초등상담연구 (The Korean Journal of Elementary Counseling)
- 교육 ＞ 교육일반
- 교육 ＞ 학교교육
This study aims at examining effects of study skills training on elementary school children's self-directed learning ability. To achieve this goal, the following hypotheses were built. Hypothesis 1. There are significant differences in self-directed learning ability between experimental and control groups. Hypothesis 2. There are significant differences in study skills by self-directed learning ability in the experimental group. To test these hypotheses, two classes in the fourth grade were selected from S Elementary School in the city of Busan for experimental and control groups, each of which consisted of 23 children: seven for the advanced group, eight for the intermediate group, and eight for the lower group according to self-directed learning ability. The experimental group participated in twenty sessions of study skills training while the control group went through no treatment. The study skills training program was the reconstruction to meet the requirements of this study in reference to domestic study skills training programs on the basis of the Study Skills Training Program for Elementary School Children in the Higher Grades developed by Byeon and others (2001), The effects of the program was tested by using the Study Skills Test for Elementary School Children in the Higher Grades developed by the educational institute of Busan National University (Bye on et al., 1999) and Lee's (1998) translation of the Self-Directed Learning Preparation Test by Guglielmino (1977) for elementary school children. To analyze the effects of the program, the SPSSWIN (10.0) program was used to carry out ANCOVA on results of pretest and post-test for experimental and control groups, along with repetitive one-way ANOVA to examine differences in results of pretest, post-test, and further test and an individual comparative test (Scheffe) to see differences in means of the three tests. This study obtained the following results. First, there were significant differences in marks for self-directed learning ability between the experimental group participating in study skills training and the control group and the effect was shown to last. Second, in terms of three levels of self-directed learning ability, there was no significant difference between advanced and intermediate groups in the effects on study skills but there were significant differences in the lower group. The results demonstrated that study skills training had a significant effect on their self-directed learning ability. and the study skills training program had a meaningful effect on the lower group.
The objective of this study is to conduct survey analyses of the role perception and performance of homeroom teachers in elementary schools in Seoul as well as their students' expectations for teachers' role as counsellors. The study also aims to analyze the causes behind the lackluster performance, to provide assistance in teachers' counselling and guidance activities and collect basic data for providing a plausible orientation for elementary school counselling. Research topics for achieving these study objectives are as follows. First, what is the status quo of counselling between elementary school students and teachers? Second, what is the role perception of elementary school homeroom teachers as counsellors and their current level of performance? Third, what are the differences in students' expectations for homeroom teachers' role as counsellors according to students' environmental variables such as gender and grade? Fourth, what are the discrepancies between the roles perception and performance of elementary school homeroom teachers and role expectation of students for homeroom teachers' role as counsellors? In order to answer these questions, surveys were conducted for 229 teachers and 385 students in grades 4, 5 and 6 in 11 elementary schools in Seoul, and the results were analyzed. The questionnaires used for this study were modified and supplemented according to the research objectives based on survey questions released by Gyung-Beom Lee(1989), Hak-Soo Lee(2001) and Gi-Nam Gwon(2005). Statistical analyses were peformed using the SPSS for Windows 10.0 program. The results of the study can be summarized as follows. First, most elementary school homeroom teachers were involved in counselling activities, and about half of them were providing counselling once a month or less. The classroom was the primary location of counselling, and more than half of the surveyed teachers were dissatisfied with their counselling activities. The teachers cited overwhelming teaching hours and excessive work as the factors that made counselling difficult. Second, it was revealed that most elementary school students have had experiences of anguish and most have had some form of counselling. They mostly sought counselling from their parents and friends, and the reasons behind such choices were that they were very understanding. Third, most students responded that they have had no experience of receiving counselling from their homeroom teachers. Among those with counselling experience with their homeroom teachers, most said that the counselling was helpful. The most significant reason for not receiving counselling from their homeroom teachers was that the students had no worries to talk about with their teachers. Fourth, as a result of categorizing the role of elementary school homeroom teachers as counsellors according to the areas of counselling, role perception for each area turned out to be generally high, while performance was substantially lacking. Fifth, in terms of the causes for the lackluster counselling performance, overwhelming teaching hours and excessive work were indicated for counselling areas of academic and personality issues. Sixth, the analysis of students' expectations for elementary school homeroom teachers as counsellors for counselling areas according to gender and grade revealed that there was no overall statistical significance. Seventh, from the general perspective, the level of role perception of the homeroom teachers were higher than the level of students' expectations. In conclusion, in order to enhance the teacher's role as a counsellor, there has to be a concrete perception of roles as a primary premise, calling for training sessions and programs dedicated to counseling for the teachers to take part in. Moreover, in order to alleviate the most significant causes for undermining teachers' counselling activities - overwhelming teaching hours and excessive work - there must be administrative consideration as well as provisions for effective counselling centers and dedicated school counsellors.
