The purpose of this study is twofold: to investigate into general characteristics of the abstracting services in Korea and to discuss general directions of development of the abstracting services in the country. This study is designed to achieve the purpose by gathering and analysing data related to the abstracting journals published in the past ten years and by comparing the results with similar data gathered by the investigator in 1984. The major conclusions made in this study is summarised as follows. (1) Researchers and professionals working in limited numbers of subject fields are benefited by abstracting services of recent achievements in research and development in Korea. Those in most of the fields have essentially no abstracting services of such achievements. Even many researchers and professionals in the limited numbers of the fields that have some elementary abstracting services are not informed of research results in their fields because the abstracting journals are scattered in many narrow subjects and in many cases, the abstracting journals only cover publications in some specific forms and kinds. (2) Abstracting journals of general subjects, which are supposed to be of more or less help to the researchers in the subject fields that have no abstracting journals of their own, have rapidly increased in number in the past ten years. Most of such abstracting journals carry thesis and dissertation abstracts, and the rest those of research papers published in specific places, in specific forms, by specific institutes, and of reports of research projects sponsored by specific foundations. These abstracting journals are not of the kind that comprehensively provide general readers with current awareness of publications of research results in Korea. (3) Most of the abstracting journals existing in Korea are published by institutions of higher education and research institutes, and the rest by commercial publishers, industrial firms, libraries, information centers, government agencies, research foundations, learned societies, etc. Those which publish many titles are small in number and those publish one or two titles are large in number. The former is largely made up of institutions of higher education and research institutes. (4) Ten years ago, there was not a single publishing house that produced abstracting journals. Three commercial publishing houses now produce abstracting journals. As this change occurs, centers of excellence are founded and competitive elements are introduced in abstracting services. This change, in turn, is expected to improve quality of the other abstracting journals in Korea. (5) The abstracting journals published in Korea are classified by type into those of dissertations, research papers, journal articles, patent specifications in that descending order. The fact that Master's and doctoral dissertation abstracts are dominating in Korea is due to the irrational practice of publishing those abstracts at many institutions. (6) Most of the abstracting journals existing in Korea are published by national or government-supported research institutes in order to publicise their own research outputs. Their coverage of literature is normally narrow, and naturally their value to users is limited. (7) The abstracting journals published in Korea increased in number at the rate of $77.8-100\%$ every five years in the past twenty-five years. Most of the abstracting journals that ceased to be published during the period survived for two years. (8) Korean is the desirable language for the abstracting journals designed to be distributed within Korea. About half of the abstracting journals published in Korea is printed in Korean and the other half in foreign languages, and in Korean with foreign languages. All the abstracting journals in foreign languages are printed in English xcept one, which is printed in Japanese. (9) Some twenty percent of the abstracting journals in Korea is published monthly, bimonthly, and quarterly. Others are published annually, biannually, and irregularly. The latter may not function properly as a current-awareness tool due to long intervals between their issues. It is particularly undesirable that about half of the abstracting journals in Korea is published irregularly. Most of the abstracting journals published in Korea are distributed freely to individuals and institutions selected by the publishers. (10) The abstracting journals published by the use of computers increased drastically in the past ten years. The abstracting journals produced by the conventional type-setting method will probably disappear In Korea in another ten years to come. Automation of the production of abstracting journals does not simply mean technical, economic improvement of publishing processes but availability of machine-readable databases that can be used for other purposes, including the generation of other publications and the provision of machine literature searching capabilities. Necessary steps should be taken for this important development that is occurring in the abstracting services in Korea.
In 1926, Alfred Lotka examined the frequency distribution of scientific productivity of chemists and physicists. He observed that the number of persons making n contributions is about $1/ n^2$ of those making one and the proportion of all contributions that make a single contribution is about $60\%$. Investigator studing the applicability of 'Lotka's Law' to Mathematics and to Mechanical engineers have fitted Lotka's Law and concluded that the law applied to these subject fields.
