Pollination Effect and Nesting Behavior of Osmia cornifrons on 'Hongro', Early and 'Fuji', Late-season Apple Cultivars

중생종 '홍로'와 만생종 '후지'사과에서 머리뿔가위벌(Osmia cornifrons)의 영소활동 특성과 화분매개효과

  • Lee, Kyeong Yong (Industrial Insect Division, Department of Agricultural Biology, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, RDA) ;
  • Lee, Jung Ae (Yeongju Agricultural Technology Center) ;
  • Yoon, Hyung Ju (Industrial Insect Division, Department of Agricultural Biology, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, RDA)
  • 이경용 (농촌진흥청 국립농업과학원 농업생물부 곤충산업과) ;
  • 이정애 (영주시농업기술센터 기술지원과) ;
  • 윤형주 (농촌진흥청 국립농업과학원 농업생물부 곤충산업과)
  • Received : 2021.02.08
  • Accepted : 2021.02.25
  • Published : 2021.03.01


In order to use Osmia cornifrons more effectively in apples, we investigated the pollination effect and nesting activity of O. cornifrons on 'Hongro', the middle-season cultivar, and 'Fuji', the late-season cultivar. There was a significant difference in the nesting activity and pollination effect of O. cornifrons depending on the apple cultivar. The nesting activity, rate of trap nesting, and reproduction in 'Fuji' were 2.5, 1.5, and 3.8 times greater than in 'Hongro', respectively. The pollination effect according to cultivar 'Fuji' was 1.6 times greater than that of 'Hongro' in the central fruit set. In terms of the quality of fruit, the asymmetry index of 'Fuji' was 2.5 times lower than that of 'Hongro', and the number of apple seeds of 'Fuji' was 1.9 times greater than that of 'Hongro'. The main reason for this result was the air temperature. The activity of O. cornifrons was most affected by air temperature (R2 = 0.578). It is expected that the nesting activity and pollination effect are great in 'Fuji' (17.4-24.1℃) when the temperature during the blooming period is higher than that of 'Hongro' (12.5-20.2℃). Our study provides important information on stable apple production for apple cultivators, and can be used as an evidence for changes in flora and insect fauna caused by climate change.


  1. Alston, F.H., 1996. Incompatibility alleles and apple pollination. Acta. Hort. 423, 119-124.
  2. Batra, S.W.T., 1982. The hornfaced bee for efficient pollination of small farm orchards. in Kerr, W.H., Knutson, L.V. (Eds.), Research for small farms, USDA Miscellaneous Publication, Washington, D.C., pp. 116-120.
  3. Bosch, J., Kemp, W.P., 1999. Exceptional cherry production in an orchard pollinated with blue orchard bees. Bee World 80, 163-173.
  4. Bosch, J., Kemp, W.P., 2000. Development and emergence of the orchard pollinator, Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Environ. Entomol. 29, 8-13.
  5. Bosch, J., Kemp, W.P., 2001. How to manage the blue orchard bee, Osmia lignaria, as an orchard pollinator. Sustainable Agriculture Network, Washington D.C.
  6. Bosch, J., Kemp, W.P., Peterson, S.S., 2000. Management of Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) populations for almond pollination: methods to advance bee emergence Environ. Entomol. 29, 874-883.
  7. Bosch, J., Kemp, W.P., Trostle, G.E., 2006. Bee population returns and cherry yields in an orchard pollinated with Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 99, 408-413.
  8. Cane, J.H., 2016. Adult pollen diet essential for egg maturation by a solitary Osmia bee. J. Insect. Physiol. 95, 105-109.
  9. Cane, J.H., Dobson, H.E., Boyer, B., 2017. Timing and size of daily pollen meals eaten by adult females of a solitary bee (Nomia melanderi)(Apiformes: Halictidae). Apidologie 48, 17-30.
  10. Fliszkiewicz, M., KusnierczaK, A., Szymas, B., 2015. Reproduction of the red mason solitary bee Osmia rufa (syn. Osmia bicornis)(Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in various habitats. Eur. J. Entomol. 112, 100-105.
