration test, and Johansen-Fisher panel cointegration tests are then used to look for long-run associations. The cointegration tests strongly suggest that the insurance premium and the various variables have long-run correlations. Findings from the Fully-Modified OLS imply that GDP per capita, gross capital formation, and the KOF economic globalization index have a positive long-term impact on the insurance business. The insurance business is also driven by combating corruption and the rule of law. The population and regulatory quality, on the other hand, have no significant impact.
The study aims to investigate Lebanese-Chinese relations within the framework of the Belt and Road Initiative. Lebanon formally joined the effort in 2017; this paper emphasizes Lebanon's geostrategic importance. The paper presents an assessment of the investment risks in Lebanon, which is considered an economically unstable country with a volatile security situation, with many internal and external political hurdles. The paper refers to the obstacles and challenges that the Chinese investor may face in Lebanese society. The study employs qualitative descriptive analysis to address the status of Chinese investment in Lebanon and the consequences of this partnership; the paper examines previous research related to the Belt and Road Initiative and the Lebanese political, security, and economic situation literature. Due to the deteriorating security situation, external intervention, and the economic crisis, the results reveal that Lebanon is not a top investment priority for China, which is a big impediment to China entering into economic cooperation with Lebanon. The findings of this study suggest that the Lebanese government should adopt an anti-corruption policy to build confidence for the Chinese investor, reduce unnecessary public spending, and hold a national dialogue to build confidence among the Lebanese parties.
The purpose of this study is to look at the precise direction and magnitude of cultural elements such as education, gender, power distance, and risk-taking proclivity on ethical decision-making. Data was collected from 194 interviewees in three groups: general business students, accounting major students, and professional auditors in Vietnam. The path analysis is used to test the impact of cultural factors on ethical awareness, ethical judgment, and ethical intention in different dubious scenarios at the personal level as independent variables, intermediate variables, and moderating variables. The metric is the percentage of respondents who believe a particular behavior is unethical based on a set of ethical principles. The researchers used SPSS AMOS software to conduct a confirmatory factor survey to evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity of latent variables. The results show differences between the two groups of students and professionals on these measures, suggesting that all of the four factors have an effect on ethical decision-making. Based on research results, some recommendations are proposed related to the four factors to improve the ethics of future generations of auditors in Vietnam. This study also contributes to the theory of culture in particular and cultural interference in general in the field of accounting-auditing in Vietnam in the process of international integration.
Unexpected events, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, can occur at any time and have an influence on all countries. The COVID-19 pandemic has infected more than 200 nations, including Indonesia. As a result of this phenomenon, Indonesia's state revenue system will need to be adjusted. Therefore, the goal of this research is to see if there are any differences in taxation in Indonesia as a result of the COVID-19 incident. The data was collected using the base years of 2018, 2019, and 2020. The information came from the financial statements of companies in the industrial sector that are publicly traded on the Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX). Purposive sampling was used, and there were 54 companies represented in the samples that met the criterion. In this study, the difference test was used as an analytical technique. According to the findings, there was no difference in the pattern of tax avoidance between pre-COVID-19 in 2019 and during the COVID-19 period in terms of leverage and fixed asset intensity. It occurred because the tax avoidance policy was implemented as a short-term fiscal strategy to ensure the company's existence. Finally, because these findings were restricted to the Indonesian environment, their generalizability was limited.
The COVID-19 pandemic has hurt the economy and negatively impacted all enterprises' financial performance. The COVID-19 pandemic has put a strain on global manufacturing capacity and supply chains, and it is also the pandemic that has given up new opportunities for the logistics industry to develop as e-commerce has developed. By analyzing the financial performance of logistic firms listed on the Vietnam Stock Exchange, this study tries to quantify those consequences. A total of 114 logistic companies were included in the study's sample. The Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test was performed to test the difference between some ratios in 2019 and 2020. This study found that the financial performance of 114 logistic firms listed on the Vietnam stock exchange has not improved. The data show that during the COVID-19 pandemic, the leverage ratio increased while the profitability and efficiency ratios decreased. The liquidity ratio did not show any significant differences. On the contrary, these businesses' performance, such as returns on assets, receivable turnover, and leverage, has decreased. The COVID-19 had a global impact on supply chains, therefore export activity and international transportation were badly hampered, with only a few domestic logistic enterprises growing.