The purpose of this study is to identify what are the common characteristics which enable the information management offices of research institutes to provide information services with their companies in effective ways, and furthur, in other to clarify what factors helf the improvement of effectiveness of information services. I have made on-the-spot investigations for the confirmation of present conditions of information service units of research institutes, their statistic data, and their managerial state. I have restricted my research to 36 information service units, as research targets, which are located in Changwon, Choongchong, and Kyongin areas as the reason mentioned in the introduction, and from their research data they keep, I have classified the top 10 information service units as Group A which show the most frequent use or application frequency of research data per a researcher, where as the lowerest 10 information service units are classified as Group B by the same evaluation of application frequency of their data. Then, the result of the comparision between Group A which provide high information services in effective ways and Group B which provide low information services with poor management leads me to identify the following characteristics in terms of the analyses of utilization of the data they process: 1. Those information service units in Group A have more volumes of books and information data, and annual increasing rates of books and informations are higher than those of Group B. 2. The regulations of book circulation in Group A are prescribed for the benefits of users, and if a long-term loan is not permitted, they are allowed to borrow more books at a time than in Group B. 3. The proportion of librarians to researchers is high, the librarians' career is long and their professional education background (the rate of librarians who majored in library science and information) is high In Group A. 4. Most of the directors of information service units are those who majored library science and information, and for the most part, librarians are promoted to the directors of information service units in Group A. 5. The information service units are managed directly under the directors of research institutes in their organization in Group A. 6. The information service units offer an education for information utilization to researchers as one of their managerial programs, and the contents of education are diverse, rich and informative in Group A. 7. The kinds of informations are various in Group A such as, SDI, prompt reports of contents of new informations, circulation of newly published publications, translation service, information analyses, critical reviews, etc. 8. The information service units in Group A have joined various cooperative systems which are aimed at cooperation, co-ownership of resources and informations. These findings lead me to argue that the hypothesis suggested in the introduction of this thesis has been proved without exception.
The purpose of this study is (a) to investigate the general characteristics of bookjacket of children's books in Korea and (b) to observe general directions of the changes of those characteristics. For that purpose, children's books are gathered in alphabetical order of titles which has been published in the past 30 years and classified into three groups: 'books of 1966-1975', 'books of 1976-1985' and 'books of 1986-1993' according to the date of publication of those books. The important elements of the bookjackets belonging to these three groups are analyzed and compared. Main findings and conclusions made in this study are summarised as follows : (1) The style of illustration which has been appeared very often on the bookjacket of children's books is realistic art style. But a new tendency is that cartoon art style is above everything else. (2) The media which has been commonly used for illustration is watercolor. A new tendency is that various media is used for illustration. (3) People have been most commonly used as characters of illustration, and this tendency is continued from the past. (4) Visual representation of characters is usually simplified, and simple outlines is used for objects. The latest tendency is the same. (5) Visual content is arranged within bookjacket illustration as a whole, and this tendency is continued. (6) Lines for special emphasis are commonly used in depicting objects wi thin bookjacket illustration. (7) Realistic color has been most commonly used in depicting objects within bookjacket illustration. But the tendency is turned into unrealistic color. (8) Light grayish and strong as tone have been commonly used for bookjacket. A new tendency is that pale as tone is above everything else. (9) Gothic type has been commonly used for title within bookjacket. A new tendency is that various types are used for titles.
