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Present Status and Future Management Strategies for Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus: A Major Constraint to the Global Sugarcane Production

  • Holkar, Somnath Kadappa (ICAR-Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Biological Control Centre) ;
  • Balasubramaniam, Parameswari (ICAR-Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Regional Centre) ;
  • Kumar, Atul (ICAR-Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Biological Control Centre) ;
  • Kadirvel, Nithya (Division of Crop Protection, ICAR-Sugarcane Breeding Institute) ;
  • Shingote, Prashant Raghunath (Vasantrao Naik College of Agricultural Biotechnology (Dr. PDKV, Akola)) ;
  • Chhabra, Manohar Lal (ICAR-Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Regional Centre) ;
  • Kumar, Shubham (ICAR-Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Regional Centre) ;
  • Kumar, Praveen (ICAR-Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Regional Centre) ;
  • Viswanathan, Rasappa (Division of Crop Protection, ICAR-Sugarcane Breeding Institute) ;
  • Jain, Rakesh Kumar (Division of Plant Pathology, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa Campus) ;
  • Pathak, Ashwini Dutt (ICAR-Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research)
  • Received : 2020.09.17
  • Accepted : 2020.11.07
  • Published : 2020.12.01

Abstract

Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) is a distinct member of the Polerovirus genus of the Luteoviridae family. SCYLV is the major limitation to sugarcane production worldwide and presently occurring in most of the sugarcane growing countries. SCYLV having high genetic diversity within the species and presently ten genotypes are known to occur based on the complete genome sequence information. SCYLV is present in almost all the states of India where sugarcane is grown. Virion comprises of 180 coat protein units and are 24-29 nm in diameter. The genome of SCYLV is a monopartite and comprised of single-stranded (ss) positive-sense (+) linear RNA of about 6 kb in size. Virus genome consists of six open reading frames (ORFs) that are expressed by sub-genomic RNAs. The SCYLV is phloem-limited and transmitted by sugarcane aphid Melanaphis sacchari in a circulative and non-propagative manner. The other aphid species namely, Ceratovacuna lanigera, Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominalis, and R. maidis also been reported to transmit the virus. The virus is not transmitted mechanically, therefore, its transmission by M. sacchari has been studied in different countries. SCYLV has a limited natural host range and mainly infect sugarcane (Sachharum hybrid), grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and Columbus grass (Sorghum almum). Recent insights in the protein-protein interactions of Polerovirus through protein interaction reporter (PIR) technology enable us to understand viral encoded proteins during virus replication, assembly, plant defence mechanism, short and long-distance travel of the virus. This review presents the recent understandings on virus biology, diagnosis, genetic diversity, virus-vector and host-virus interactions and conventional and next generation management approaches.