Purpose:The purpose of this study was to find the ways to improve a quality of life of cancer patients through the family support by analyzing the correlation between quality of life and family support that cancer patients perceived. Methods: The questionnaires for this study were collected from 43 cancer patients who were admitted in general hospitals at Gyounggido from July 2004 to August 2004. The questionnaire was composed of total 60 items, which were general characteristics of 18 items, family support of 11 items and quality of life of 31 items. Kang's(1984) scale of family support and Tae's(2000) scale of quality of life were used. The data were analyzed with SPSS WIN 10.0 program using frequency, mean±SD, t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's correlation analysis. Results: Forty three cancer patients answered the questionnaire. Twenty three patients was a male and 20 a female. Mean scale of family support according to general characteristics was 3.87±0.71. Mean scale of quality of life according to general characteristics was 5.89±1.08 and relatively high. The better degree of education, the higher quality of life significantly and the less physical discomfort, the higher quality of life significantly. The quality of life when the patient burdens the spouse with treatment cost was significantly higher. A correlation between degree of family support and quality of life was r=0.488 and the higher family support that cancer patients perceived, the higher quality of life significantly(p<0.001). Conclusion: The higher family support that cancer patients perceived, the higer quality of life significantly. We suggest concrete and systemic program for family support.
This study was conducted to examine the present state, types of services, difficulties, education programs, motivation, satisfaction and attitude of hospice volunteers and also to suggest supporting programs for the volunteer. For these purposes, a questionnaire was distributed among the 200 hospice volunteers in ten hospice organizations in Daejeon and Chungcheong province. In this research, 85.5% of the respondents were women and most of them were housewives in their forties and fifties. The majority of hospice volunteers had an education background of more than high school. Christianity (94%) was the dominant religion of volunteers. Among the service area of the hospice, emotional caring, such as listening closely and establishing empathy were the most frequently done by the respondents and the next one was spiritual care. Hospice volunteers who had started with altruistic motivation show more dynamic activities in emotional, spiritual, physical caring and so on, than those with non-altruistic motivation. Most of the respondents expressed that they felt a hospice volunteer was valuable. However they had a hard time to overcome the sorrow coming from sharing empathy with the dying patients. Those who had started with altruistic motivation usually took part in two times per a week and had more positive attitude. Volunteers who had been working more than five years showed better attitude than those who had been working less than three years. The longer the voluntary services, the more positive attitude experienced by volunteers. Hospice volunteers encountered the most considerable difficulty with lack of background knowledge and their actual capability. Insufficiency of time was the next reason for the considerable difficulty of the hospice volunteer. On the other hand, those who served more than twice per week replied that lack of background knowledge and their capability were the least considerable difficulty. Insufficiency of time was the reason of difficulty for male volunteers, as well as for females under thirty and those in their forties and fifties respectively. Generally most of the hospice volunteers (70%) were satisfied with their services and they usually satisfied with physical caring, spiritual caring, hospice's family caring. The less difficulty in voluntary services, more satisfaction for the volunteers in the end. There is a positive correlation between a attitude of the hospice volunteer and frequency of voluntary services while the volunteers' difficulty affect negatively their attitude as well as the frequency of voluntary services. Most of the hospice volunteers want to have more education about basic skills, volunteer's attitude and role, spirituality, the way of attending on the hospice and so on. Most of them considered discussion and sharing different cases as the most effective method. They also wish to had more supporting programs for the hospice volunteers(in the order of their needs) such as regular events, newsletters, personal concern, social meetings among the volunteers, insurance and minimum expenses. Based on the study results, more programs should be run in order to activate the voluntary services regardless of their gender and education background. A continuous practical supporting policy and education programs are required in order to provide special education and training courses considering every field of voluntary services. Expanding the role of the volunteers allows them more opportunities to take part in voluntary services and th activate participation. It is necessary to establish a new hospice system as a part public medical system, which can not only facilitate the voluntary services for a hospice but also enhance professional hospice volunteers. Finally, experts are needed to operate the voluntary services effectively.
