Quality Change of Sliced Citron (Citrus junos Sieb.) according to Browning Inhibitor Treatment

갈변방지제 처리에 따른 슬라이스 유자의 품질 변화

  • Lee, Bo-Bae (Fruit Research Institute of Jeollanamdo Agricultural Research and Extension Services) ;
  • Cho, Hye-Sung (Fruit Research Institute of Jeollanamdo Agricultural Research and Extension Services) ;
  • Cho, Youn-sup (Fruit Research Institute of Jeollanamdo Agricultural Research and Extension Services) ;
  • Nam, Seung-Hee (Dept. of Agricultural Science and Technology, Chonnam National University)
  • 이보배 (전라남도농업기술원 과수연구소) ;
  • 조혜성 (전라남도농업기술원 과수연구소) ;
  • 조윤섭 (전라남도농업기술원 과수연구소) ;
  • 남승희 (전남대학교 농업생명과학대학)
  • Received : 2020.04.22
  • Accepted : 2020.08.12
  • Published : 2020.08.31


The purpose of this study was to investigate the qualitative changes of the citron by identifying the type of solution and addition of the solution to prevent the browning reaction of the citron in a way that inhibits the browning of the citron. The browning inhibitor solution was investigated using the individual and mixture, and the results of the degree of browning and chromaticity showed that vitamin C+NaCl+cyclodextrin (CD) had the lowest browning of 0.52. In chromaticity, the ΔE values indicate that the higher the value, the greater the change in color, and the lowest value of the vitamin C+NaCl+CD mixture was 47.0, indicating that there was minimal browning compared to other treatment. The active change of the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in the citron increased enzyme activity as the browning progressed, and the vitamin C+NaCl+CD solution was the lowest at 68.40 μ/g among the anti-browning solution. Based on these research results, it seems that the CD mixing solution can be used as a citron browning inhibitor.



