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Food consumption frequency of Korean adults based on whether or not having chewing difficulty using 2013-2016 KNHANES by sex-stratified comparative analysis

  • Kim, Mi Jeong (Department of Food and Nutrition, Prevention and Rehabilitation Center for Aging and Dementia, Silla University)
  • Received : 2020.03.17
  • Accepted : 2020.09.15
  • Published : 2020.12.01

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study examined the associations between food consumption frequency of Korean adults and self-perceived chewing difficulty, using the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, 112 items) from 2013-2016 of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Subjects were divided into not difficult in chewing (NDC) and difficult in chewing (DC) groups, with 24.17% being classified into DC. Males and females consumed 35 and 37 items less frequently than the other sex, respectively. Due to the remarkable gender difference in food consumption, gender-stratified one-sided survey regression analysis was performed after adjusted for the effect of age, household income, and self-rated health status. RESULTS: Thirty-four items of FFQ were significantly less consumed by the DC group. Females exclusively consumed less beverages and alcohol while males showed the same for fruits and milk·dairy products. Consumption frequency of 8 items such as steamed potatoes·grilled potatoes, stir fried beef, other kimchi·fresh vegetable kimchi, orange, sour pork·pork cutlet, tteokbokki and green tea were significant only in males. In contrast, 17 items including cooked rice with other grains and legumes, boiled egg·steamed egg, Korean cabbage kimchi, banana, and tofu stew·soft tofu stew were significant only for females. Finally, items that showed significance for both were 9 items including loaf bread, ready-to-eat cereal, steamed sweet potatoes·grilled sweet potatoes, stir-fried lotus roots·stir-fried burdock, green laver salad·brown seaweed salads, apples, tomato·cherry tomatoes, squid (raw, dried shredded, boiled, stir-fried), and curd type yogurt. CONCLUSIONS: Findings in this study suggest chewing difficulty may be an important nutritional issue that has to be dealt with for healthful food consumption, with distinct interest of gender.

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