Purpose: To know for what the medical expenditure had been used and to seek the way how it can be efficiently redistributed, I investigated total medical expenditure according to the time period to death in the expired patients for recent 2 years. Methods: 21patients were enrolled in this study. Total medical expenditure including benefit charge and non-benefit charge charged to patients in in-patient department(IPD) and out-patient department(OPD) was counted according to the period for one year by death. Results: 94.7% of the total medical expenditure had been payed for admission-related expenditure and 89% during period 3 and 4 for 6months before death, which may be due to the more days of admission during those periods. 70.1% of the total expenditure had been charged on the admission-fee, room charge, diet, and administration of the fluid, medicines, and blood etc. Conclusion: Majority of medical expenditure has been used in the affairs being unable to improve the survival or quality of life of patients and during the periods closer to death. Here, it would be needed heartily to look for the best ways in detail how the idea of hospice can come true through nation-wide and social consensus.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of education of hospice for nurses on concern and coping about death and dying. Methods: The subjects of this study were 33 Korean nurses who participated in the education of hospice which consisted of lectures and practices for 5 months. Data were collected using questionnaire of concern and coping about Death and Dying. Data were analyzed with the mean, SDs and Wilcoxen test. Results: The mean score of concern about death and dying was 7.03. The highest items of concern about death and dying were 'thoughts of physical pain and being, 'thoughts of suffocating and choking, 'fear of darkness', The lowest items of concern about death and dying were. 'thoughts of burglars invading my possessions', 'rejection by God', thoughts of no one attending funeral', 'thoughts of no one paying respect or tribute', The mean score of coping about death and dying was 11.37. The highest items of coping about death and dying were 'call family member(s) into room and ask them ti sit close by, reminisce on happy events of the past, tell myself that there is nothing to be afraid of, look at family picture albums'. The lowest items of coping about death and dying were 'stay up stay up late till ready to fall asleep', 'look at family heirlooms', 'phone a prayer line', 'ask for a snack or something to drink'. In concern and coping about death and dying, significant differences were not found between pre and post test. But there was a tendency to decrease concern and increase coping about death and dying after education of hospice. Conclusion: According to these results, it is needed for nurses not only to do research for concern and coping about death and dying but also to develop an education program.
To determine which are the culturally specific factors of Korean bereavement, this chapter focuses on the view of death and the traditional mourning process which reflect Korean values and norms. The formation of the Korean view and understanding of death has been strongly influenced by three of its major traditional religions: Shamanism, Buddhism, and Confucianism (Park:1994: Hao:1999) and Christianity more recently. Each religion has a different view of death and the appropriate expression of mourning. Korea accommodates funeral customs and rules strictly as a cultural system and has retained these traditions over a long period; hence, some of the traditional funeral rituals still remain in modern Korean life, although some of the rites have been simplified. We have looked at the various ways in which grief and mourning is displayed and shared in a collective manner over a long period of time. This fits in well within the other Eastern cultures that are collectively organized, and contrary to the Eurocentric models do not hastily seek to detach the living from the dead and recognize that grief is a long process, and different individuals may take different amounts of time to recover from the grief. The view of death and bereavement in Korea has sprung from the roots of three Korean religions, together with the recent addition of Christianity, although they mainly result from the three earlier religions. The beliefs of these religions are still closely linked together in the rituals of Korean bereavement on both conscious and unconscious levels. The influence of these religions is evident in practice through the bereaved family's mourning reactions, funeral rites and customs and its views about death. Korea used to have a period of mourning for three years, following traditional mourning rites; then the chief mourner and the bereaved families could return to their normal life. In spite of this long mourning process for the bereaved family, once the funeral ceremony is finished, people expect the bereaved family not to express their grief in public; even the bereaved family does not like to talk about death. The process for bereaved people is related to mourning processes in terms of detachment from the deceased in order to start a new life. Relatives and the community recommend the performance of the kut ceremony for relieving the grief of the bereaved. When one family member dies in an unlucky way, the bereaved family may have some fear or other psychological reactions of grief such as pain, depression, insomnia and nightmares, hallucinations or other physical reactions. Unlucky deaths give the bereaved a very painful time and these types of reactions are often more serious than reactions to natural death. But through the kut ceremony, the bereaved family can start to make a new relationship with the deceased. The taboo of this type of death and death generally remains a crucial aspect of the isolation that bereaved people might face and the collective nature of mourning(even where it is still present) is unable to address this aspect of the privatization of grief.
