DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Growth performance and nutrient digestibility of growing-finishing pigs under different energy concentrations

  • Park, Sangwoo (Division of Animal and Dairy Science, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Kang, Joowon (Division of Animal and Dairy Science, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Lee, Jeong Jae (Division of Animal and Dairy Science, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Kyoung, Hyunjin (Division of Animal and Dairy Science, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Kim, Seong-Ki (Division of Animal and Dairy Science, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Choe, Jeehwan (Department of Beef Science, Korea National College of Agriculture and Fisheries) ;
  • Song, Minho (Division of Animal and Dairy Science, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Lee, Soo Kee (Division of Animal and Dairy Science, Chungnam National University)
  • Received : 2020.03.18
  • Accepted : 2020.04.09
  • Published : 2020.06.01

Abstract

Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of the difference in energy concentration in diets on performance and nutrient digestibility of growing-finishing pigs. The experimental diets were as follows: 1) a normal energy level corn-soybean meal-based diet (CON) and 2) high-energy diet compared with the CON (HE). Pigs had free access to their feed and water ad labium for 6 weeks during each experimental period. In experiment 1, 60 growing pigs (initial body weight [BW] of 23.85 kg) were randomly allotted to 2 treatment groups with 5 replications (6 pigs·pen-1). In experiment 2, 48 finishing pigs (initial BW = 65.13 kg) were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups with 6 replications (4 pigs·pen-1). The growth performance was measured at the beginning and end of each period. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) was determined by chromium oxide as an indigestible marker during the last 7 days of each experiment. In experiment 1, the dietary treatments did not affect the growth performance and ATTD of energy and nutrients. In experiment 2, no differences in growth performance were observed for pigs fed CON and HE throughout the experimental period. Additionally, dietary treatments did not affect the ATTD. In conclusion, the high energy content in diets for the growing-finishing period had no effect on the growth performance or digestibility, indicating that a wide range of energy content changes in diets would be required to affect the performance and digestibility of grower-finisher pigs. It is also necessary to understand the characteristics of components used to adjust the dietary energy concentration.

References

  1. Adeola O. 2001. Digestion and balance techniques in pigs. In Swine Nutrition (2nd) edited by Lewis AJ, Southern LL. pp. 903-916. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.
  2. AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). 2007. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. 18th ed. (rev.2) AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.
  3. Beaulieu AD, Williams NH, Patience JF. 2009. Response to dietary digestible energy concentration in growing pigs fed cereal grain-based diets. Journal of Animal Science 87:965-976. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2007-0834
  4. Clarke LC, Duffy SK, Rajauria G, O'Doherty JV. 2018. Growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics of finisher pigs offered either a by-product or cereal based diet at two different concentrations of net energy. Animal Feed Science and Technology 242:77-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.06.002
  5. De la Llata M, Dritz SS, Tokach MD, Goodband RD, Nelssen JL, Loughin TM. 2001. Effects of dietary fat on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs reared in a commercial environment. Journal of Animal Science 79:2643-2650. https://doi.org/10.2527/2001.79102643x
  6. Gentilcore D, Chaikomin R, Jones KL, Russo A, Feinle-Bisset C, Wishart JM, Rayner CK, Horowitz M. 2006. Effects of fat on gastric emptying of and the glycemic, insulin, and incretin responses to a carbohydrate meal in type 2 diabetes. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 91:2062-2067. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2005-2644
  7. Kerr BJ, Shurson GC. 2013. Strategies to improve fiber utilization in swine. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology 4:11. https://doi.org/10.1186/2049-1891-4-11
  8. Kil DY, Ji F, Stewart LL, Hinson RB, Beaulieu AD, Allee GL, Patience JF, Pettigrew JE, Stein HH. 2011. Net energy of soybean oil and choice white grease in diets fed to growing and finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 89:448-459. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2010-3233
  9. Kil DY, Ji F, Stewart LL, Hinson RB, Beaulieu AD, Allee GL, Patience JF, Pettigrew JE, Stein HH. 2013a. Effects of dietary soybean oil on pig growth performance, retention of protein, lipids, and energy, and the net energy of corn in diets fed to growing or finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 91:3283-3290. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2012-5124
  10. Kil DY, Kim BG, Stein HH. 2013b. Feed energy evaluation for growing pigs. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 26:1205-1217. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2013.r.02
  11. Lee GI, Kim K, Kim JH, Kil DY. 2015. Growth performance of early finishing gilts as affected by different net energy concentrations in diets. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 28:1614-1623. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.15.0216
  12. Lei XJ, Yan L, Kim YM, Kim IH. 2018. Effects of space allocations and energy levels on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in growing and finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 102:e498-e503. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12743
  13. Li Q, Patience JF. 2017. Factors involved in the regulation of feed and energy intake of pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 233:22-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2016.01.001
  14. Liu K. 2011. Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 59:1508-1526. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf103512z
  15. Liu Y, Kil DY, Perez-Mendoza VG, Song M, Pettigrew JE. 2018. Supplementation of different fat sources affects growth performance and carcass composition of finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology 9:56. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40104-018-0274-9
  16. Noblet J, Fortune H, Shi XS, Dubois S. 1994. Prediction of net energy value of feeds for growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 72:344-354. https://doi.org/10.2527/1994.722344x
  17. Noblet J, Milgen J van. 2004. Energy value of pig feeds: Effect of pig body weight and energy evaluation system. Journal of Animal Science 82 E-Suppl:229-238.
  18. NRC (National Research Council). 2012. Nutrient requirements of swine, 11th rev. ed. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., USA.
  19. Nyachoti CM, Zijlstra RT, Lange CFM de, Patience JF. 2004. Voluntary feed intake in growing-finishing pigs: A review of the main determining factors and potential approaches for accurate predictions. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 84:549-566. https://doi.org/10.4141/A04-001
  20. Park S, Kim B, Kim Y, Kim S, Jang K, Kim Y, Park J, Song M, Oh S. 2016. Nutrition and feed approach according to pig physiology. Korean Journal of Agricultural Science 43:750-760. [in Korean]
  21. Pettigrew JE, Moser RL. 1991. Fat in swine nutrition. In Swine Nutrition edited by Miller ER, Ullrey DE, Lewis AJ. pp. 133-145. Butterworth-Heinemann, Stoneham, MA, USA.
  22. Quiniou N, Noblet J. 2012. Effect of the dietary net energy concentration on feed intake and performance of growingfinishing pigs housed individually. Journal of Animal Science 90:4362-4372. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2011-4004
  23. Shurson GC, Kerr BJ, Hanson AR. 2015. Evaluating the quality of feed fats and oils and their effects on pig growth performance. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology 6:10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40104-015-0005-4
  24. Valaja J, Siljander-Rasi H. 2001. Dietary fat supplementation affects apparent ileal digestilibity of amino acids and digesta passage rate of rapeseed meal-based diet. In Digestive Physiology of Pigs edited by Linberg JE and Ogle B. pp. 175-177. CABI Publishing, New York, USA.
  25. Velayudhan DE, Kim IH, Nyachoti CM. 2015. Characterization of dietary energy in swine feed and feed ingredients: A review of recent research results. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 28:1-13.
  26. Williams CH, David DJ, Iismaa O. 1962. The determination of chromic oxide in faeces samples by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The Journal of Agricultural Science 59:381-385. https://doi.org/10.1017/S002185960001546X