The major purpose of this study is to scrutinize and analyze various factors in numerous aspects of two different library systems for the visually handicapped, namely braille library and a special section for the visually handicapped in the public library system. The analyses may provide theoretical and conceptual framework on which strategies to enhance services for the visually handicapped is to be developed. More specifically, this study seeks (1) to examine a linkage between the degree of maintenance of staffs, collections, and equipment and the level of satisfactions of librarians and (2) to come up with more effective mechanisms of welfare services for the visually handicapped in each library system. This research is qualitative-descriptive and uses interview method. Fourteen libraries throughout the nation (4 public libraries with a reading room for the visually handicapped and 8 braille libraries) which had been in operation more than one year were selected as subjects for the research. Findings and results of the analyses are summarized as follows : 1. There seems to be general consensus that each of public and braille library has significant but, to a certain extent, different roles to play in order to enhance library services for the visually handicapped. Recruitment of qualified librarians, increase of the volume of collection, and enlargement of reading room space are noted as immediate concerns for the former. For the latter, it was suggested that increase of the number of staff for publishing, securing more equipments for pulication in braille, and wider scope as well as more variety of publications are the pressing problems at hand. 2. Both public and braille library employ one librarian for the visually handicapped who is required to have educational background in library science and special education. In addition, one must have competence in reading braille types. 3. Majority of reading rooms in those libraries is so small in physical aspect that size and number of seats are 66m2 and 15 seats respectively because circulation services are mainly in use due to the problem of inaccessibility which is commonly suffered by the visually handicapped. 4. Library services for the visually handicapped are heavily concentrated upon the large urban area. In fact, most of braille libraries are located in Seoul whereas a reading room for the visually handicapped in the public library system are exclusively placed in the large cities such as Inchon, Taejon, and Taegu. 5. All of the public library is neither equipped with necessary facilities to publish in braille nor secured supporting instruments which may facilitate library use for the visually handicapped. On the contrary, most of braille libraries are equipped with arrangements to publish in braille despite supporting devices are gererally lacking. 6. Consequently, provision of services In the public library is largely confined to reading and circulation of materials purchased from braille libraries while major task of braille libraries centers around publication and distributions of the reading materials in braille.
The purpose of this study is to verify the hypothesis that the contents and range of library services are changed as the use of videotex systems increases. 1000 members of Chollian II were chosen as subjects for this study and the questionnaire was posted to them. The returned responses to questionnaire were analyzed with the statistical software packages 'SAS PC' and 'STATGRAPHICS'. The findings and conclusions of this study are summarised as follows: 1. Users of Chollian II make more use of videotex systems in seeking daily information than in seeking scholarly and professional information. It seems desirable to co-ordinate the services of videotex systems and libraries by redefining the traditional boundary of the two systems. Users will then conveniently get daily information through videotex servics, scholarly and professional information through the reference service of libraries. 2. Sex does not make any significant difference in the use of videotex systems. Most frequent use of videotex systems is made by those at the age of thirties. Businessmen and enterprisers make the most frequent use of videotex systems. Those of higher education are the best users. 3. As the use of videotex systems increases, use of newspapers and periodicals decreases while its increase rarely has influence on the use of library materials. 4. There is limited correlation between the use of videotex systems and that of library services. The increase of the use of videotex systems does not significantly increase or decrease the use of libraries. It changes, however, the pattern and methods of information services provided by libraries. 5. Users of special libraries make the most frequent use of videotex systems and there is not much difference in the use by users of other kinds of libraries.
The purpose of this study is to analyse theses and dissertations cited in research literature, particularly subjects, age, origin, and frequency of use of them, and kinds of papers that cite them. The theses and dissertations cited in the journal articles and theses dissertations in the fields of library science, information science and bibliography are analysed in this study. The maj or conclusions made in this study are summarised as follows. (1) Theses and dissertations form $5.6\%$ of the total citations. (2) $87.1\%$ of the cited theses and dissertations are found in theses and dissertations and $12.9\%$ in journal articles. (3) Most of research papers cite less than six theses and dissertations. The average number of theses and dissertations cited in a research paper in 2.7. (4) Most of the cited theses and dissertations are found in research papers from their own field and $24.5\%$ in those from other fields. (5) Researchers prefer to cite recently produced theses and dissertations $63.5\%$ of the total citations are those produced within three years in the past. (6) The theses and dissertations form most part$(89.0\%)$ of the total citations. 88.9% of the cited foreign theses and dissertations are found in theses and dissertations, and $11.1\%$ in journal articles.