  11. Goldway, M., Schneider, D., Yehuda, H., Matityahu, A., Eisikowitch, D., Stern, R.A. 2001. The effect of apple Sallele compatibility on fruit set levels in non-optimal fertilization conditions. Acta Hort. 561, 231-234.
  12. Jang, H.I., Seo, H.H., Park, S.J., 2002. Strategy for fruit cultivation research under the changing climate. Korean J. Hortic. Sci. Technol. 20, 270-275.
  13. Janick, J., Cummins, J.H., Brown, S.K., Hemmat, M., 1996. Apples, in: Janick, J., Moore, J.N. (Eds.), Fruit breeding. Wiley, New York, pp. 1-77.
  14. Kang, I.K., 2004. Selection of crabapples as pollinizers for 'Hongro' apple cultivar. Hortic. Sci. Technol. 22, 212-215.
  15. Kang, I.K., Lee, G.J., Kim, M.J., Kwon, S.I., Peak, P.Y., Choi, D.G., 2002. Selection of crabapple as pollinizers for major apple cultivars in apple orchard. Hortic. Sci. Technol. 20, 330-334.
  16. Kim, I.S., 1999. Studies on the ecological characterstics and utilization of Osmia spp. as pollinators. Master thesis, Kongju National University, pp. 1-44.
  17. Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). 2019. Annual climatological report. KMA press, Seoul.
  18. Kweon, H.J., Park, M.Y., Song, Y.Y., Sagong, D.H., 2017. Influence of accumulated hours of low temperature in dormant and changing temperature after bud breaking on flowering of main apple cultivars in Korea, Korean J. Agric. For. Meteorol. 19, 252-269.
  19. Kwon, Y.A., Kim, J., Lee, S., 2005. Distribution and changing trend on the occurrence of spring colds. J. Korea. Geogr. Soc. 40, 285-295.
  20. Lee, K.Y., Lee, K.S., Yoon, H.J., Jin, B.R., 2015. Ovarian development and secretion of vitellogenin protein during the wintering period and after emergence in the hornfaced bee, Osmia cornifrons. J. Asia Pac. Entomol. 18, 515-523.
  21. Lee, K.Y., Yoon, H.J., Lee, K.S., Jin, B.R. 2016a. Development and mating behavior of Osmia cornifrons (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in the constant temperature. J. Asia Pac. Entomol., 19, 281-287.
  22. Lee, K.Y., Lee, J.A., Han, H.H., Na, S.Y., Kim, S.Y., Yoon, H.J., 2016b. The appropriate sex ratio and density of the mason Bee (Osmia cornifrons) for apple pollination. Korea. J. Apic. 31, 337-349.
  23. Lee, K.Y., Lee, S.B., Park, I.G., Kang, P.D., Yoon, H.J., 2014. Distribution status of mason bees, Osmia spp. (Hymenotpera: Megachilidae) in apple orchard of Korea. J. Apic. 29, 223-234.
  24. Lee, K.Y., Yoon, H.J., Park, I.G., Kwon, C.R., Lee, S.C., 2010. Survey on the current status of mason bees in apple orchard of Korea. J. Apic. 25, 53-61.
  25. Lee, S.W., Choi, K.H., Lee, D.H., Kim, D.A., Ryu, H.K., Lee, Y.I., 2002. Distribution and collection of Osmia bees in the mountain areas of Korea. Korean J. Appl. Entomol. 41, 263-267.
  26. Maeta, Y., 1978. Comparative studies on the biology of bee of the genus Osmia of Japan. with special reference to their managements for pollination of crops (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Bull. Tohoku. Natl. Agric. Exp. Stn. 57, 1-221.
  27. Maeta, Y., Kitamura, T., 1981. Pollinating efficiency by Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski) in relation to required number of nesting bees for economic fruit production. Honeybee Sci. 2, 65-72.
  28. Maeta, Y., Nadano, K., Kitamura, T., 2005. Relationship between seed yield of chinese milk vetch and density of female bees, Osmia cornifrons (RADOSZKOWSKI)(Hymenoptera, Megachilidae). Chugoku. Kontyu. 19:45-61.
  29. Masoudi, H., Tabatabaei Fard, S.A., Borghei, A.M., Shahbeik, M., 2005. Determination and comparison of physical and mechanical properties of three export varieties of three export varieties of apples. Iran J. Agric. Sci. 11, 215-231.