The aim of this research is to find out the common emotional factors that elementary school teachers feel when they experience in teaching children with ADHD and to know their responding process through experiential analysis. Seven elementary school teachers took part in this research as co-investigators, and I led the experiential approach. The co-investigators have analyzed their emotional experiences during 4 sessions. They learnt about the method of experience analysis and discussed their emotional experiences of children with ADHD. And they found out some factors concerning their emotional experiences and had the time to discuss in odor to search for the common factors of that process. Finally the co-investigators took part in a session to examine the factors which they have all agreed in, and then I verified this result. 1 interpreted the factors found and constructed a psychological resolution process. Two main objectives and the results of this research are as follows. First, are there any common factors among teachers who experience in treating children with ADHD? This research showed that elementary school teachers get angry and irritated with ADHD children's troubles. Second, what kind of psychological process is there in teachers' experiences children with ADHD? The psychological process of teachers dealing children with ADHD could be conceptualized in 5 steps, the step of recognizing an action of children with ADHD, the step of first cognitive consideration, the step of giving meaning and cognitive appraisal, the step of experiencing emotion, and the step of dealing with emotion. Teachers seemed to experience a little bit different psychological process. According to whether they thought about children's behavior positively or negatively in the second step, they had different emotional experiences. If they had a positive thought, they could take children's nonadaptive behaviors as personal characteristics. However, if they took them negatively, they considered them impolite and disobedient. Even when the teachers experienced negative emotions, their responses were divided into two groups whether they took it positively or negatively. This research showed that if teachers could control their negative emotional experiences, they could calm down with children with ADHD and treat them positively.
The purpose of this study is to develop a group counseling program to improve the learning habits of the elementary school children who experience difficulties learning, because of their wrong learning habits. To achieve it, the sub-elements of learning habits are set by "learning motive & attitude" and "learning technique" A group counseling program composed of the essential factors suitable for each element are srhseqrently, devised to pursue the improvement of learning habits. The study propositions are set as follows: Can the group counseling program improve the learning habits of elementary school children? 1. Can the group counseling program improve the learning motive and attitude of elementary school children? 2. Can the group counseling program improve the learning technique of elementary school children? The subject of this study is the 4th graders of W elementary school located in Gwangju Metropolitan City. After selecting 12 pupils from low scorers after a learning habits test, Each 6 of those are randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group, respectively. In this way, they are pcrticipate in the group counseling program. The group counseling program is consisted of 10 sessions. The program is implemented for six weeks with a 50 min duration per session. As a measuring tool, a restructured test with only motive variables and technique variables, excluding remaining variables, from the Learning Habits Test by Choi Jong-Ryul (1992) is used for pre and post tests. The results of the study is acquired by integrating the statistics from the test tool. Observation of the counselor and testees' thoughts are as follows: The group counseling program affects the sub-elements of learning habits positively, namely learning motive & attitude and learning technique. The program applied in this study is effective in improving the learning habits of the pupils with lower learning habits. Accordingly, this program can be one of the methods to develop effective learning habits, set efficient strategies and exert abilities maximally for the learners, who did not adequately exert their abilities, due to wrong learning habits, while ineffectively learning without knowing effective learning habits. To improve and maintain the learning habits of the elementary school pupils, overall understanding should be backed in order to precisely analyze and identify the learning habits of the pupils. Besides, an association between schools and homes is also needed along with parents' concerns over their children's learning habits at home.
