Consumer characteristics of Body Mass Index groups, and the effect of body satisfaction and self-esteem on the involvement in dieting among females aged 25-49 years

25-49세 여성의 Body Mass Index 수준에 따른 소비자 특성과 신체만족도 및 자아존중감이 다이어트 관여도에 미치는 영향

  • Jeong, Su-mok (Dept. of Fashion Business, Graduate School, Keimyung University) ;
  • Yoh, Eunah (Dept. of Fashion Marketing, Keimyung University)
  • 정수목 (계명대학교 일반대학원 패션비즈니스학과) ;
  • 여은아 (계명대학교 패션마케팅학과)
  • Received : 2020.09.23
  • Accepted : 2020.10.21
  • Published : 2020.10.31


The aim of this study is to explore diverse characteristics of females aged 25 to 49 years grouped according to Body Mass Index(BMI), and to investigate the effect of body satisfaction and self-esteem on involvement in dieting within each BMI group. In total, 549 females who participated in an online survey were divided into groups based on BMI(underweight, normal, and overweight). Results demonstrated three key factors, as follows. First, differences were identified among BMI groups according to demographic characteristics(age, household income, and marital status), although no difference according to education level was found. Second, differences according to BMI groups were found in body satisfaction and involvement in dieting, whereas were not found in self-esteem. Third, model testing for each BMI group showed, a positive correlation between body satisfaction and self-esteem in all three groups. However, there was a difference in causal relationships among variable across BMI groups. Body satisfaction negatively affected and self-esteem positively affected involvement in dieting for the underweight and normal groups, whereas there was no causal relationship between variables in the overweight group. Based on these results, basic information of groups segmented by the level of BMI was obtained, which could be used for both academic and practical implications.


  1. Ahn, B. R., & Park, E. S. (2009). Perception of body weight control life styles, and dietary habits according to the obesity index(OI) of female college students. Korean Journal of Human Ecology, 18(1), 167-179. doi:10.5934/KJHE.2009.18.1.167
  2. Boo, S. J. (2020, July 24). 다이어트 예능: 처절함의 연속...극한의 살빼기 [Diet in variety show: Continuity in being derivative...Extremely losing weight]. Dailian, Retrieved September 10, 2020, from
  3. Cheon, K. M. (2010). The relationships social physique anxiety and self-esteem on subjective physique and BMI of girls’ high school students. Journal of Sport and Leisure Studies, 39(39), 557-565.
  4. Choi, M.-O., & Kim, J.-Y. (2008). Survey of eating habits, self cathexis, and appearance management behaviors in relation to BMI in college women:Focused on shape management. Journal of Korean Society of Cosmetics, 14(2), 605-613.
  5. Choi, M. W. (2010). A study on the influence of the media use and involvement on the perception of diet focusing on pluralistic ignorance. Journal of Public Relations, 14(2), 182-215. doi:10.15814/jpr.2010.14.2.182
  6. Choi, S. H. (2020, August 3). "지름길은 없다" 피땀 눈물로 성공하는 '확찐자' 탈출법 ["There is no short cut" Ways to escape from 'radical weightgainers' who will succeed through blood, sweat, and tears]. Economuychosun, Retrieved September 10, 2020, from
  7. Choi, S. W., & Choi, M.-H. (2017). The association between obesity and neighborhood deprivation among Korean adults: Using a multilevel analysis. Korean Journal of Health Community, 12(1), 11-19.
  8. Choi, W. S. (2017, November 21). 건강검진 수검률 증가, 비만대사증후군 비율도 ${\uparrow}$ [Increase in medical examination rate, proportion of obesity metabolic syndrome is also ${\uparrow}$]. Doctorsnews, Retrieved April 26, 2020,
  9. Chun, C. G., & Lee, M. O. (2007). The effect of adolescent body related variables, self-esteem on eating disorder. Korean Journal of Human Ecology, 16(5), 1041-1050. doi:10.5934/KJHE.2007.16.5.1041
  10. Farrow, C. V., & Tarrant, M. (2009). Weight-based discrimination, body dissatisfaction and emotional eating: The role of perceived social consensus. Psychology and Health, 24(9), 1021-1034. doi:10.1080/08870440802311348
  11. Ferraro, F. R., Muehlenkamp, J. J., Painter, A., Wasson, K., Hager, T., & Hoverson, F. (2008). Aging, body image, and body shape. The Journal of General Psychology, 135(4), 379-392. doi:10.3200/GENP.135.4.379-392
