- Volume 14 Issue 6
DOI QR Code
Evaluation of portion size estimation aids for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
- Lee, Youngmi (Department of Food and Nutrition, Myongji University) ;
- Kim, Mi-Hyun (Division of Food Science, Kongju National University) ;
- Shim, Jae Eun (Department of Food and Nutrition, Daejeon University) ;
- Park, Haeryun (Department of Food and Nutrition, Myongji University)
- Received : 2020.07.20
- Accepted : 2020.09.28
- Published : 2020.12.01
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to improve portion size estimation aids (PSEAs) used in the nutrition survey of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) and validate the accuracy and precision of the newly developed aids. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We conducted intensive interviews with survey experts in KNHANES and consulted with experts to collect opinions about improvement of PSEAs. Based on the results of the interviews, 5 types of PSEAs (rice bowl, earthen pots, mounds, measuring spoons, and thickness sticks) were newly developed using 3-dimensional (3D) modeling or modification of color or shape. Validation tests were conducted with 96 adults 20 years old or older. For the rice bowl and earthen pots, the participants were asked to select the more similar PSEA in size after being shown the real dishes. For the mounds, measuring spoons, and thickness sticks, the participants were presented with actual plates of food and asked to estimate the given portion sizes using the given PSEAs. RESULTS: The improved 2-dimensional (2D) picture aid for the rice bowl reflecting the size distortion by angle of view using 3D modeling was perceived more closely to the actual size than the current 2D picture (P < 0.001). The change of the color of 2D pictures and 3D models, the change of shape of the measuring spoons, and the 3-dimensionalization of the 2D mounds had no significant improvement in the subjects' perception. CONCLUSIONS: The currently used 2D PSEAs need to be fully redesigned using 3D modeling to improve subjects' perception. However, change of color or shape will not be necessary. For amorphous foods, it is suggested that more evaluation be performed before reaching a final conclusion in the use of PSEAs, or alternative ways to improve accuracy of estimation need to be explored.
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