The production, storage, processing and distribution of information is fast becoming a major economic activity for many nations of the world. The basic idea of this study is that knowledge and information are becoming the strategic resources and transforming agents in the information society. Therefore, in order to cope with successfully the transition toward the information society, the development of measurement tools and social indicators is essential. The purpose of this study is to fulfill three major objectives with regard to the analysis of the information sector in the information society. (1) This study suggests the theoretical definitions and social indicators of the information society. (2) This study investigates an empirical study of the information sector consisting of information industry, information workforce, and information indicator of the selected nations. (3) It advances theoretical explanations of the major factors of the growth of the information sector, and develops theoretical hypothesis and explanations of the information society.
The use of telematics, or of data communications, for the information services is a much debated issue currently in the information science. The purpose' of this study is to gain a general overview of the use of data communications in specialized information centers in order to find out the direction of development in furture. In this study, the state of the specialized information services by data communications in Korea was analysed from the following points of view: (1) What kind of role play the liberalization of telecommunication to help develope the specialized information services? (2) Which problems have happend to the specialized information services using data communications? (3) How are technical, economical, and methodical problems handled for the new services? The background research stems from interview with managers and researchers in 5 specialized information centers.
In china, six bibliographies of offical historical books are evaluated at the most important things among the systematically-editing bibliographies. These bibliographies would be usful to study the orign of classical sciences and their development, bibliographic research of Chinese classics, bibliographic judgement on genuine books, titles, authors, volumes. They could be refered to research into graving, correcting, and existence of ancient books. therefore, these bibliographies would be applied to estimation the phase of scientific and cultural development. The study of these bibliographies has been not yet made in Korea. This thesis lays its importance on the background of their appearance, their classification norms, organizing system of their catalogue, and comparison between their difference. 1. Editing and compiling of Chilyak (칠약) by Liu Chin (유흠) and official histories played an important role of entering an apperance of historical book's bibliographies. Chilyak has been lost. However, its classification and compiling system of classical books would be traced by Hansoyemunji(한서예문지) of which basic system is similar to Chilyak. It classified books according to their scientific characteristic. If a few books didn't have their own categories, they were combined by the circles parallel to the books' characteristic. With the books classified under the same scientific characteristic, they were again divided into the scientific schools or structures. It also arranged the same kinds of books according to the chronology. The some books wi th duplicate subjects were classified multiplely by their duplicate subject. 