The elderly people was over 8.3% in 2003. This seament is projected to grow to 14.4% by 2019(Aged society) and over 20% by 2026(Super aged society). As the elderly population is increasing and young population is declined social issues around elderly care are emerged in Korea. As a result of that, they are in the condition of poor system of the welfare of the old and it is the worst one in Korea. And because of the worst financial independence and difficulty in Korea, welfare facilities and medical instruments are so insufficient and deteriorated, so the quality of service is getting low. Furthermore the mortality of cancer is rapidely increased in recent years. So it is expected that the number of families who are caring for terminal cancer patient will be increased. We can not solve those problems only with government's policy such as to secure ample budget and to enlarge the aged welfare institutions. Definitely, to acheve the suggetions persistence concern about old people is most important, and family, community and national government should be linked to accomplish to goal. Accordingly, for this study attempts to provide conceptual framework of the respite care, spiritual care and home hospice, nursing home for the elderly. And this study is to discuss the necessity and effect about the construction of housing welfare infrastructure and to make a cooperation and linkage system among the aged welfare institutions, government and the aged welfare programs. As is well known, the issue of the increasing aged people is neither a matter of individuals nor of the family, but rather a complex matter of whol society. Therefore it can be resolved by the active participation of government. Conclusively this study tries to provide an direction of the improvement with regard to the welfare policy for the elderly. The study is as follwos: Chapters 1: The theological base, conception, essentiality, respite care, spiritual care and home hospice, nursing home for the elderly. Chapters 2: Definitions of respite care, spiritual care, hospice, patient of termina cancer and quality of life. And relations between respite care and nursing home. Chapters 3: The necessity of long-term care insurance and the perspectives of spiritual care. Chapters 4: Conclusions and summarizing(The directions of improvement of welfare policy for the elderly). To sum up, the problems of the aged people has not effects only to the aged people. This means that the problems of aged is the problems of the young generation today. Because young generation will be the old generation in the near future.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to help apply spiritual care in clinics by testing whether spiritual support like prayer and praise, which is appled on a patient who has been cared for by Facility Hospice can have an effect on their physical pain, emotional anxietv, loneliness and well being. Method: This research was done on a subject patient who had been hospitalized in Saemmul from Jan, 2002 to June, 2003, and who could easily communicate. Questionnaire of quality of life, they had this test from the date of admission into the hospital 1week, 3week, 5week later. The Target was 182 people for the hospital data, 124 people after one week, 84 people after 3 weeks and 54 people after for 5 weeks later. For statistics, SPSS for Window(SPSS inc. ver.10), student T-test and one way ANOVA were used. The interrelation between pray and pain was analyzed by the "Pearson correlation". In case where the P-value was below 0.05, we concluded it had statistical-value. Results: When we compared both the party which had a low degree of peace by prayer and praise and the B party which had the highest degree, B party had an increasing tendency for less anxiety and loneliness and more well-being. Each of the data 0, 1, 3 and 5 week showed visible difference between both parties. Conclusion: First, in case that a late cancer patient is hospitalized, the difference for tranquility and pain control by prayer and praise is not noticeable. While, 1 and 3 weeks later, the difference is visible, so we concluded the relationship between the cancer patient's spiritual tranquility and physical pain are closely related with each other. Also the patients who are in spiritual peace by prayer and praise can control the pain better than the other patients. Second, because the patient who can feel calm from the data of being admitted into the hospital is mentally calm, both party's difference is noticeable in each period of the 1, 3 and 5th week. Compared with other patients, the object patients who have spiritual tranquility will have less anxiety and loneliness and more tranquility.
본 웹사이트에 게시된 이메일 주소가 전자우편 수집 프로그램이나
그 밖의 기술적 장치를 이용하여 무단으로 수집되는 것을 거부하며,
이를 위반시 정보통신망법에 의해 형사 처벌됨을 유념하시기 바랍니다.
[게시일 2004년 10월 1일]
제 1 장 총칙
제 1 조 (목적)
이 이용약관은 KoreaScience 홈페이지(이하 “당 사이트”)에서 제공하는 인터넷 서비스(이하 '서비스')의 가입조건 및 이용에 관한 제반 사항과 기타 필요한 사항을 구체적으로 규정함을 목적으로 합니다.