  30. Moron, D., Lenda, M., Skorka, P., Szentgyorgyi, H., Settele, J., Woyciechowski, M., 2009. Wild pollinator communities are negatively affected by invasion of alien goldenrods in grassland landscapes. Biol. Conserv. 142, 1322-1332.
  31. Park, J.G., Hong, J.S., Choi, I.M., Kim, J.B., Kim, S.H., Park, H.S., 1998. Applications of artificial pollination, spraying gibberellin A4+7 plus benzyladenine for production of uniform fruits in 'Fuji' apples. Kor. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 16. 27-29.
  32. Radmacher, S., Strohm, E., 2011. Effects of constant and fluctuating temperatures on the the development of the solitary bee Osmia bicornis (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Apidologie 42. 711-720.
  33. Rural Development Administration (RDA), 2019. Apple cultivation, RDA press, Jeonju.
  34. Samnegard, U., Hamback, P.A., Smith, H.G., 2019. Pollination treatment affects fruit set and modifies marketable and storable fruit quality of commercial apples. R. Soc. Open Sci. 6(12), 190326.
  35. Schneider, D., Stern, R.A., Eisikowitch, D., Goldway, M. 2001. Analysis of S-alleles by PCR for determination of compatibility in the 'Red Delicious' apple orchard. J. Hort. Sci. Biotech. 76, 596-600.
  36. Sedivy, C., Dorn, S., 2014. Towards a sustainable management of bees of the subgenus Osmia (Megachilidae; Osmia) as fruit tree pollinators. Apidologie 45, 88-105.
  37. Seo, H.H., Park, H.S., 2003. Fruit quality of 'Tsugaru' apples influenced by meteorological elements. Korean J. Agric. For. Meteor. 5, 218-225.
  38. Sheffield, C.S., Westby, S.M., Smith, R.F., Kevan, P.G., 2008. Potential of bigleaf lupine for building and sustaining Osmia lignaria populations for pollination of apple. Can. Entomol. 140, 589-599.
  39. Statistics Korea, 2020. Crops production statistics, (accessed 15 January, 2021)
  40. Torchio, P.F., 1985. Field experiments with the pollinator species, Osmia lignaria propinqua Cresson in apple orchards: V, 1979-1980, methods of introducing bees, nesting success, seed counts, fruit yields (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Kansas Entomol. Soc. 58, 448-464.
  41. Vicens, N., Bosch, J., 2000. Weather-dependent pollinator activity in an apple orchard, with special reference to Osmia cornuta and Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae and Apidae). Environ. Entomol. 29, 413-420.
  42. Yoo, J., Kang, I.K., 2014. Effects of artificial pollination using pollen suspension on fruit set and quality attributes of 'Fuji' apples. Curr. Res. Agric. Life sci. 32, 211-214.
  43. Yoon, H.J., Lee, K.Y., Park, I.G., Kim, M.I., Kim, Y.M., Kang, P.D., 2012. Current status of insect pollinators use in apple orchards. J. Apic. 27, 105-116.
  44. Yoon, H.J., Lee, K.Y., Kim, M.A., Park, I.G., Kang, P.D., 2013. Characteristics on pollinating activity of Bombus terrestris and Osmia cornifrons under different weather conditions at apple orchard. J. Apic. 28, 163-171.
  45. Yoon, H.J., Lee, K.Y., Kim, S.Y., Lee, Y.B., Kim, N., Jin, B.R., 2015. Effects of location, direction, altitude, and placement of trap nests on the rate of trap-nesting of Osmia solitary bees. J. Asia Pac. Entomol. 18, 695-700.
  46. Yoon, H.J., Lee, K.Y., Lee, H.S., Lee, M.Y., Choi, Y.S., Lee, M.L., Kim, G.H., 2017. Survey of insect pollinators use for horticultural crops in Korea, 2016. J. Apic. 32, 223-235.
  47. Zurbuchen, A., Landert, L., Klaiber, J., Müller, A., Hein, S., Dorn, S., 2010. Maximum foraging ranges in solitary bees: only few individuals have the capability to cover long foraging distances. Biol. Conserv. 143, 669-676.