The purpose of this research is to see if liquidity, non-performing assets, sensitivity, and efficiency have an impact on the profitability and capital of Indonesian state-owned banks. A random sample of public banks was used in this study. The data was collected from the first quarter of 2014 to the fourth quarter of 2019. Purposive sampling was used as the sampling technique. According to the findings of this study, liquidity (LDR) had a significant positive effect on capital but had no significant effect on profitability. Productive asset quality as proxied by the ACA and NPL ratios did not affect profitability or capital. As for the sensitivity ratio, which was proxied by the ratio of NOP and IRR, there were differences in behavior. Sensitivity had no significant impact on profitability or capital, while NOP had a significant positive impact on capital but not on profitability. In terms of efficiency, both OER and FBIR had a significant effect on profitability and capital, although in different directions. OER has a significant negative impact on both profitability and capital. Fee-based income (FBIR) had a significant positive impact on capital, but it had the opposite effect on profitability.
The purpose of this study was to find out what factors influence the preparation of financial statements in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) for Vietnamese businesses. The survey included 150 enterprises, including parent companies of state-owned economic groups, parent companies that are listed companies, large-scale public companies that are unlisted parent companies, and enterprises with 100 percent foreign direct investment, that will apply IFRS voluntarily from the year 2022 and switch to the mandatory application from the year 2025 (Ministry of Finance, 2016). The survey was carried out with the help of the Google Form tool, and the data was processed using EFA and regression analysis methods on the SPSS 22.0 software. The findings show, for enterprises in Vietnam, that six factors influence the preparation of financial statements in accordance with IFRS, ranked in order of influence from high to low: (i) Related party requirements; (ii) Professional qualifications of accountants; (iii) Roles of enterprise managers; (iv) Forms of capital ownership in enterprises, (v) Institutional regulations, and (vi) Operational characteristics of the enterprise. In addition, the study also shows that, for enterprises in Vietnam, the requirements of related parties are an important factor to promote the preparation of the financial statements of enterprises according to IFRS.
This study aims to analyze the livelihood resources and income diversification of informal recyclers in the Mekong River Delta (MRD). The multiple linear regression model was applied to determine income diversification and total household income with the sustainable livelihood analysis framework developed by the United Kingdom Department for International Development (2000), including human resources, physical resources, natural resources, financial resources, and social resources. The results indicated that up to 25% of itinerant waste buyers worked on average more than 7.3 hours/day, which was higher than the urban near-poor level regulated by the Vietnam government. The results of the regression model revealed that total households' income was affected by the factors of health status, gender, urban location type 1, the amount of potential savings, and informal credit participation, while the factors of health status, urban location, the amount of potential savings, and informal credit participation have the effect of diversifying farm household income. Thus, if the informal waste recycling sector is supported and regulated by proper government management, it will not only help poor households diversify their income, but it will also help poor households diversify their income, particularly women's income, which is vulnerable and lower than male income in the MRD.
The main purpose of this study is to analyze the adoption and use of mobile banking by university students and its potential determining factors. This study comprises 259 completed questionnaires answered through an online survey method. The respondents are Mongolian university students who have experience in using mobile banking applications. Young adults rely heavily on technology and are more likely to adopt mobile banking applications; however, there is limited research on the acceptance and use of mobile banking applications among this cohort, particularly from the perspective of Central Asian developing economies. Through using the SmartPLS 3.3 software, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to evaluate the construct and structural equation modeling. The main results indicate that performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, and facilitating conditions are the main constructs related to mobile banking technology acceptance; perceived security positively impacts perceived trust. Moreover, perceived trust is the construct of the use of mobile banking technology by the university students who responded to the questionnaire. However, the relationship between perceived risk and use behavior was not accepted.