제 2 조 (용어의 정의)
① "이용자"라 함은 당 사이트에 접속하여 이 약관에 따라 당 사이트가 제공하는 서비스를 받는 회원 및 비회원을
② "회원"이라 함은 서비스를 이용하기 위하여 당 사이트에 개인정보를 제공하여 아이디(ID)와 비밀번호를 부여
받은 자를 말합니다.
③ "회원 아이디(ID)"라 함은 회원의 식별 및 서비스 이용을 위하여 자신이 선정한 문자 및 숫자의 조합을
④ "비밀번호(패스워드)"라 함은 회원이 자신의 비밀보호를 위하여 선정한 문자 및 숫자의 조합을 말합니다.
제 3 조 (이용약관의 효력 및 변경)
① 이 약관은 당 사이트에 게시하거나 기타의 방법으로 회원에게 공지함으로써 효력이 발생합니다.
② 당 사이트는 이 약관을 개정할 경우에 적용일자 및 개정사유를 명시하여 현행 약관과 함께 당 사이트의
초기화면에 그 적용일자 7일 이전부터 적용일자 전일까지 공지합니다. 다만, 회원에게 불리하게 약관내용을
변경하는 경우에는 최소한 30일 이상의 사전 유예기간을 두고 공지합니다. 이 경우 당 사이트는 개정 전
내용과 개정 후 내용을 명확하게 비교하여 이용자가 알기 쉽도록 표시합니다.
제 4 조(약관 외 준칙)
① 이 약관은 당 사이트가 제공하는 서비스에 관한 이용안내와 함께 적용됩니다.
② 이 약관에 명시되지 아니한 사항은 관계법령의 규정이 적용됩니다.
제 2 장 이용계약의 체결
제 5 조 (이용계약의 성립 등)
① 이용계약은 이용고객이 당 사이트가 정한 약관에 「동의합니다」를 선택하고, 당 사이트가 정한
온라인신청양식을 작성하여 서비스 이용을 신청한 후, 당 사이트가 이를 승낙함으로써 성립합니다.
② 제1항의 승낙은 당 사이트가 제공하는 과학기술정보검색, 맞춤정보, 서지정보 등 다른 서비스의 이용승낙을
제 6 조 (회원가입)
서비스를 이용하고자 하는 고객은 당 사이트에서 정한 회원가입양식에 개인정보를 기재하여 가입을 하여야 합니다.
제 7 조 (개인정보의 보호 및 사용)
당 사이트는 관계법령이 정하는 바에 따라 회원 등록정보를 포함한 회원의 개인정보를 보호하기 위해 노력합니다. 회원 개인정보의 보호 및 사용에 대해서는 관련법령 및 당 사이트의 개인정보 보호정책이 적용됩니다.
제 8 조 (이용 신청의 승낙과 제한)
① 당 사이트는 제6조의 규정에 의한 이용신청고객에 대하여 서비스 이용을 승낙합니다.
② 당 사이트는 아래사항에 해당하는 경우에 대해서 승낙하지 아니 합니다.
- 이용계약 신청서의 내용을 허위로 기재한 경우
- 기타 규정한 제반사항을 위반하며 신청하는 경우
제 9 조 (회원 ID 부여 및 변경 등)
① 당 사이트는 이용고객에 대하여 약관에 정하는 바에 따라 자신이 선정한 회원 ID를 부여합니다.
② 회원 ID는 원칙적으로 변경이 불가하며 부득이한 사유로 인하여 변경 하고자 하는 경우에는 해당 ID를
해지하고 재가입해야 합니다.
③ 기타 회원 개인정보 관리 및 변경 등에 관한 사항은 서비스별 안내에 정하는 바에 의합니다.
제 3 장 계약 당사자의 의무
제 10 조 (KISTI의 의무)
① 당 사이트는 이용고객이 희망한 서비스 제공 개시일에 특별한 사정이 없는 한 서비스를 이용할 수 있도록
② 당 사이트는 개인정보 보호를 위해 보안시스템을 구축하며 개인정보 보호정책을 공시하고 준수합니다.
③ 당 사이트는 회원으로부터 제기되는 의견이나 불만이 정당하다고 객관적으로 인정될 경우에는 적절한 절차를
거쳐 즉시 처리하여야 합니다. 다만, 즉시 처리가 곤란한 경우는 회원에게 그 사유와 처리일정을 통보하여야
제 11 조 (회원의 의무)
① 이용자는 회원가입 신청 또는 회원정보 변경 시 실명으로 모든 사항을 사실에 근거하여 작성하여야 하며,
허위 또는 타인의 정보를 등록할 경우 일체의 권리를 주장할 수 없습니다.
