The Effectiveness of Non-pharmacological Interventions on Anxiety in Children Undergoing Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

수술 환아의 불안에 적용한 비약물적 중재의 효과: 체계적 문헌고찰 및 메타분석

  • Received : 2021.03.15
  • Accepted : 2021.05.04
  • Published : 2021.05.31


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions for reducing perioperative anxiety in children undergoing surgery. Methods: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with the primary outcome of children's perioperative anxiety was conducted. The literature search was performed using various databases, including Cochrane Library, CINAHL, EMBASE, PubMed, and Korean electronic databases with confined to RCTs between 2000 and 2020. A total of sixteen studies were suitable the inclusion criteria and were systematically reviewed. The bias risk of randomized studies was evaluated using Cochrane's risk of bias tool. For the meta-analysis, RevMan 5.4 was used to analyze effect sizes of interventional factors. Results: Finally, twelve RCTs studies were used for meta-analysis. The non-pharmacological interventions implemented to reduce perioperative anxiety in children were therapeutic play, clown therapy and information provision. First, therapeutic play had a significant effect on reducing preoperative anxiety, with an effect size of -1.46 (95% CI=-1.78~-1.14). Second, clown therapy had a significant effect on reducing preoperative anxiety, with an effect size of -0.97 (95% CI=-1.45~-0.49). Finally, the provision of information had a significant effect on reducing preoperative anxiety, with an effect size of -0.75 (95% CI=-0.99~-0.51). Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests that non-pharmaceutical interventions provide effective methods of reducing perioperative anxiety in children. Therefore, the findings verify evidence that various non-pharmacological interventions are effective means for reducing children's preoperative anxiety.



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