This study has been carried out with the aims of developing a comprehensive inventory of peer relation problems, which is based on the Korean Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex scales (KIIP-C). It also aims to examine reliability and validity of the inventory, and provide a preliminary norms. For the current study, inventory items were culled from the following sources: the Korean Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex scales (KIIP-C), various current scales dealing with peer relations of children, and a survey of children's peer relation problems. The preliminary items for each scale were administered to 220 fourth through sixth graders. The resulting skewness of distribution, kurtosis, mean and standard deviation, item-total correlation, internal consistency, and meanings of the items were comprehensively considered in selecting the final 64 items. In order to check on reliability, internal consistency, convergence and discrimination reliability of the final items and scales, the data were collected from 1,046 fourth through sixth graders currently attending four elementary schools. The study results can be summarized as follows. Internal consistency of the inventory of peer relation problems showed the range between .70-.94 (median value of .75), split-half reliability between .67-.83 (median value of .75), and test-retest reliability between .69-.88 (median value of .81). Inter-correlation of 8 scale scores and factor analysis results of individual ipsative scores showed that the circumplex property of inventory of peer relation problems is appropriate. Regarding correlations between various existing indices and scales related to peer relation problems, both convergence reliability and discrimination reliability were found to be fair. When the scale scores for the inventory of peer relation problems compared according to the factors of gender and grade, the primary effects of gender and grade were statistically meaningful whereas effects of interaction between gender and grade were not. This study can be considered meaningful in that it constructed an inventory for a comprehensive evaluation of peer relation problems specific for children and provided preliminary norms.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of solution focused group counseling program on peer relationship and school life adaption of elementary school children. The subjects in this study were the 4th graders at S Elementary School in Ansan, Gyeonggi-do. 20 students were selected through the preliminary test of peer relationship and school life adaption, that is to say, each 10 students of experimental group and control group. A solution focused group counseling program was provided by researcher to the experimental group in six sessions once or twice a week, 60 minutes each. but control group was not conducted for any program. In verifying of the program effects in this study, KOREAN SPSS/WIN(version 12.0) is used for statistical analysis. The major findings of this study are as follows: First, solution focused group counseling program has a positive effect on all parts of sub-factors of peer relationship except to union life between friends. Second, solution focused group counseling program has a effect on the school life adaption of elementary and its all parts of sub-factors except to school rules. As noted above, it is proved that solution focused group counseling program has a positive effect to improve parts of sub-factors of peer relationship and school life adaption. Accordingly, it is necessary to feel satisfaction and Qualitative improvement in peer relationship and help school life adaptation of elementary school children through solution focused group counseling program.
The goal of this study is to examine the sociality and school adjustment of elementary school lower-class students. The following research hypotheses were set up and addressed: Hypothesis 1: There would be significant differences in sociality of the elementary school lower-class students according to activity - making friends group counseling Program. Hypothesis 2: There would be significant differences in school adjustment of the elementary school lower-class students according to activity - making friends group counseling Program. The subjects for the study were 20 first grade students attending N elementary school in Daejeon area. The students were assigned to the two groups-experimental group(N=10) and controlled group(N=10). The experimental group received 10 sessions of the activity - making Friends group counseling program for 40 minutes by 2 times every week, and the controlled group didn't do anything. To verify the hypotheses, two tests(sociality and school adjustment tests) were administered for the pretest and post-test. Means and standard deviations obtained from these tests were analyzed with factorial covariance test using SPSSWIN(10.0). The results were as follows: Hypothesis 1 was confirmed. The scores of experimental group were significantly higher than those of controlled group in sociability, cooperation and independence, but not in observance. Hypothesis 2 was confirmed. The scores of experimental group were significantly higher than those of controlled group in teacher-student relationship, student-student relationship and classes, but not in the keeping rules. The conclusion of the result is that the program have a good effect on the elementary school lower-class students' sociality and school adjustment. Above all, along with long-term adaptability of the research, continuous studies are required.