The purpose of this study was to test the emotional intelligence development program and to verify the effects of the emotional intelligence development program for the increase of emotional intelligence and school life adaptation in elementary school students of single parent family To verify the previous hypotheses, 16 children of single parent family(experimental group I : n=8, control group 1 : n=8) and 16 children of two parent family(experimental group II : n=8, control group II : n=8) were selected at random, which are a total of high-grade students from P elementary school in J city, Jeon-buk province. Disposal about experimental group executed the emotional intelligence development program for the humanity education of Moon - yong - lin(1999) and the emotional intelligence development program which was reconstructed guidance for elementary school children of Her - seung - hee (2004) as the level of elementary school for 50 minutes, 16times, twice a week. In order to verify the effects after experiment, 1 collected materials for estimation by providing the subject children with questionaries about emotional intelligence and the ability of school life adaptation before and after the experiment, and then analyzed the average differences in number of marks between the experiment group and the control group before and after the experiment through and by using One-Way ANOVA, and SPSS WIN 12.0 program. The results of the study were as follows : First, there was significant increase between experimental group and control group received the emotional intelligence development program on emotional intelligence in statistic data(p<.01). Second, there was significant increase between experimental group and control group received the emotional intelligence development program on the school life adaptation in statistic data(p<.001). Third, there was no significant difference between the single parent family's children and the two parent family's children of the experimental group received the emotional Intelligence development program on the emotional intelligence and the ability of school life adaptation(p>.05). But single parent family's children were higher significant increase than two parent family's children on the relationship with teacher(<.01). The results obtained in this study indicated that the emotional intelligence development program was effective on the emotional intelligence and the ability of school life adaptation. Also, these showed that this program helps the school life adaptation and positive relationship with teacher of single parent family's children.
Lately, the rapid social and family system change, the entrance examination-centered circumstance in education have a negative influence not only on making up the affirmative self-esteem but also on building up the personal relationship through mutual communication with friends of the same age. Making children adapt well to school life and develop a good relationship in the class is an important subject in educational field. Thus, various school activities should offer lots of opportunities to increase their affirmative self-esteem and more specified performance-centered programs are required toform a harmonious relationship among parties of students. The purpose of this study is to improve an affirmative self-esteern and a desirable personal relationship of children through developing friend-praise program and adapting it to children. Based on the above purpose, the following subjects for this study 'are suggested. Firstly, is the friend-praise program effective in forming an affirmative self-esteem of elementary students? Secondly, is the friend-praise program successful in improving a desirable personal relationship in an elementary school? In addition, two hypotheses of study are decided on the basis of theoretical background and the former study. Hypothesis 1. The friend-praise program will have a meaningful effect on improving an affirmative self-esteem. Hypothesis 2. The friend-praise program will have a meaningful effect on improving a desirable personal relationship. In order to improve the above hypotheses, the experiment was carried out with two classes on the fourth grade in M elementary school in Wonju with being divided into one experimental group and the other comparative group. The friend-praise program which was adapted to the experimental group was composed with four steps as 'introduction', 'preparation', 'operation' and 'closing'. This program which has twelve categories was executed once or twice in a week and each class was continued for forty or sixty minutes. Contrastively, comparative group had no application of the main program. For the purpose of proving the hypotheses after adapting the program to students, I have executed both self-esteem test and personal relationship test. The tests were performed with using SPSS/Windows V10.0 and the statistic was conducted through independant sample t-test for the difference between groups and contrastive sample t-test for the individual difference in each group. The results of this study can be summarized like the followings: Firstly, from the result of previous and after tests, there was no meaningful change in the comparative group, but the experimental group showed meaningful difference in all categories of self-esteem(t=-4.496, p=.000). Especially, the general self-esteem(t=-3.216, p=.003), social self-esteem(t=-2.680, p=.012), homely self-esteem(t=-3.732, p=.001), and school self-esteem(t=-3.902, p=.000) showed a meaningful difference. At the same time, the experimental group also showed meaningful difference with the comparative group in self-esteem(t=-4.758, p=.000). Especially, the general self-esteem(t=2.581, p=.017), social self-esteem(t=3.160, p=.003), homely self-esteem(t=4.283, p=.000), and school self-esteem(t=4.110, p=.000) showed a meaningful difference. As a result of