Clinical Evaluation of Fermented-C. Atrati Radix Cosmetic (Whitecrow) for Skin Whitening

백미발효 화장품(Whitecrow)의 임상적 미백효과 평가

  • Received : 2020.02.15
  • Accepted : 2020.04.09
  • Published : 2020.05.30


This study evaluated the Skin Whitening effects of 'fermented-C.' for Atrium cosmetics using a single-arm clinical trial. Twenty female adults (mean age 42.1 ± 6.6 year) were enrolled, all participants used this cosmetic product on their face for 4 weeks. The change of brightness (L-value) was measured by spectrophotometer while subjective assessments were also obtained to find the participants opinions on whitening and their general satisfaction measured by a 5-point scale (5 for very satisfactory, 5 for satisfactory, 3 for moderate, 2 for unsatisfactory, 1 for very unsatisfactory). The participants were also questioned about any adverse effects by filling out a self-monitoring report. The average L-value increased from 62.55 ± 2.14 on day 0 to 63.22 ± 1.96 after 4 weeks corresponding to a 1.1% brightness improvement (p < 0.01). The average scores for subjective whitening and general satisfaction were better than moderate with scores of 3.6 ± 0.5 and 3.7 ± 0.7, respectively. No notable complaints were reported regarding any kind of adverse effects such as erythema, itching or burning. The clinical data collected in this study supports that fermented-C. from Atrium cosmetics has whitening potential in a safe Functional Cosmetics package.


  1. Grove, G., & Kligman, A. (1983). Age-associated changes in human epidermal cell renewal. Journals of Gerontology, 38(2), 137-142. doi:10.1093/geronj/38.2.137
  2. Han, D., & Park, K. (2006). Analysis on the purchasing condition and satisfaction of whitening cosmetics. Journal of the Korean Society of Fashion and Beauty, 4(4), 42-55.
  3. Jeon, J., Park, K., Lee, H., Shin, S., Zhang, T., Won, M., Yoon, H., Choi, M., Kim, H., Son, C., Hong, J., & Hur, G. (2011). Water extract of Cynanchi atrati Radix regulates inflammation and apoptotic cell death through suppression of IKK-mediated NF-${\kappa}B$ signaling. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 137(1), 626-634. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2011.06.022
  4. Jeong, S. (2018). A review of current research on natural skin whitening products. Asian Journal of Beauty and Cosmetology, 16(4), 599-607. doi:10.20402/ajbc.2018.0243
  5. Kim, E. (2006). A study of whitening cosmetics from natural products. Asian Journal of Beauty and Cosmetology, 4(2), 195-203.
  6. Kim, K., & Lee, N. (2014). Herbal extracts research trend that have effects on melanin production and control. Asian Journal of Beauty and Cosmetology, 12(4), 453-461.
  7. Kim, K., Bae, Y., Lee, E., Kim, S., Kim, E., & Choi S. (2017). 화장품학 [Cosmetology]. Paju: Medicean Publishing.
  8. Lee, J., & Roh, S. (1998). A literatual studies on the pruritic dematoses. Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology, Otolaryngology & Dermatology. 11(1), 219-239.
  9. Maranduca, M., Branisteanu, D., Serban, D., Branisteanu, D., Stoleriu, G., Manolache, N., & Serban, I. (2019). Synthesis and physiological implications of melanic pigments. Oncololy Letter, 17(5), 4183-4187. doi:10.3892/ol.2019.10071
  10. Park, J., & Yoon, O. (2013). Asian Journal of Beauty and Cosmetology, 11(2), 219-229.
  11. Son, S., Kim, H., Han, J., Lee, J., Choi, M., Lee, J., & Son, C. (2014). Anti-melanoma activity of Cynanchi atrati Radix is mediated by regulation of NF-kappa B activity and pro-apoptotic proteins. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 153(1), 250-257. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2014.02.037
  12. Son, C., Jang, E., Lee, S., & Barng, K. (2019). Consumer perception and evaluation of cynanchi atrati radix fermented oriental cosmetics for skin whitening, Journal of Fashion Business, 23(5), 137-150, doi:10.12940/jfb.2019.23.5.137
  13. Song, J., Ko, J., & Yang, J. (2011). A study on analysis of prescription and consumer awareness in oriental herbal cosmetics. Asian Journal of Beauty and Cosmetology, 9(3), 107-115.
  14. Wu, J., Liu, Q., Tao, L., Wang, N., & Zhao, H. (2016). Efficacy evaluation of whitening cosmetics. Asian Journal of Beauty and Cosmetology, 14(2), 139-145. doi:10.20402/ajbc.2016.0026
  15. Zhang, Z., Zhou, J., Hayashi, K. & Mitsuhashi, H. (1985). Studies on the constituents of asclepiadaceae plants. LVIII. The structures of five glycosides, cynatratoside-A, -B, -C, -D, and -E, from the Chinese drug "pai-wei," Cynanchum atratum Bunge. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 33(4), 1507-1514. doi:10.1248/cpb.33.1507