Creating a new retailing environment to meet the seamless experience requirements of consumers is a challenge for Omnichannel-related businesses. Based on the "appraisal-emotion-response" chain, the purpose of this research is to explore the psychological mechanism of omnichannel integration influencing customer retention and the moderating effect of customer showrooming experience. This research uses a structural equation model in partial least square software to analyze a two-stage survey (Study 1: n = 210; Study 2: n = 342) conducted in China. The results show that channel control experience has three dimensions: perceived channel attribute familiarity, channel type matching, and cross-channel access convenience; consistent interactive experience has two dimensions: information cross-channel consistency and cross-channel service support. Furthermore, both channel control experience and consistent interactive experience are favorable for customer retention through increased customer satisfaction (transactional and retailer satisfaction). Finally, customer showrooming experience positively moderates the relationship between consistent interactive experience and customer satisfaction. This research proposes a self-regulation process model to explain how omnichannel integration enhances consumers' experience, finally leading to consumer retention. The findings contribute to the omnichannel retail business literature and provide management implications for Asian retailers to implement an omnichannel business strategy.
Customers' perceptions of information about a company's products or services have altered as a result of the development of ICT and social networks. This gives rise to a fact that buzz marketing, which is a marketing technique employed commonly in today's business and communication, has a significant impact on customers' electronic word of mouth intention (e-WOM). However, very few studies about this issue have been conducted so far, which reveal a gap in understanding buzz marketing from an academic perspective. Based on the results of a cross-sectional survey in Binh Duong city, this study investigates the efficiency and effect of buzz marketing on customers' e-WOM intention through mediating variables of message credibility. Data from 367 time-lagged individual samples were collected and analyzed by the structural equation modeling method (SEM). Results showed that creativity, clarity, and humor variables have a positive relationship with message credibility and then impact the intention to conduct e-WOM of social networks' users. Marketing campaigns employing the buzz technique should be launched with easy-to-understand and entertainable messages. Findings from this study also provide managers with a scientific understanding of buzz marketing and the effectiveness of this technique as well as reveal the potential for future studies to explore further in this area.
SME sector's success also depends on its employees' job satisfaction as satisfied employees are likely to be more productive at the workplace and positively enhance SME business performance. Small and medium firms are the heart of the economy, and employees are the main and valuable asset for the SME firms. If SME business managers can increase employee satisfaction, then SMEs' performance will also increase in the future. Hence, the current study aims to determine the job satisfaction of SME employees by analyzing the impact of job training (JT) and promotion (PRO) opportunities on employee job satisfaction. Purposive sampling is applied in the study, and 202 SME employees have participated as sample respondents. The final sample size is n = 202. SPSS 26.0 version is used to analyze the hypotheses. The study findings show that both job training (JT) and promotion (PRO) have a positive effect on SME employee job satisfaction. It does indicate that SME managers need to provide necessary training programs and timely promotion to their current working employees to keep them satisfied with their job. Promotion and effective job training will certainly enhance employees' job satisfaction. The study has also offered a few strategic implications for SME business managers.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of ethical leadership in determining the organizations' individual-type ethical climate (self-interest, friendship, and personal morality ethical climate) in reducing employee turnover intention. It seeks to identify the role of individual-type climate in mediating the association between ethical leadership and employee turnover intention. Moreover, the moderation effect of emotional exhaustion among employees on the relationship between ethical leadership and turnover intention has been researched to establish the ethical degree of leadership. Using a sample of 260 questionnaires from employees working full-time in the banking sector, the results were analyzed in PLS-SEM. The results of the social exchange theory indicated that ethical leadership is vital in shaping the workplace's individual-type ethical climate and reducing employees' turnover intention. The findings demonstrate that the relationship between ethical leadership and turnover intention is mediated by an individual-type ethical climate, which means that employees in a positive ethical climate do not wish to leave immediately. Furthermore, emotional exhaustion was found to moderate the association between ethical leadership and employees' turnover intention under high emotional exhaustion, where low ethical leadership is experienced, reporting higher levels of turnover intention.