The purpose of this study was closely to explore the guidance experiences of senior elementary teachers who have had over 30 years of teaching experiences in elementary school based on interpretive(or hermeneutic) inquiry. The entry research question was 'What are the guidance experiences of senior elementary teachers like?' Seven senior elementary teachers working for O elementary School in G city participated in this study voluntarily. Each participant was interviewed twice in a consecutive manner. 14 periods of interview were completed all together and each period took about 40-60 minutes. In conclusion, this study conceptualized the guidance experiences of the senior elementary teachers(participants) as follows: First, the concepts of guidance held by the participants were conceptualized as 1) supporting and caring activity helping students to lead joyful school life, 2) assisting activity helping students to grow on good basic life habits, 3) character building activity helping students to lead integrative growth. Second, the fields and contents of guidance held by the participants were conceptualized as basic life habits, manners, and health & safety. Interestingly, these concepts were evolved in connection with their personal, practical teaching experiences rather than in-service teacher education. Third, the guidance methods frequently used by the participants were co-work with parents, exemplary storytelling, counselling, and praise. The participants applied these methods differently according to the grade, individual difference, and school curriculum policy to some degree. Fourth, the participants have experienced a lot of struggles with students, teachers, and parents in doing their guidance practices throughout the whole teaching career. Their guidance experiences commonly shifted from more teacher-centered or authoritative to more student-centered or relational way as their teaching years accumulated. Interestingly, all the participants more or less lived as lifelong learners to create their own right space as senior teachers in today's competitive and challenging landscape. This study strongly suggests that responsible teacher education can playa great role of enabling senior teachers to cope with guidance issues successfully. Compared with the speedy social change, the teacher education in Korea had been so authoritative, provider-based, subject-based until recently and it have not met the needs and wants of the elementary teachers in field. This trend has significantly hindered them from catching up with the needs of the speedy social change in terms of contemporary guidance issues. This study is limited in that the data is solely collected based on interview. So, an observational research is strongly suggested in order to uncover the situated understanding of the guidance experiences of elementary senior teachers.
This study intends to confirm if it is effective in improving the problem behaviors by applying "Logical Consequence" suggested by Adler to the class management. The researcher who is in charge of the 4th grade class of elementary school in G city applied Adlerian logical consequence to her children, observed and examined the effectiveness of reducing the problem behaviors by the qualitative study method of in-depth interview from March to October. The problem behaviors treated in this study includes irrelevant remarks and gossip in school time, no preparation for taking lessons in time, no preparation of a textbook and a supply, no involvement in doing homework, scribbling and poor handwriting on a textbook, teasing a friend (abusive language, joking, violence), indoor running, no involvement in doing a task, being late and no arrangement of indoor shoes. In conclusion, this study indicated that the use of Logical Consequence was relatively effective in improving the problem behaviors and more effective in individual behaviors rather than group's behaviors. While the problem behaviors conducted in a class in the daily routine were effective at the point of the occurred problems, the problem behaviors occurred at the point of time related to a home or the finish of daily routine were ineffective.
In this study, a preliminary study has been made to check the availability of examination after selecting one among the criteria to adaptation of school life, in recognition of the necessity for a tool in order to collect multi =dimensional information about children. An examination has been done with the survey target of 291 pupils in the fifth and sixth grade in an elementary school located in Incheon. And the focus group with the teachers in charge of each class was undertaken to check the availability of the examination. As the result of the examination, 37 was the average score of children diagnosed as the category of temporary maladaptation in terms of the score of 4 sub-scales of school adaptation and their total scores, and 28 was the score which corresponds to the assessment of teachers. The results of examinations and the evaluations of teachers were proved to be highly correlated. Lastly discussion is focused on the meaning of these findings and the suggestions for the further studies.
This study aimed at examining an effect of peer counselor's mentor activity on rejected children's peer relationship in elementary school. To achieve this goal, the following hypothesis was made. Hypothesis I : Peer counselor's mentor activity will improve rejected children's peer relationship. I -1 : Peer counselor's mentor activity will improve rejected children's trust to peer. I -2 : Peer counselor's mentor activity will improve rejected children's respect to peer. To test the hypothesis, after sociometry papers 19 fifth-graders for rejected children groups were selected from four classes at H elementary school in Busan according to Coie & Dodge's(1988) five classified system that is modified to Korean situation by Ahn ie-hwan(2006). Ten rejected students from two classes were labeled as a peer group with a peer counselor and nine rejected students who had similar characteristics from two classes were labeled as an non-peer group without a peer counselor. The peer counselors were decided by obtaining affirmative mentions of rejected students group. Peer counselors participated in the training of peer counselor's skill program and then they had a person to person mentor activity with the rejected children's group that they belonging to. The training consisting of a total of four sessions, 3 times a week, was provided to peer counselors eleven times after school. The peer counselors given the peer counselling training did person to person mentor activity with the peer group's rejected children for a month. The mentor activity, three times a week, following during training was reinforced after school. For peer counselor training, the elementary school children's peer counseling program developed by Lee Sang-hi, Roh Seong-deok and Lee Ji-eun(2001) was used. Hong Ok-soon's(1984) peer relationship test, Moreno's(1934) sociometry tool were used to verify an effect of the peer counselor's mentor activity. For the data analysis, quantitative analysis with sociometry tool and qualitative analysis with social status and social type change were used. To know the difference in pre test and post test peer relationship between experimental group and control group, in quantitative analysis, ANCOVA result was used and qualitative analysis, social status and social type was used. The finding was as followings. First, after peer counselor's mentor activity, there was a significant improvement in rejected children's trust and respect to peer and the whole relationship from the pretest to the post test. Second, peer counselor's mentor activity gave rise to affirmative changes on rejected children's social status and social type. This study concluded that peer counselor's mentor activity would help rejected children's peer relationship to change affirmatively and improve.
