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A study on the effect of air velocity through a damper on smoke extraction performance in case of fire in road tunnels

도로터널 화재 시 집중배기방식의 배기포트 통과풍속이 배연성능에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구

  • Ryu, Ji-Oh (Dept. of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Shinhan University) ;
  • Na, Kwang-Hoon (Dept. of ICT Mechanical Engineering, Shinhan University Graduate School)
  • 류지오 (신한대학교 기계.자동차융합공학과) ;
  • 나광훈 (신한대학교 대학원 ICT기계공학과)
  • Received : 2020.04.23
  • Accepted : 2020.06.13
  • Published : 2020.07.31

Abstract

In order to resolve traffic problems in urban areas and to increase the area of green spaces, tunnels in downtown areas are being increased. Additionally, the application of large port smoke extraction ventilation systems is increasing as a countermeasure to smoke extraction ventilation for tunnels with high potential for traffic congestion. It is known that the smoke extraction performance of the large port smoke extraction system is influenced not only by the amount of the extraction flow rate, but also by various factors such as the shape of the extraction port (damper) and the extraction air velocity through a damper. Therefore, in this study, the design standards and installation status of each country were investigated. When the extraction air flow rate was the same, the smoke extraction performance according to the size of the damper was numerically simulated in terms of smoke propagation distance, compared and evaluated, and the following results were obtained. As the cross-sectional area of the smoke damper increases, the extraction flow rate is concentrated in the damper close to the extraction fan, and the smoke extraction rate of the damper in downstream decreases, thereby increasing the smoke propagation distance on the downstream side. In order to prevent such a phenomenon, it is necessary to reduce the cross-sectional area of the smoke damper and increase the velocity of passing air through the damper so that the pressure loss passing through the damper increases, thereby reducing the non-uniformity of smoke extraction flow rate in the extraction section. In this analysis, it was found that when the interval distance of the extraction damper was 50 m, the air velocity passing through damper was 4.4 m/s or more, and when the interval distance of the extraction dampers was 100 m, the air velocity passing through damper was greater than 4.84 m/s, it was found to be advantageous to ensure smoke extraction performance.

도시지역의 교통난 해소와 녹지공간의 확보를 위해 도심지 터널이 증가하면서 차량의 정체 가능성이 높은 터널에 대한 제·배연방식으로 대배기구에 의한 집중배기방식의 적용이 증가하는 추세에 있다. 집중배기방식의 배연성능은 배연풍량 뿐만 아니라 배기구(댐퍼)의 형상이나 배기풍속 등 다양한 인자에 의해서 영향을 받는 것으로 알려져 있다. 이에 본 연구에서는 각국의 배연시스템 설계기준 및 설치현황을 알아보고 배연풍량이 동일한 경우에 배연댐퍼 사이즈에 따른 배연성능을 연기 이동거리 측면에서 수치시뮬레이션을 수행하여 비교·평가하였으며, 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 배연댐퍼의 단면적이 증가할수록 배기팬에 근접한 댐퍼에서 배기풍량이 집중되어 화재 하류의 댐퍼의 배연풍량이 감소하여 하류측의 연기 이동거리가 증가하는 현상이 발생한다. 이와 같은 현상을 방지하기 위해서는 배연댐퍼의 단면적을 작게하여 통과풍속을 높게 함으로써 댐퍼통과 시 압력손실이 증가하도록 하여 배기구간에서 배연풍량의 불균일성을 완화할 필요가 있다. 본 해석범위에서는 배연댐퍼의 설치간격이 50 m인 경우에는 설계통과풍속이 4.4 m/s (댐퍼면적: 2.34 ㎡ = 1.25 × 1.85 m) 이상, 댐퍼의 설치간격이 100 m인 경우에는 설계통과풍속이 4.84 m/s (댐퍼면적: 3.38 ㎡ = 1.5 × 2.25 m) 이상일 때 배연성능확보에 유리한 것으로 나타났다.

Keywords

Acknowledgement

이 논문은 2019학년도 신한대학교 교수연구년 연수제도에 의하여 연구된 논문임.

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