The purpose of this research is to look into the effects of organizational culture and training and development on work discipline and performance. The data for this study was directly obtained from employees of a municipal water corporation in Medan, Indonesia, with a total of 204 participants. Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) was applied for data analysis. The results showed that organizational culture and training and development positively and significantly affect performance. However, organizational culture and training & development positively affect employees' work discipline, albeit insignificantly. The findings of this study suggest that organizational culture and training and development play a critical role in shaping work discipline and performance in organizations in Indonesian settings. Therefore, the finding of this research engage all leaders in the organization to conduct training and development more intensively. Although it seems to have costly, this will have a good impact on the organization in the long run. Furthermore, the authors also suggest the creation of a solid organizational culture for every organization to foster excellent performance. However, each organization should choose its own acceptable organizational culture because it is possible that the organizational culture that works in one context does not work in another.
This holistic research focused on the interactive relationship of different factors with a unique relationship with the dependent variable. The first research objective of the study was to identify the most significant factor that has an impact on Job performance while being mediated. The second objective was to see the moderating effect of gender on the relationship between transformation leadership and innovation on job performance. This research followed a purely quantitative research paradigm with a structured questionnaire to quantify the information collected from 96 respondents for the empirical analysis. For testing the research hypotheses, IBM SPSS version 24 and SmartPLS version 3.2.8 softwares were used to run the structural equation modeling to establish the causal relationship between the study variables. Most of the variables were found with a significant impact on job performance. Further, the hypotheses H3, H6, and H10 were rejected as these contributed insignificant towards the research model. This research was limited to specific educational institutions and businesses, and the timeframe was restrictive. The findings of this research can benefit policymakers and the operational side of various industries. Future research may consider the difference in gender in predicting employee engagement through leadership and innovation.
Information and communication technology (ICT) is one of the primary zones that stimulates economic development in today's globalized world. It promotes technological developments in worldwide communication and manufacturing systems, as well as economic growth and development. Many economic activities, such as international trade and foreign direct investment, rely heavily on contemporary information and communications technologies (FDI). The goal of this study is to look at the dynamic relationship between FDI, ICT, trade openness, and economic growth in the context of BRICS countries from 2000 to 2018, with Gross Domestic Product as the dependent variable and Telephone subscriptions, Mobile subscriptions, Broadband subscriptions, Internet subscribers, Secure internet servers, Trade, and Foreign direct investment as the independent variables.Two variables are used as proxies to manage the macroeconomic environment, while five variables are used as proxies for ICT infrastructures. The outcomes of this study are analyzed using Generalized Methods of Movements (GMM). According to this study, ICT has a positive impact on the economic growth of a few countries. Trade openness and foreign direct investment, on the other hand, have a negative impact on economic growth. As growing countries, the BRICS must participate in economic reform and liberalization measures. This report suggests policy proposals for improving ICT standards, focusing especially on economic growth, trade openness, and increasing foreign investment in the BRICS countries.
Each country's economic progress creates opportunities for its citizens to raise their income. Meanwhile, the country has secured the people's social security policies, particularly the protection of income equality, to promote harmonious and sustained economic development. Vietnam has been located in a dynamic economic development area in Southeast Asia since the 1986 economic reforms, with an annual growth rate of around 7%. Meanwhile, having achieved a middle-income status of roughly 3500 USD per person per year, Vietnam is attempting to maintain income equality and access to welfare systems for its inhabitants. As a result, the primary goal of this study is to use an autoregressive distributed lagged model to investigate the effects of income inequality and other economic factors such as foreign direct investment and trade openness on Vietnam's economic growth from 1992 to 2019. The research focuses attention on literature on income inequality, economic development indicators, and economic development in unique ways in this study. Income inequality slows the rate of change in economic development in the same year, according to our findings. Finally, the study will make policy suggestions to the Vietnamese government.