  1. Alvarez-Parrilla E, De La Rosa LA, Torres-Rivas F, Rodrigo-Garcia J, Gonzalez-Aguilar GA. 2005. Complexation of apple antioxidants: Chlorogenic acid, quercetin and rutin by ${\beta}$-cyclodextrin. J Incl Phenom Macrocycl Chem 53:121-129
  2. Arias E, Gonzalez J, Oria R, Lopez-Buesa P. 2007. Ascorbic acid and 4-hexylresorcinol effects on pear PPO and PPO catalyzed browning reaction. J Food Sci 72:C422-C429
  3. Blois MS. 1958. Antioxidant determination by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 26:1199-1200
  4. Brecht JK. 1995. Physiology of lightly processed fruits and vegetables. HortScience 30:18-22
  5. Cha YJ, Lee SM, Ahn BJ, Song NS, Jeon SJ. 1990. Substitution effect of sorbitol for sugar on the quality and storage stability of Yujacheong. Korean J Soc Food Sci Nutr 19:13-20
  6. Chang MS, An S, Jeong MC, Kim D, Kim GH. 2011a. Effects of antioxidative activities and antibrowning of extracts from onion, apple and mandarin orange peel as natural antibrowning agents. Korean J Food Nutr 24:406-413
  7. Chang MS, Park M, Jeong MC, Kim D, Kim GH. 2011b. Antioxidative and antibrowning effects of Taraxacum platycarpum and Chrytsanthemum indicum extracts as natural antibrowning agents. Korean J Preserv 18:584-589
  8. Chung HJ, Jeon IS. 2011. Antioxidative activities of methanol extracts from different parts of Chrysanthemum zawadskii. Korean J Food Preserv 18:739-745
  9. Chung HS, Moon KD. 2012. Effect of browning inhibitors on quality property of fresh-cut strawberries. Korean J Food Preserv 19:26-30
  10. Dong X, Wrolstad RE, Sugar D. 2000. Extending shelf life of fresh-cut pears. J Food Sci 65:181-186
  11. Gorny JR, Hess-Pierce B, Kader AA. 1999. Quality changes in fresh-cut peach and nectarine slices as affected by cultivar, storage atmosphere and chemical treatments. J Food Sci 64:429-432
  12. Hicks KB, Haines RM, Tong CBS, Sapers GM, EL-Atawy Y, Irwin PL, Seib PA. 1996. Inhibition of enzymatic browning in fresh fruit and vegetable juices by soluble and insoluble forms of ${\beta}$-cyclodextrin alone or in combination with phosphates. J Agric Food Chem 44:2591-2594
  13. Hwang TY, Jang JH, Moon KD. 2009. Quality changes in fresh-cut potato (Solanum tuberosum var. Romano) after low-temperature blanching and treatment with anti-browning agents. Korean J Food Preserv 16:499-505
  14. Hwang TY, Sohn KH, Lim JH, Moon KD. 2010. Antibrowning effects of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) extracts on chopped garlic. Korean J Food Preserv 17:160-164
  15. Kang SK, Jang MJ, Kim YD. 2006. A study on the flavor constituents of the citron (Citrus junos). Korean J Food Preserv 13:204-210
  16. Kee HJ, Park YK. 2000. Effects of antibrowning agents on the quality and browning of dried onions. Korean J Food Sci Technol 32:979-984
  17. Kim DS, Kim DH, Oh MJ, Lee KG, Kook MC, Park CS. 2010. Antiaging and whitening activities of ethanol extract of yuza (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tanaka) by-product. J Soc Cosmet Sci Korea 36:137-143
  18. Kim HW, Bae SK. 2002. The effect of antibrowning agents on enzymatic reaction in apple concentrate. Korean J Food Sci Technol 34:454-458
  19. Kim KB, Yoo KH, Park HY, Jeong JM. 2006. Anti-oxidative activities of commercial edible plant extracts distributed in Korea. J Korean Soc Appl Biol Chem 49:328-333
  20. Kim KM, Lee JE, Kim JS, Choi SY, Jang YE. 2014. Quality characteristics of mayonnaise with varied amounts of yuzu juice added during the storage period. Korean J Food Preserv 21:799-807
  21. Kim MY, Zhang CY, Lee JJ, Huang Y. 2017. Study on commercialization of ready-to-eat pear products by development of anti-browning agents. Korean J Food Nutr 30:139-147
  22. Kim YA. 1998. Effects of antibrowning agents on the browning reaction of enzymatic garlic hydrolyzate. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 27:201-206
  23. Lee JE, Kim KM, Kim JS, Kim GC, Choi SY, Kim SB. 2017. Chemical compositions and antioxidant activities depending on cultivation methods and various parts of yuza. Korean J Food Preserv 24:802-812
  24. Lee JH, Park AR, Choi DW, Kim JD, Kim JC, Ahn JH, Lee HY, Choe M, Choi KP, Shin IC, Park HJ. 2011. Analysis of chemical compositions and electron-donating ability of 4 Kvorean wild Sannamuls. Korean J Med Crop Sci 19:111-116
  25. Lee SJ, Shin JH, Kang MJ, Jeong CH, Ju JC, Sung NJ. 2010. Physicochemical properties, free sugar and volatile compounds of Korean citrons cultivated in different areas. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 39:92-98
  26. Lee YM, Bae JH, Kim JB, Kim SY, Chung MN, Park MY, Ko JS, Song J, Kim JH. 2012. Changes in the physiological activities of four sweet potato varieties by cooking condition. Korean J Nutr 45:12-19
  27. Lee YS. 2007. Antioxidative and physiologocal activity of extracts of Angelica dahurica leaves. Korean J Food Preserv 14:78-86
  28. Lurie S, Klein JD. 1990. Heat treatment of ripening apples: Differential effects on physiology and biochemistry. Physiol Plant 78:181-186
  29. Mondy NI, Munshi CB. 1993. Effect of maturity and storage on ascorbic acid and tyrosine concentrations and enzymatic discoloration of potatoes. J Agric Food Chem 41:1868-1871
  30. Nijveldt RJ, van Nood E, van Hoorn DE, Boelens PG, van Norren K, van Leeuwen PA. 2001. Flavonoids: a review of probable mechanisms of action and potential applications. Am J Clin Nutr 74:418-425
  31. Nina F, Laurence M, Catherine B, Jacques N. 1997. Comparison of ${\beta}$-cyclodextrin effect on polyphenol oxidation catalyzed by purified polyphenol oxidase from different sources. J Agric Food Chem 45:2442-2446
  32. Park MJ, Chang MS, Jeong MC, Kim GH. 2013. Scutellaria baicalensis extracts as natural inhibitors of food browning. Korean J Soc Food Sci Nutr 42:792-799
  33. Park WP, Cho SH, Lee DS. 1998. Screening of antibrowning agents for minimally processed vegetables. Korean J Food Sci Technol 30:278-282
  34. Pizzocaro F, Torreggiani D, Gilardi G. 1993. Inhibition of apple polyphenoloxidase (PPO) by ascorbic acid, citric acid and sodium chloride. J Food Process Preserv 17:21-30
  35. Samaniego-Esguerra CM, Boag IF, Robertson GL. 1991. Kinetics of quality deterioration in dried onions and green beans as a function of temperature and water activity. Lebensm Wiss Technol 24:53-57
  36. Sapers GM, Miller RL. 1992. Enzymatic browning control in potato with ascorbic acid-2-phosphates. J Food Sci 57:1132-1135
  37. Seog HM, Seo MS, Kim SR, Park YK, Lee YT. 2002. Characteristics of barley polyphenol extract (BPE) separated from pearling by-products. Korean J Food Sci Technol 34:775-779
  38. Shin JH, Lee JY, Ju JC, Lee SJ, Cho HS, Sung NJ. 2005. Chemical properties and nitrite scavenging ability of citron (Citrus junos). J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 34:496-502
  39. Siddiq M, Cash JN, Sinha NK, Akhter P. 1993. Characterization and inhibition of polyphenol oxidase from pear (Pyrus communis L. cv. Boso and Red). J Food Biochem 17:327-337
  40. Sojo MM, Nunez-Delicado E, Garcia-Carmona F, Sanchez-Ferrer A. 1999. Cyclodextrins as activator and inhibitor of latent banana pulp polyphenol oxidase. J Agric Food Chem 47:518-523
  41. Son JY, Son HS, Cho WD. 1996. Effects of some antibrowning agent on onion juice concentrate. J Korea Soc Food Nutr 25:529-534
  42. Son SM, Moon KD, Lee CY. 2001. Inhibitory effects of various antibrowning agents on apple slices. Food Chem 73:23-30
  43. Song HJ, Kwon OY, Kang BH, Hur SS, Lee DS, Lee SH, Kang IK, Lee JM. 2013. Change in quality attributes of fresh-cut potatoes with heat and browning inhibitor treatment during storage. Korean J Food Preserv 20:386-393
  44. Tomas-Barberan FA, Espin JC. 2001. Phenolic compounds and related enzymes as determinants of quality in fruits and vegetables. J Sci Food Agric 81:853-876
  45. Weller A, Sims CA, Matthews RF, Bates RP, Brecht JK. 1997. Browning susceptibility and changes in composition during storage of carambola slices. J Food Sci 62:256-260