② 당 사이트가 관계법령 및 개인정보 보호정책에 의거하여 그 책임을 지는 경우를 제외하고 회원에게 부여된
ID의 비밀번호 관리소홀, 부정사용에 의하여 발생하는 모든 결과에 대한 책임은 회원에게 있습니다.
③ 회원은 당 사이트 및 제 3자의 지적 재산권을 침해해서는 안 됩니다.
제 4 장 서비스의 이용
제 12 조 (서비스 이용 시간)
① 서비스 이용은 당 사이트의 업무상 또는 기술상 특별한 지장이 없는 한 연중무휴, 1일 24시간 운영을
원칙으로 합니다. 단, 당 사이트는 시스템 정기점검, 증설 및 교체를 위해 당 사이트가 정한 날이나 시간에
서비스를 일시 중단할 수 있으며, 예정되어 있는 작업으로 인한 서비스 일시중단은 당 사이트 홈페이지를
통해 사전에 공지합니다.
② 당 사이트는 서비스를 특정범위로 분할하여 각 범위별로 이용가능시간을 별도로 지정할 수 있습니다. 다만
이 경우 그 내용을 공지합니다.
제 13 조 (홈페이지 저작권)
① NDSL에서 제공하는 모든 저작물의 저작권은 원저작자에게 있으며, KISTI는 복제/배포/전송권을 확보하고
② NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 상업적 및 기타 영리목적으로 복제/배포/전송할 경우 사전에 KISTI의 허락을
③ NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 보도, 비평, 교육, 연구 등을 위하여 정당한 범위 안에서 공정한 관행에
합치되게 인용할 수 있습니다.
④ NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 무단 복제, 전송, 배포 기타 저작권법에 위반되는 방법으로 이용할 경우
저작권법 제136조에 따라 5년 이하의 징역 또는 5천만 원 이하의 벌금에 처해질 수 있습니다.
제 14 조 (유료서비스)
① 당 사이트 및 협력기관이 정한 유료서비스(원문복사 등)는 별도로 정해진 바에 따르며, 변경사항은 시행 전에
당 사이트 홈페이지를 통하여 회원에게 공지합니다.
② 유료서비스를 이용하려는 회원은 정해진 요금체계에 따라 요금을 납부해야 합니다.
제 5 장 계약 해지 및 이용 제한
제 15 조 (계약 해지)
회원이 이용계약을 해지하고자 하는 때에는 [가입해지] 메뉴를 이용해 직접 해지해야 합니다.
제 16 조 (서비스 이용제한)
① 당 사이트는 회원이 서비스 이용내용에 있어서 본 약관 제 11조 내용을 위반하거나, 다음 각 호에 해당하는
경우 서비스 이용을 제한할 수 있습니다.
- 2년 이상 서비스를 이용한 적이 없는 경우
- 기타 정상적인 서비스 운영에 방해가 될 경우
② 상기 이용제한 규정에 따라 서비스를 이용하는 회원에게 서비스 이용에 대하여 별도 공지 없이 서비스 이용의
일시정지, 이용계약 해지 할 수 있습니다.
제 17 조 (전자우편주소 수집 금지)
회원은 전자우편주소 추출기 등을 이용하여 전자우편주소를 수집 또는 제3자에게 제공할 수 없습니다.
제 6 장 손해배상 및 기타사항
제 18 조 (손해배상)
당 사이트는 무료로 제공되는 서비스와 관련하여 회원에게 어떠한 손해가 발생하더라도 당 사이트가 고의 또는 과실로 인한 손해발생을 제외하고는 이에 대하여 책임을 부담하지 아니합니다.
제 19 조 (관할 법원)
서비스 이용으로 발생한 분쟁에 대해 소송이 제기되는 경우 민사 소송법상의 관할 법원에 제기합니다.
1. (시행일) 이 약관은 2016년 9월 5일부터 적용되며, 종전 약관은 본 약관으로 대체되며, 개정된 약관의 적용일 이전 가입자도 개정된 약관의 적용을 받습니다.