The Chinese outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) involves various bilateral trade agreements and regional agreements signed between China and other countries. This study examines the impact of Chinese OFDI in ASEAN-5 countries through ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement (ACFTA) namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand from 2000 to 2016. This study attempts to address three research objectives. The first is to examine the motives for China's investment in ASEAN-5. The second is to explore the different impacts of China's investment across countries. The third is to investigate whether the OFDI conducted by state-owned enterprises (SOEs) will produce different impacts on the firm's efficiency score. Using the DEA approach, this study finds evidence that the overall Chinese OFDI is relatively efficient. We find that the estimated efficiency score of this OFDI has improved in pre- and post ACFTA where a higher overall efficiency score was reported when comparing pre- and post ACFTA signing for both SOEs and NSOEs. Finally, China's parent firms' efficiencies showed higher scores among NSOEs compared to SOEs after the signing of ACFTA for all ASEAN countries except Malaysia. We highlight that the country's institutional infrastructure, earlier investment presence, and diplomatic ties help in shaping an effective trade agreement.
Foreign direct investment (FDI) and export are now often regarded as two of the most important drivers of economic growth on a worldwide scale. The impact of foreign direct investment on Vietnam's exports is investigated in this study. The data for the time period 1985-2020 was obtained from the World Bank and the Vietnam General Statistics Office. The years 1985 to 2020 were chosen to evaluate the evolution of macroeconomic parameters since 1986. The impact of the Covid-19 epidemic on renovation reform. The Johansen co-integration test proved that FDI and domestic investment (DI) had a long-term positive impact on Vietnam's export growth. The Granger causality test revealed that there is a one-way relationship between FDI and export in the near term, but no such relationship exists between DI and export. The result of the variance decomposition study demonstrates that the FDI sector has a bigger impact on Vietnam's export growth than the DI sector. Furthermore, export activities are vulnerable to FDI sector shocks. As a result, in recent years, FDI has been regarded as the most important factor of export growth in Vietnam.
Elderly entrepreneurship is becoming increasingly important as a response to the impact of the aging population and the resulting demand on government support systems, as well as a means of ensuring long-term economic and social development. The purpose of this study is to investigate the elderly's entrepreneurial intentions in the hotel and tourism sector in Ma'anshan City, Eastern China. The researcher used an online survey of older people aged 50 to 64 in a tourism destination that is approaching an aging society stage to see if the Theory of Planned Behavior can explain the entrepreneurial ambitions of the elderly in the hospitality and tourism industry. There were 391 questionnaires gathered in all, 367 of which were valid. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The study reveals that personal attitudes toward entrepreneurial behavior and perceived behavior control are highly influenced by societal norms. It also shows that personal attitude and perceived behavior control are antecedents of the elderly's entrepreneurial intent in this particular industry. This research adds to the research on geriatric entrepreneurship in hospitality and tourism, as well as human resource development for seniors in China, helping to alleviate the country's aging demographic concerns.
Using the Heckman two-step procedure, this study investigates the relationship between management accounting implementation and firm effectiveness. The research data for this study was acquired from 450 publicly traded companies in Vietnam; however, the final sample only includes 304 responses containing useful information. The reliability analysis was used to evaluate the acquired data to examine the qualities of constructs and the dimensions that make them up. Then, the Heckman two-step technique was performed to analyze the causal connection from the acceptance of management accounting to firm effectiveness allowing for the effect of environmental uncertainty and organizational characteristics on the likelihood of adopting management accounting. The empirical findings show that management accounting acceptance determines firm effectiveness; however, the research model on the relationship between management accounting adoption and firm effectiveness has a sample selection bias. The main conclusions of this study are that there is a difference in the effects of management accounting adoption on business effectiveness when sample selection bias is not taken into consideration. When potential sample selection bias is taken into account by integrating environmental uncertainty and organizational characteristics in the research model, the effect of adopting management accounting on company effectiveness becomes minor.
The goal of the study was to see how polymer banknotes affected users' purchasing intention. Variables affecting the properties of polymer banknotes were considered, including security, ease of use, convenience, and durability. To achieve the study's main goal, quantitative methods were used, and a questionnaire was created and posted online through Google Forms to collect primary data. The questionnaire was completed by 403 people, and the data was screened and analyzed using SPSS.The study found that using Polymer money influenced people's behavior, particularly in terms of purchase patterns, decisions, and impulsive behavior toward purchases. This was attributed to the security and simplicity of using Polymer money, which appealed to many people. Furthermore, the study found that people lost their feeling of spending, meaning that using polymer money didn't feel like spending to them, effectively eliminating the moral guilt associated with excessive spending and encouraging more impulsive buying decisions.Based on the findings, the study recommends that a study be conducted to compare the use of Polymer money with tiny and large banknotes to see what kind of difference there is.