this experiment, the friend-praise program will have a meaningful effect on improving an affirmative self-esteem was proved. Secondly, there was no meaningful change in the comparative group, but the experimental group showed meaningful difference in all categories of personal relationship(t=-4.131, p=.000). Specifically, satisfaction(t=-2.113, p=.045), communication(t=-3.381, p=.002), confidence(t=-3.517, p=.001), intimacy(t=-3.958, p=.000), sensibility(t=-2.955, p=.006), openness(t=-4.318, p=.000) and interest(t=-2.941, p=.000) showed a meaningful difference. In the same instant, the experimental group also showed meaningful difference with the comparative group in all categories of personal relationship(t=3.897, p=.000). Especially, satisfaction(t=2.257, p=.003), communication(t=3.527, p=.001), confidence(t=3.704, p=.001), intimacy(t=3.904, p=.000), sensibility (t=4.382, p=.000), openness(t=2.648, p=.013) and interest(t=2.944, p=.006) showed a meaningful difference. Accordingly, the friend-praise program will have a meaningful effect on improving a desirable personal relationship was proved. Judging from all these results, we should provide primary students with various opportunities to take part in active programs which help them to set up their righteous sense of value, to solve their own problems and to develop their potentials. Consequently, many kinds of practice-centered program like the friend-praise program should be developed more systematically and teachers should apply all those programs to students according to their individual level and developmental stage.
The object of this study is to inspect how much influence the play-based assertive training program has on the self-expression and learning attitude of elementary students. To perform this study, I set up two subjects of research. First, does the play-based assertive training program have influence on the self-expression improvement of elementary students? Second, does the play-based assertive training program have influence on the attitude of elementary students? I established 28 students in the third grade of K elementary school in Gongju City as experiment group for this research. In experiment group, 1 peformed play-based assertive training program in the class of discretion and extra-curricula activity twice a week and maintained the program for 6 weeks. By the standard of 12 times of performances, I put pre-test and post-test into operation. The major consequences revealed through above processes are followed: First, as the consequence of analyses of differences between pre-test and post-test about self-expression of experiment group adapted by play-using assertion training program, the level of self-expression was advanced meaningfully. Second, as the consequences of analyses of differences between pre-test and post-test about learning-attitude of experiment group adapted by play-based assertive training program, the level of learning-attitude was advanced meaningfully. Among 8 sub-fields of learning attitude, the field of superiority, accomplishment motives, concentration, self-study show statistically meaningful difference s respectively. The conclusion drawn from above consequences is that the play-based assertive training program is very effective in developing students' self-expression and attitude for learning.
The purpose of this study was to find out the relations between 6th graders' negative cognitive process and anger experience and aggressiveness. To achieve the goal, it conducted a test to examine children's negative cognitive process, anger experience, aggressiveness targeting 100 children of 6th grade in C elementary school, Gyeonggj province. Then it conducted SPSS 12.0 statistical program to get the results of correlation analysis and regression analysis. The outcomes were as follows. First, there was a meaningfully positive relation between a negative cognitive process and anger experience. In other words, children having more negative cognitive process seemed to experience the feelings of anger more often, this presented the important role of cognition while getting into a temper Second, it reported a positive relation between anger experience and aggressiveness. Children who have experienced anger more often showed more violent behaviors, especially there were more significant positive relations between trait-anger and aggressiveness compared to state-anger and aggressiveness. This could explain some possibilities that children with high level of trait-anger might outrage more often than others by recognizing the situations as anger stimulants. Third, when conducting a regression analysis, a negative cognitive process made an effect on anger experience which affected aggressiveness. However, it did not show a negative cognitive process making a direct effect on aggressiveness. This is considered that children could experience an anger while evaluating an event or object in a negative way based on individual belief, and emotional linguistic behavioral aggressiveness would be formalized as they express the sparked fury either internally or externally. In conclusion, this study proved that there were close relations between children's negative cognitive process and anger experience and aggressiveness. A negative cognitive process affects anger experience, and anger experience affects aggressiveness afterwards. A negative cognitive process affects aggressiveness through anger experience indirectly, and especially trait-anger among anger experience is the main factor to influence on aggressiveness. With consideration of these results, it is believed that mediation is important key to moderate the negative cognition and trait-anger in order to diminish children's aggressive behaviors. This study has a meaning to provide searching for manifold mediating methods between negative cognition and trait anger, with a fundamental resource.
