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Relationship between diet quality and sarcopenia in elderly Koreans: 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

  • Na, Woori (Department of Food and Nutrition, Wonkwang University) ;
  • Kim, Jiyu (Department of Food and Nutrition, Wonkwang University) ;
  • Chung, Bong Hee (Department of Food and Nutrition, Wonkwang University) ;
  • Jang, Dai-Ja (Research Group of Healthcare, Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • Sohn, Cheongmin (Department of Food and Nutrition, Wonkwang University)
  • Received : 2020.01.08
  • Accepted : 2020.07.16
  • Published : 2020.08.01

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Given the increasing proportion of the Korean population that is aged 65 years and older, the present study analyzed the relationship between diet quality and sarcopenia in elderly persons by using data from the 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data for 3,373 persons aged 65 years and over (men: 1,455, 43.1%) were selected from the 2008-2011 KNHANES. Sarcopenia assessments are based on a formula that divides a subject's appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) by their weight (wt) and multiplies that result by 100 ([ASM/wt] × 100). Sarcopenia is present if the subject's result was less than one standard deviation (SD) below the sex-specific mean for a young reference group. For evaluation of diet quality, data obtained via the 24-hour recall method were used to calculate the Diet Quality Index for Koreans (DQI-K). A general linear model was applied in order to analyze general information and nutritional intake according to sarcopenia status. For analysis of the relationship between diet quality and sarcopenia, a binominal logistic regression analysis was undertaken. RESULTS: The sarcopenia prevalence rate among the study subjects aged 65 years and over was 37.6%. The DQI-K of those without sarcopenia was 3.33 ± 0.04 points, while that of those with sarcopenia was 3.45 ± 0.04 points (P < 0.05). The relationship between diet quality and sarcopenia revealed that subjects aged 75 and older had a poor diet quality, and their odds ratio (OR) of sarcopenia presence was significantly higher (OR: 1.807, 95% confidence interval: 1.003-3.254, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that poor diet quality was related to sarcopenia presence in Koreans aged 75 and older. In order to improve the diet quality of the elderly (aged 75 and older), it is necessary to develop dietary improvement guidelines.

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