The study aims to probe the impact of foreign ownership on Vietnamese listed firms' capital structure. This study employs panel data of 288 non-financial firms listed on the Ho Chi Minh City stock exchange (HOSE) and Ha Noi stock exchange (HNX) in 2015-2019. In this research, we applied a Bayesian linear regression method to provide probabilistic explanations of the model uncertainty and effect of foreign ownership on the capital structure of non-financial listed enterprises in Vietnam. The findings of experimental analysis by Bayesian linear regression method through Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique combined with Gibbs sampler suggest that foreign ownership has substantial adverse effects on the firms' capital structure. Our findings also indicate that a firm's size, age, and growth opportunities all have a strong positive and significant effect on its debt ratio. We found that the firms' profitability, tangible assets, and liquidity negatively and strongly affect firms' capital structure. Meanwhile, there is a low negative impact of dividends and inflation on the debt ratio. This research has ramifications for business managers since it improves a company's financial resources by developing a strong capital structure and considering foreign investment as a source of funding.
In this paper, we investigates the benefits of using social media on intentions and implementation entrepreneurial. This study took place in a well-known vocational college in Bandung, Indonesia, from July 2020 to January 2021. The research method used was the explanatory survey. Research data obtained from 317 respondent. Factor analysis and multiple regression were used to analyze the data. According to this study, social media has three dimensions: ease of use, controllability, usability, and profit. Entrepreneurial intention is made up of two components: entrepreneurial motive and entrepreneurial effort. Furthermore, there are four components to entrepreneurship implementation: investment courage, technology tools, social media skills, and environmental support. Other findings of each dimension of social media proved to affect entrepreneurial intention positively. The four aspects of entrepreneurial execution were likewise positively influenced by the dimension of entrepreneurial intention. This research reveals that students make the most use of the technologies available on social media for business and interactively communicate with their customers. Therefore, social media plays a role in accelerating the growth of entrepreneurship among students. However, more research is needed to see if there is a continuous pattern in the findings of this study so that the findings can be generalized.
At present, environmental problems are gradually becoming quite serious because of the expansion of the business scale of companies, factories, and enterprises, and that is also the reason for the global pollution of the world. Green entrepreneurship is playing an increasingly crucial role in influencing people's intentions, behaviors, and attitudes toward environmental protection through sustainable development. The purpose of this research was to examine the factors affecting university students' green entrepreneurship levels in Vietnam. To do this, we performed a scientific research survey with 773 students from reputable universities in Vietnam, 337 of whom are male and 436 of whom are female. To assess the reliability and correlation between observed and total variables, this study employs scale testing methods such as Cronbach alpha, EFA, CFA, and SEM. After evaluating the influencing elements, the findings reveal that the Subjective norm factor and the Risk-aversion component are two distinct aspects that influence university students' green entrepreneurship intentions in Vietnam and of which, the greatest influence is Risk Aversion. Furthermore, the findings revealed that the level of interest in green entrepreneurship is mostly seen by students with university education between the ages of 18-25.
This study examines the emotional undercurrents of individual investors. Earlier finance theory was based on the assumption that investors would act rationally. According to the findings, it is the investors' collective expectations and anxieties that have an impact on their investment fortunes. This necessitates a high level of emotional stability on the side of the investors. Investors must have a firm foundation in financial literacy to have the requisite level of emotional stability. This study aims to add to existing theory and practice by analyzing whether investors who have received business-related education are less emotional than those who have not. For the survey inquiry of individual investors, 'fear' and 'love' are considered among the emotional undercurrents of individual investors. The research is based on a survey of 875 individual investors in India, 342 of whom had a business background and the others have none. It has been discovered that no investor, regardless of their level of business education, is emotion-free. Investors with and without a business education display emotional stability in many behavioral aspects of fear and love to varying degrees.