  12. Foxcroft, L. (2012). Calories and corsets: A history of dieting over two thousand years. London: Profile Books.
  13. Hong, K.-H. (2006). The influence of the sociocultural attitudes toward appearance and BMI on body image and body satisfaction. Fashion & Textile Research Journal, 8(1), 48-54.
  14. Jang, S. C., & Song, M. H. (2004). Relationships between high school students’ appearance satisfaction and self-esteem and school-related adjustment. Korean Journal of Youth Studies, 11(3), 115-133.
  15. Jeon, H. O. (2014). Relations of self-assertiveness, selfesteem, depression and abnormal eating attitudes among female university students with weight control experience. Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial Cooperation Society, 15(4), 2207-2216. doi:10.5762/KAIS.2014.15.4.2207
  16. Jeong, H.-S. (2009). Agreement self perception as obese with obesity classified by body measure in obese and overweighted adults. Journal of the Korean Society of Health Information and Health Statistics, 34(2), 187-196.
  17. Jeun, Y. S., Lee, J. R., & Park, C. M. (2006). A study on the development of weight controlling health behavioral model in women. Journal of Korean Society for Health Education and Promotion, 23(4), 123-153.
  18. Jun, S.-H. (2006). The effect of obesity and physical satisfaction on self-esteem. Korean Journal of Sport Psychology, 17(3), 75-89.
  19. Kiefer I, Leitner B, Bauer R, & Rieder A. (2000). Body weight: The male and female perception. Soz Praventivmed, 45(6), 274-278. doi:10.1007/BF01591690
  20. Kim, J.-I. (2016). Predictors of weight control behavior according to college students’ BMI, perception of body shape, obesity stress, and self-esteem. Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial Cooperation Society, 17(6), 438-448. doi:10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.6.438
  21. Kim, M.-K., & Lee, G.-C. (2006). Weight reduction dieting survey and satisfaction degree and diet related knowledge among adult women by age. Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 35(5), 572-582. doi:10.3746/jkfn.2006.35.5.572
  22. Kim, M. R., & Kim, H. C. (2008). A study on diet behaviors and related factors in dieting college students. Journal of East Asian Society Dietary Life, 18(1), 135-148.
  23. Kim, O. S., Wha, K. S., & Kim, A. J. (2002). BMI, weight control behaviour, and self-esteem in high school adolescents. Korean Journal of Adult Nursing, 14(1), 53-61.
  24. Kim, Y. H., & Kim Y. N. (2002). A study on body mass index and associated factors of the middle aged women in small city. Korean Journal of Community Nutrition, 7(4), 506-515.
  25. Korea Health Promotion Institute. (2018). The 4th health plan: Trend report 2018. Seoul: Author.
  26. Kweon, S. A., & Sohn, B.-H. (2010). A study on body satisfaction and fitness apparel based on body type by body mass index: In women 20-50’s years of age. International Journal of Human Ecology, 48(6), 1-8. doi:10.6115/khea.2010.48.6.001
  27. Lee, H., Je, M. J., Lee, S. O., Chang, C. L., Lee, C-H., & Kim, S. S. (2016). Effect of obesity and personal weight perception on body esteem, self-esteem and depression. Korean Journal of Health Communication, 11(1), 17-26. doi:10.15715/kjhcom.2016.11.1.17
  28. Lee, J. S., Kim, B. H., Jeong, H. C., & Lee, S. E. (2001). A grounded approach to dietary experiences in college women. Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing, 7(4), 596-609.
  29. Lee, J. W. (2013). The influence of body image on self-esteem of female fashion models and general female. Unpublished master's thesis, Dongduk Women's University, Seoul, Korea.
  30. Lee, K. E., Kim, E. J., & Yom, Y. H. (2005). Body esteem, body figure discrepancy and depression in women college students. The Korean Journal of Fundamentals of Nursing, 12(2), 206-214.