2. Ssu-ma Chon's (사마천) The Historical Records (Saki, 사기) and Pan Ku's (반고) The History of the Former Han Dynasty (Hanso, 한서) has also took effects on appearance of historical books' bibliographies. Covering overall history, Saki was structured by the five parts: The basic annals(본기), the chronological tables (표), the documents (서), the hereditary houses (세가), biographies (열전). The basic annals dealt with kings and courts' affairs according to the chronology. The chronological tables was the records of the annals. The documents described overall the social and cultural systems. The hereditary houses recorded courts' meritorious officials and public figures. The biographies showed exemplars of seventy peoples selected by their social status. Pan Ku(반구)'s The History of the Former Han Dynasty(한서) deserved to be called the prototype for the offical histories after Saki's (사기; The Historical Records) apperance. Although it modelled on Saki, it had set up its own cataloguing system. It was organized by four parts; the basic annals (본기), the chronological tables (표), treatises(지), biographies (열전). The documents in the Hanso(한서) was converted into treatises(지). The hereditary houses and biographies were merged. For the first time, the treatise with The Yemunji could operate function for historical bibliographies. 3. There were six historical bibliographies: Hansoyemunji(한서예문지), Susokyongjeokji (수서경적지), Kudangsokyongjeokji(구당서경적지), Shindangsoyemunji (신당서예문지), Songsayemunji (송사예문지), Myongsayemunji (명사예문지). 1) Modelling on Liu Chin's Chilyak except Chipryak(집략), Hansoyemunji divided the characteristic of the books and documents into six parts: Yukrye(육예), Cheja(제자), Shibu(시부), Pyongsoh(병서), Susul(수술), Pangki(방기). Under six parts, there were thirty eight orders in Hansoyemunji. To its own classification, Hansoyemunji applied the Chilyak's theory of classification that the books or documents were managed according to characteristic of sciences, the difference of schools, the organization of sentences. However the overlapped subjects were deleted and unified into one. The books included into an unsuitable subject were corrected and converted into another. The Hansoyemunji consisted of main preface (Taesoh 대서), minor preface (Sosoh 소서) , the general preface (Chongso 총서). It also recorded the introduction of books and documents, the origin of sciences, the outline of subjects, and the establishment of orders. The books classified by the subject had title, author, and volumes. They were rearranged by titles and the chronological publication year. Sometimes author was the first access point to catalogue the books. If it was necessary for the books to take footnotes, detail notes were formed. The Volume number written consecutively to order and subject could clarify the quantity of books. 2) Refering to Classfication System by Seven Norms (칠분법) and Classification System by Four Norms(사분법), Susokyongjeokji(수서경적지) had accomplished the classification by four norms. In fact, its classification largely imitated Wanhyosoh(완효서)'s Chilrok(칠록), Susokyongjeokji's system of classification consisted of four parts-Kyung(경), Sa(사), Cha(자), Chip(칩). The four parts were divided into 40 orders. Its appendix was again divided into two parts, Buddihism and Taiosm. Under the two parts there were fifteen orders. Totally Susokyongjeokji was made of six parts and fifty five orders. In comparison with Hansoyemunji(한서예문지), it clearly showed the conception of Kyung, Sa, Cha, Chip. Especially it deserved to be paid attention that Hansoyemunji laied history off Chunchu(춘추) and removed history to Sabu(사부). However Chabu(사부) put many contrary subjects such as Cheja(제자), Kiye(기예), Sulsu(술수), Sosol(소설) into the same boundary, which committed errors insufficient theoretical basis. Anothor demerit of Susokyongjeokji was that it dealt with Taiosm scriptures and Buddism scriptures at the appendix because they were considered as quasi-religion. Its compilation of bibliographical facts consisted of main preface(Taesoh 대서), minor preface(Sosoh 소서), general preface (Chongsoh 총서), postscript (Husoh 후서). Its bibliological facts mainly focused on the titles. Its recorded authors' birth date and their position. It wrote the lost and existence of books consecutive to total number of books, which revealed total of the lost books in Su Dynasty. 3) Modelling on the basis of Kokumsorok(고분서록) and Naewaekyongrok(내외경록), Kudangsokyongjeokji(구당서경적지) had four parts and fourty five orders. It was estimated as the important role of establishing basic frame of classification by four norms in classification theory's history. However it had also its own limit. Editing and compling orders of Kudangsokyongjeokji had been not progressively changed. Its orders imitated by and large Susokyongjeokji. In Its system of organizing catalogue, with its minor preface and general preface deleting, Kudangsokyongjeokji by titles after orders sometimes broke out confusion because of unclear boundaries between orders. 