Over the past decades, Bangladesh has fought poverty via labor-intensive industry and inclusive financing. The techniques assist underprivileged women in achieving self-sufficiency and encourage them to pursue independent endeavors. However, the majority of female entrepreneurs focused on four key company types: parlor, boutique, clothes, and fashion, all of which have limited access to financing. It was feared that their shortage of finance was hindering the growth of their company. The study's goal is to assess the effects of financial availability and knowledge on women's entrepreneurship development in Bangladesh via the lens of transformational leadership practices. A sample of 580 SMEs was considered for data collection with a structured questionnaire: a five-point Likert scale for getting responses from SMEs. The model coefficients with structural equation modeling revealed that financial accessibility plays a positive and statistically significant role in women's entrepreneurship development. Moreover, knowledge level established positive interlinkage with women's entrepreneurship development. Transformational leadership, which plays a mediating role in leadership practices, has been linked to the development of women's entrepreneurship indirectly and positively. As a result, support for knowledge creation and external financing must evolve and be made available to ensure women's sustainable development through entrepreneurial activities.
The digital economy is becoming an increasingly important source of regional competitiveness enhancement. The purpose of this research is to examine the spatial distribution characteristics of China's digital economy from 2016 to 2019. Moran's I analysis was performed to see if China's digital economy has spatial self-correlation. The Getis-Ord General G test was used to determine the clustering type of China's digital economy. In addition, we used OLS and GWR methodologies to figure out what drives China's digital economy level. The findings show that the digital economy is rapidly expanding throughout China; yet, there is a significant regional imbalance in the digital economy level in China, and the agglomeration of the digital economy is increasing over time. Furthermore, the findings reveal that human capital, information staff, telegram income, and Internet access are vital factors in the development of the digital economy. To close the digital economy gap, policymakers must invest in human capital and technology innovation. Simultaneously, the government must speed up the development and implementation of electronic information services.
Ethnocentrism in users plays an important role in predicting user behavior when deciding between imported and domestic goods. The purpose of this study is to look into the influence of ethnocentrism in customer behavior on brand image, perceived value, perceived quality, brand trust, and brand buy intention. Vietnamese customers prefer homegrown brands. The moderate role of consumer ethnocentrism in the conceptual framework emphasizes the country origin of the product is the most important factor. It also demonstrates how the intention of Vietnamese consumers to buy domestic brands is substantially influenced. To test the hypothesis, this article used a quantitative technique utilizing PLS-SEM software. With 917 samples, the study used the quota sampling approach to collect data from students at 10 universities in Ho Chi Minh City. The data suggest that all players have a positive association and that consumer ethnocentrism has a moderate impact in the Vietnamese brand context. Following that, suggestions are made to help Vietnamese firms create and retain their brands in the face of severe competition from global brands in the domestic market. To increase consumer intent in purchasing behavior, the Vietnamese local company needs to establish a strong brand.
The impact of supervisory communication apprehension (SCA) on subordinates' job performance was investigated in this study. We also examined the impact of task-related uncertainty in mediating the relationship between SCA and subordinate work performance, as well as the role of information-seeking behavior in moderating the relationship between task-related uncertainty and subordinate job performance. A sample of subordinates and their supervisors from public and private sector enterprises in Pakistan were used in the study. The concept of communication apprehension is not limited to a single organization or industry, and the conditions suggest that apprehensive supervisors are likely to exist in different organizations and industries in Pakistan, including banks, telecommunications, and development sector organizations. Company directors and leaders of human resources departments were contacted to reach out to possible respondents. SmartPLS software was used to evaluate the data using a structural equation modeling technique which is commonly used in explanatory studies (Atta et al., 2021). We found evidence to support ideas predicting the association between SCA and subordinate job performance, as well as the mediating role of task-related ambiguity in the relationship. Furthermore, the findings show that information-seeking activity has a moderating effect on the link between task-related ambiguity and subordinate job performance. This is one of the first studies to look at major mediating and moderating mechanisms in the link between SCA and subordinate job performance.
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