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Differential Morphological, Structural and Biological Characteristics of Cysts in Heterodera Species in Korea

  • Han, Ga Ram (Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University) ;
  • Kang, Heonil (Department of Plant Bioscience, Pusan National University) ;
  • Choi, In Soo (Department of Plant Bioscience, Pusan National University) ;
  • Kim, Donggeun (Department of Plant Bioscience, Pusan National University) ;
  • Yun, Hye Young (Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University) ;
  • Kim, Young Ho (Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University)
  • Received : 2020.08.01
  • Accepted : 2020.09.16
  • Published : 2020.12.01

Abstract

Morphological (cyst shape, color, and sizes [length (L), maximum width (W), volume and "a" (L/W)]), structural (vulvar cone slope angle [VCSA], surface wrinkle [VCSW], cyst wall thickness, composition, and texture) and biological characteristics (fecundity, hatching, and emergence [number of second-stage juveniles (J2) from a cyst]) in preceding Heterodera glycines (Hg), currently-recorded H. sojae (Hs) and H. trifolii (Ht) were examined by microscopy. Cysts were lemon-shaped, indicating the genus is Heterodera except for Hs that formed frequently globular cysts with significantly flatter VCSA (102.2°) with smooth VCSW than Hg (50.6°) and Ht (82.0°), but not genus Globodera because of the presence of vulvar cone in Hs. Ht was significantly larger in all morphological characteristics than Hg and Hs, suggesting Ht may be diagnosed differentially by cyst sizes and also host plant preferences. Hs showed smaller "a" value with more globular shape and stronger structures with more thickened and strengthened collagen-like texture of cyst wall than Hg and Ht. This suggests Hs may be diagnosed differently by structural characteristics from the others, especially Hg with similar cyst sizes. There were no significant differences in emergence (inoculum potential) among cyst nematodes due to the offset of fecundity and hatching rate; however, the inoculum potential of Hs may be not so persistent as Hg and Ht in fields because of its lower fecundity and higher hatching rate (causing rapid inoculum loss) than the others. These characteristics of cysts provide information useful for simple and differential diagnoses and reliable management of cyst nematodes.