4) Shindangsoyemunji(신당서예문지), adding 28,469 books to Kudangsokyongjeokji, recorded 82,384 books which were divided by four parts and fourty four orders. In comparison with Kudangkyongjeokj, Sindangsoyemunji corrected unclear order's norm. It merged the analogical norms four orders (for instance, Kohun 고훈 and Sohakryu 소학류) and seperated the different norms four orders (for example, Hyokyong 효경 and Noneuhryu 논어류, Chamwi 참위 and Kyonghaeryu 경해류, Pyonryon 편년 and Wisaryu 위사류). Recording kings' behaviors and speeches (Kikochuryu 기거주류) in the historical parts induced the concept of specfication category. For the first time, part of Chipbu (집부) set up the order of classification norm for historical and literatural books and documents (Munsaryu 문사류). Its editing and compiling had been more simplified than Kudangsokyongjeokji. Introduction was written at first part of bibliographies. Appendants except bibliographic items such subject, author, title, volume number, total were omitted. 5) Songsayemunji(송사예문지) were edited in the basis of combining Puksong(북송) and Namsong(남송), depending on Sabukuksayemunji(사부국사예문지). Generally Songsayemunji had lost a lot of bibliographical facts of many books. They were duplicated and wrongly classified books because it committed an error of the incorrectly annalistic editing. Particularly Namsong showed more open these defaults. Songsayemunji didin't include the books published since the king Youngchong(영종). Its system of classification was more better controlled. Chamwiryu(참위류) in the part of Kyongbu(경부) was omitted. In the part of history(Sabu 사부), recordings of kings' behaviors and speeches more merged in the annals. Historical abstract documents (Sachoryu 사초류) were seperately arranged. In the part of Chabu(자부), Myongdangkyongmaekryu(명당경맥류) and Euisulryu(의술류) were combined. Ohangryu(오행류) were laied off Shikuryu(시구류). In the part of Chipbu(집부), historical and literatural books (Munsaryu 문사류) were independentely arranged. There were the renamed orders; from Wisa(위사) to Paesa(패사), Chapsa (잡사) to Pyolsa(열사), Chapchonki(잡전기) to Chonki(전기), Ryusoh(류서) to Ryusa(류서). Introduction had only main preface. The books of each subject catalogued by title, the volume number, and author and arranged mainly by authors. Annotations were written consecutively after title and the volume number. In the afternote the number of not-treated books were revealed. Difference from Singdangsohyemunji(신당서예문지) were that the concept and boundary of orders became more clearer. It also wrote the number of books consecutive to main subject. 6) Modelling on Chonkyongdangsomok (경당서목), Myongsayemunji(명사예문지) was compiled in the basis of books and documents published in the Ming Danasty. In classification system, Myongsayemunji partly merged and the seperated some orders for it. It also deleted and renamed some of orders. In case of necessity, combining of orders' norm was occured particulary in the part of Sabu(사부) and Chabu(자부). Therefore these merging of orders norm didn't offer sufficient theretical background. For example, such demerits were seen in the case that historical books edited by annals were combined with offical historical ones which were differently compiled and edited from the former. In the part of Chabu(자부), it broke out another confusion that Pubga(법가), Meongga(명가), Mukga(묵가), Chonghweongka's(종횡가) thoughts were classified in the Chapka(잡가). Scriptures of Taiosim and Buddhism were seperated from each other. There were some deleted books such as Mokrokryu(목록류), Paesaryu(패사류) in the part of history (Sabu 사부) and Chosaryu(초사류) in the part of Chipbu(집부). The some in the each orders had been renamed. Imitating compiling system of Songsayemunji(송사예문지), with reffering to its differ-ence, Myongsayemunji(명사예문지) wrote the review and the change of the books by author. The number of not-treated books didn't appear at the total. It also deleted the total following main subject.