The purpose of the study you have seen is to verify the effectiveness of existing quantitative research and to put the Empathy Training Program to practical use for participating children. From looking into this, the changes in empathic understanding that came to light in relationships between teacher and children and children and children are sure to have that effect. For this work, I established the following subject of inquiry: What kind of changing processes can be seen in the empathic understanding of participating children in the Empathy Training Program? To resolve the above line of inquiry, six female sixth grade elementary school students were chosen and they progressed through twelve sessions of the Empathy Training Program. The children were given a sentence completion exam, recognition work, neat writing exam and a school adaptation exam both before and after participation in the program, making data for analysis. To analyze, first, participants had one or two meetings of forty to fifty minutes each. Progress through the program's curriculum was recorded and through the repeating and copying method, to be sure participating children's empathic understanding was revealed, empathic language and behavior was routinely chosen. Next, according the above criteria I looked into visible changes of the participating children's empathic expressions, classifying and analyzing changes in empathic understanding and six instances of common changes in the emphatic understanding of the participants relationships were analyzed and put together. Next I will summarize the findings we have seen in this research: First, if we look into changes in common empathic understanding from the beginning, using the criteria of empathic language, each individual showed understanding at the beginning and passed and progressed through stages of care, insight and emotional expressions. Second, when we looked at the criteria of empathic behavior from the beginning to the end, one's line of vision and ability to concentrate one's attention was connected. Next, the act of nodding one's head looked like a brief nod at first but at the end, it was not just a simple nod but rather they could feel deep empathy. The condition and substance of the facial expression was seen to match and at the very end the child was expressive and stretched out arms to hold and pat the other person and the act of holding hands could also be seen. Among lots of empathic behavior the final stage was shown by half of the children. Third, from the first stage to the last stage there were many cases revealed. The more the children went the more complete their empathic language became. Their vocabulary increased and became more diverse with empathic actions. Also, when comparing actions and expressions from the beginning with the end, visible expressions became more natural and sincere at the end. The result of the research we have seen is that through receiving experience of empathic understanding, participating children showed a sense of self-confidence and they looked to make peaceful expressions while not being aggressive or defensive about problems. In addition, from understanding empathic expressions, participating children's relationships felt closer. This outcome within this group in this case will be applied and the formation of empathic understanding can be used by the children internally to solve their own problems, acquire close relationships with their teachers and others. It will also contribute to smooth classroom management.
This study aims to examine the effects of art therapy on challenging behavior of schoolchildren. For this purpose, I selected one class of 4th year student of S primary school, located at Jeongeup city, Jeonlabukdo, and selected 4 study subjects through examination of K-CBCL children. juvenile behavior evaluation scale, characters, school life and K - HTP test. With regard to procedure of this study, I carried out art therapy program at the art class for 60 minutes one time a week for 4 months, a total of 17 sessions from Apr. 3, 2007 to July 24, 2007. I made this program with some modification in reference to Arts Therapy Technique (Counpia Remote Training Center, 2005), Group Art Therapy (Choi Seon Nam. Kim Gap Sook. Jeon Jong Kuk, 2007) and the Effects of Peer Group Art Activity on Sociality Skill of Offensive Children (Park Ju Yeon. Lee Byeon In, 2005). For each child, I compared and analyzed the changes in score of K-CBCL children. juvenile behavior evaluation scale, behavior by K-HTP (dynamic house-wood-human figure test) analysis and by school life(KSD) image analysis before and after treatment. I also carried out qualitative analysis on behavioral feature of each child for each session. This study obtained the following conclusions. First, child A showed positive change in comparison before and after art treatment program of score K-CBCL children. juvenile behavior evaluation, K-HTP image test and school life. Since he was so active and wanted to obtain good evaluation from anyone that he frequently had quarrel with friends, spoke against others well and beaten others much but was changed and did not speak against others or beat. Second, child B showed clear difference in comparison before and after art treatment program of score K-CBCL children. juvenile behavior evaluation, but no significant difference in K-HTP image test and school life. However, I observed substantial changes. While he could not speak frankly to others, felt empty in mind and was offensive in personal relations, he was changed, did not have quarrel with others or speak against others that much and improved his relationship with friends or teachers. Third, child C showed positive change in score of K-CBCL children juvenile behavior evaluation after art therapy program. In comparison of K-HTP image test and school life treatment before and after treatment, he still longed for mothers in mind but found rather stable after treatment. Fourth, child D showed positive chance in score of K-CBCL children. juvenile behavior evaluation scale after art therapy program, but almost no changes in K-HTP image test. But he depicted good relationship and socializing with other friends in school life. While he could not carry his point due to social immaturity and felt depressed, he got more confident. This result of study showed that art therapy had positive effects on correction of schoolchildren.
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