Development of a food frequency questionnaire for dietary intake of preschool children

  • Kang, Minji (Center for Gendered Innovations in Science and Technology Researches (GISTeR), Korea Federation of Women's Science & Technology Associations) ;
  • Shim, Jae Eun (Department of Food and Nutrition, Daejeon University)
  • Received : 2019.07.24
  • Accepted : 2020.03.11
  • Published : 2020.08.01


BACKGROUNDS/OBJECTIVES: To describe the data-based development of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for dietary evaluation of Korean preschool children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Development of the FFQ was based on the data from 2,766 preschool children aged 1-5 years, who had completed 24-hour dietary recalls in the 2009-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We selected the food list based on the results of nutritional contribution and between-person variability for energy and 13 nutrients. We selected 88 foods with over 80% of total contribution to each nutrient and with over 80% of accumulated r2 for each nutrient. A dish containing any of the 88 foods in the recipe was listed, and a total of 903 dishes were extracted. Among the 903 dishes, we selected 438 dishes contributing more than 1% of total consumption. RESULTS: FFQ included 116 dish items combined from 438 dishes based on nutrient profile and recipe. Quantities of dietary intake were assessed by nine categories of frequency and portion size option. In addition, when comparing the food portions of children with the reference portion size, subjects would be asked to select one of three response categories (less, similar, and more) and then to record the amount as a percentage for the reference portion. Percentages of coverage for energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate were 89.2%, 88.4%, 88.2%, and 89.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The dietary intake of Korean preschool children can be assessed by this new data-based FFQ. In addition, the new instrument can be used to identify nutritional needs of target groups for planning nutrition education and strategies to improve diet. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the performance of the instrument.


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