  31. Lee, K.-H. (2010). A comparative study on obesity judgment criteria in the frequently used obesity indices. The Research Journal of the Costume Culture, 18(1), 93-108.
  32. Lee, Y. A. (2011). A study on the actual image of Seoul women in their middle-ages: Comparison by each category of BMI. Journal of Basic Design & Art, 12(4), 251-261.
  33. Lim, I. S. (2004). Sociocultural context of diet: Focused on college women’s look-discriminatory experience and the body images of mass media. Korean Journal of Sociology, 38(2), 165-187.
  34. National Health Insurance Service. (2017). 2017 obesity white paper. Wonju, Kangwon: Author.
  35. National Health Insurance Service. (2018). 2018 obesity white paper. Wonju, Kangwon: Author.
  36. Park, J. K., Nam, Y. J., Kim, U. J., & Jeoung, S. Y. (2010). A comparison of satisfaction for actual body and perceived body between Korean and Mongolian female college students. Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, 34(9), 1558-1566. doi:10.5850/JKSCT.2010.34.9.1558
  37. Park, K. H. (2016a). Characteristics of groups classified by degree of obesity using Body Mass Index: Focused on self-esteem, food lifestyle, social-cultural attitudes towards appearance, and diet-related attitude and behavior. Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, 66(8), 12, 33-45. doi:10.7233/jksc.2016.66.8.033
  38. Park, K. H. (2016b). Effects of body mass index, selfesteem, and sociocultural attitude toward appearance on diet awareness. Fashion & Textiles Research, Journal, 18(2), 176-183. doi:10.5805/SFTI.2016.18.2.176
  39. Park, K. H., & Yoo, H. S. (2013). Appearance orientation and appearance management behaviors in relation to body mass index and demographic variables. Fashion & Textiles Research Journal, 15(6), 912-922. doi:10.5805/SFTI.2013.15.6.912
  40. Park, Y.-R., & Son, Y.-J. (2009). Relationship of satisfaction with appearance, self-esteem, depression, and stress to health related quality of life in women across the lifespan. Journal of the Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, 16(3), 353-361.
  41. Roh, Y.-K., & Song, H. K. (2017). Effects of real body, perceived body, self discrepance and body satisfaction on garment fit satisfaction of women in their twenties: Focused on women’s jacket. Fashion & Textiles Research Journal, 19(6), 768-776. doi:10.5805/SFTI.2017.19.6.768
  42. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent selfimage. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  43. Shin, J.-Y. (2013). A study on the state of obesity m anagement and satisfaction level among women. Unpublished master's thesis, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul, Korea.
  44. Son, Y. J., & Kim, G. Y. (2012). The relationship between obesity, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms of adult women in Korea. Korean Journal of Obesity, 21(2), 89-98.
  45. Song, H. J., & Moon, H. K. (2014). Body image, risk of disturbed eating attitudes and weight control of female junior high school students by the body mass index in Seoul. Korean Journal of Commun ity Nutrition, 19(2), 111-121. doi:10.5720/kjcn.2014.19.2.111
  46. Su, H. S., & Song, J. A. (2004). A study on body cathexis, satisfaction with apparel fit and appearance -Management behaviors according to physical figure. Fashion & Textile Research Journal, 6(3), 329-335.
  47. Turakulova, K., Kim, M. J., Kim, H. S., Kim, H. J., Lee, S. J., . . . & Choi, J. Y. (2013). Level of sociocultural attitude toward appearance and desire to go on diet among female university students. Ewha Journal of Nursing, 47, 97-112.
  48. Yang, H. Y., & Byeon, Y. S. (2012). Weight control behavior in women college students and factors influencing behavior. Journal of Korean Academy Fundamentals of Nursing, 19(2), 190-200.
  49. Yang, K. M. (2002). A study on the type of body and diet behavior among female middle school students. Unpublished master's thesis, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Korea.
  50. Zaichkowsky, J. L. (1985). Measuring the involvement construct. Journal of Consumer Research, 12(3), 341-352. doi:10.1086/208520