It seems common for students living at a small county and islands to experience psychological conflicts and be unaccustomed in the peer society because they are not familiar with peer interaction and social skills. This is a case study of L (hereinafter called L) who was grown up in the sheltered school at a small county. L was psychologically disturbed because he couldn't get along well in the transferred school. It is the reason why he had lived in the sheltered school at a small county, so he had not enough exposure to interact with peer and social skills. Sometimes he was obstinate irrationally and when he had trouble with friends, he threw something out or went out of school and tricked juniors dangerously. The fact of disperse with families, parent's indifference, and hate of older brother made L to have ill feeling against family. He had low motivation and low self confident in learning because of short attention time and accumulated poor learning progress. In this study, he was evaluated at various area, such as, intelligent, affective, personal and inter-personal, before counselling. To evaluated the effect of the counselling, K-WISC-III, KPRC, sentence filling test, social adaptation ability test, etc, were administered right after the counselling was over and 8 weeks later. For specific information gathering and analysing, observation diary and deepen counselling were accomplished by homeroom teacher, his mother, and his peers. To correct his problematic behaviors, 13 counseling sessions were accomplished for 6 months and those counselling sessions were recorded and analysed definitely. Followings are the result of this case study. First, he was recovered from the anxiety of inter-personal interaction and he started to interact with peers. The result of sac scale score of KPRC profile was lower than before as much as average student after counseling and 8 weeks later. This reveals that the distress against interpersonal relation have settled. Especially, through the result of sentence filing test, he seemed to feel attachment to peers and be positive, active in the relation of peer. For instance, he was active in the open class lesson and interacted well with peers. It could be said that he overcame the psychological distress comparing with previous time. Second, he could apologize to his peer and juniors for his fault. His attitude were well shown in the letter from an old friend at the sheltered school, average KPRC profiling score comparing with previous counseling time, and remarkable decrease of attack scale score of teacher and peer. Third, his view toward family turn out positive. He recognized his situation that he lived apart from family and even worried about his parent's financial difficulty. Through solving the confliction with his older brother, he could acquire the feeling of family reunion. Fourth, his learning motivation and self-confidence were increased. He confirmed his future positively and he might be judged more attentive because his intelligence index was higher than before as much as average student. With the main goal of this study, verification for effectiveness of counseling. understanding and helping problematic students such as L who lives at a small county and island through investigation of their real situation and problems with the method of counseling and socio-cultural analysis is worthwhile. Identification of ideal relationship with peer is related with positive self-conception, harmonic social adaptation and development of child. It is time to investigate easy adaptive in classroom and well-organised program to acquire general social skills for sheltered school students at a small county and islands.
The purpose of this study were to examine the effects of brain gym on elementary school children's self-regulated ability and self-esteem. The subjects were 60 students in grade 4 who had been randomly assigned to experimental group and control group. Prior to the experimental treatment, pretests such as self-regulated ability test by Hong Ki-Chil and self-esteem test by Coopersmith were administered. And then experimental group was treated with brain gym, while control group was no treated. The treatment lasted for 8weeks, each day consisting of 25minutes. In order to test the effectiveness of the brain gym, posttests were administered after treatment. The results were analyzed by using t-test. The findings of this study were as follows: 1. The posttest score of experimental group showed higher than that of control group in self-regulated ability. But the difference was not statistically significant. 2. In experimental group, the posttest score showed higher than the pretest score in self-regulated ability. The difference was statistically significant. 3. The posttest score of experimental group showed higher than that of control group in self-esteem. The difference was statistically significant. 4. In experimental group, the posttest score showed higher than the pretest score in self-esteem. The difference was statistically significant, especially in academic self-esteem. The above results could be taken as the indication that the brain gym could be applied in school settings to promote the higher self-regulated ability and self-esteem.