정보검색 시스템을 대하는 대부분의 이용자의 대답은 '이용하기에 어렵다'라는 것이다. 기계적인 정보검색을 기본 철학으로 하는 기존의 matching paradigm은 정보 곡체를 여기 저기 내용을 옮길 수 있는 물건으로 간주한다. 그리고 기존의 정보시스템은 이용자가 시스템을 구성한 사람의 의도 (즉, indexing, cataloguing rule)를 완전히 이해한다면, 즉 완전하게 질문식(query)을 작성한다면, 효과적인 검색을 할 수 있는 그런 시스템이다. 그러나 어느 이용자가 그 복잡한 시스템을 이해하고 정보검색을 할 수 있겠는가? 한마디로 시스템을 설계한 사람의 의도로 이용자가 적응해서 검색을 한다는 것은 아주 힘든 일이다. 그러나 우리가 이용자에 대한 인식을 다시 한다면 보다 나은 시스템을 만들 수 있다고 본다. 우리 인간은 아주 창조적이어서 자기가 처한 상황에서 이치에 맞게끔 자기 나름대로의 행동을 할 수 있다(sense-making approach). 이 사실을 인식한다면, 왜 이용자들의 행동양식에 시스템 설계자가 적응을 못하는 것인가? 하고 의문을 던질 수 있다. 앞으로의 시스템이 이용자들의 자연스러운 행동 패턴에 맞게 끔 설계된다면 기존의 시스템과 함께 쉽게 이용할 수 있는 편리한 시스템이 설계될 수 있을 것이다. 그러므로 도서관 및 정보학 연구에 있어서 기존의 분류. 목록에 대한 연구와 이용자체에 대한연구(예를 들면, 몇 시에 이용자가 많은가? 어떤 종류의 책을 어떤 계충에서 많이 보는가? 도서 및 잡지가 어떻게 양적으로 성장해 왔는가? 등등의 use study)와 함께 여기서 제시한 제3의 요소인 이용자의 인식(cognition)을 시스템설계에 반드시 도입을 해야만 한다고 본다(user-centric approach). 즉 이용자를 중간 중간에서 도울 수 있는 facilitator가 많이 제공되어야 한다. 이용자의 다양한 패턴의 정보요구(information needs)에 부응할 수 있고, 질문식(query)을 잘 만들 수 없는 이용자를 도울 수 있고(ASK hypothesis: Anomolous State of Knowledge), 어떤 질문식 없이도 자유스럽게 Browsing할 수 있는(예를 들면 hypertext) 시스템을 설계하기 위해서는 눈에 보이는 이용자의 행동패턴(external behavior)도 중요하지만 우리 눈에는 보이지 않는 이용자의 심리상태를 이해한다면 훨씬 나은 시스템을 만들 수 있다. 이용자가 '왜?' '어떤 상황에서,' '어떤 목적으로,' '어떻게,' 정보를 검색하는지에 대해서 새로운 관심을 들려서 이용자들이 얼마나 우리 시스템 설계자들의 의도에 미치지 못한다는 사실을 인식 해야한다. 이 분야의 연구를 위해서는 새로운 paradigm이 필수적으로 필요하다고 본다. 단지 'user-study'만으로는 부족하며 새로운 시각으로 이용자를 연구해야 한다. 가령 새롭게 설치된 computer-assisted system에서 이용자들이 어떻게, 그리핀 어떤 분야에서 왜 그렇게 오류 (error)를 범하는지 분석한다면 앞으로의 computer 시스템 선계에 큰 도움을 줄 수 있을 것으로 믿는다. 실제로 많은 방법이 개발되고 있다. 그러면 시스템 설계자가 가졌던 이용자들이 이러 이러한 방식으로 정보검색을 할 것이라는 예측과(즉, conceptual model) 실제 이용자들이 정보검색을 할 때 일어나는 행동패턴 사이에는(즉, mental model) 상당한 차이점이 있다는 것을 알게 될 것이다. 이 차이점을 줄이는 것이 시스템 설계자의 의무라고 생각한다. 결론적으로, Computer에 대한 새로운 지식과 함께 이용자들의 인식을 연구할 수 있는, 철학적이고 방법론적인 연구를 계속하나가면서, 이용자들의 행동패턴을 어떻게 시스템 설계에 적용할 수 있는 지를 연구해야 한다. 중요하게 인식해야할 사실은 구 Paradigm을 완전히 무시하라는 것은 아니고 단지 이용자에 대한 새로운 인식을 추가하자는 것이다. 그것이 진정한 User Study가 될 수 있는 길이라고 생각하며, 컴퓨터와 이용자 사이의 '원활한 의사교환'이 필수불가결 한 지금 우리 학문이 가야 할 한 연구분야이다. (Human Interaction with Computers)
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