DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

VLC4WoT : Visible Light Communication for Web of Things

  • Durgun, Mahmut (Department of Mechatronic Engineering, Tokat Gaziosmanpasa University) ;
  • Gokrem, Levent (Department of Mechatronic Engineering, Tokat Gaziosmanpasa University)
  • Received : 2019.05.09
  • Accepted : 2019.10.29
  • Published : 2020.04.30

Abstract

Recently, new devices have been developed for the Internet of Things concept. The devices commonly use RF (Radio Frequency) based wireless communication. With the increase in the number of devices, the space allocated for the radio frequency band in wireless communication fills rapidly. Visible Light Communication (VLC) is an alternative, secure and economical communication technology that uses light instead of radio frequencies. While Web of Things (WoT) is the adaptation of the experience and knowledge acquired from the web into the internet of things ecosystems. By combining these two technologies, the development of the Visible Light Communication for Web of Things (VLC4WoT) system, which can use VLC and WoT technologies, has been our motivation. In our study, microcontroller control circuit was created for VLC4WoT system. Control of the circuits over the internet was performed. VLC based receiver and transmitter units have been developed for wireless communication. Web based interface was created for control. The test apparatus consisting of four objects with four outputs and a transfer unit was carried out. In this test, communication was achieved successfully. It was presented in the study that VLC can be used in the web of things architecture. In the future, it is envisaged to use this system as a safe and economical system in indoor environments.

References

  1. P. H. Pathak, X. Feng, P. Hu, and P. Mohapatra, "Visible Light Communication, Networking, and Sensing: A Survey, Potential and Challenges," IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, vol. 17, no. 4. pp. 2047-2077, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1109/COMST.2015.2476474
  2. C. M. Kim and S. J. Koh, "Device management and data transport in iot networks based on visible light communication," Sensors (Switzerland), vol. 18, no. 8, p. 2741, Aug. 2018. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082741
  3. L. U. Khan, "Visible light communication: Applications, architecture, standardization and research challenges," Digital Communications and Networks, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 78-88, May-2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcan.2016.07.004
  4. L. Incipini, A. Belli, L. Palma, M. Ballicchia, and P. Pierleoni, "Sensing Light with LEDs: Performance Evaluation for IoT Applications," J. Imaging, vol. 3, no. 4, p. 50, Nov. 2017. https://doi.org/10.3390/jimaging3040050
  5. O. Ergul, E. Dinc, and O. B. Akan, "Communicate to illuminate: State-of-the-art and research challenges for visible light communications," Physical Communication, vol. 17, pp. 72-85, Dec-2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phycom.2015.08.003
  6. T. Komine and M. Nakagawa, "Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron., vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 100-107, Feb. 2004. https://doi.org/10.1109/TCE.2004.1277847
  7. H. Polat, S. Oyucu, and N. Barisci, "A Study of Development of Standardised M2M Service Platform Using Restful Architecture.," Gazi Univ. J. Sci., vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 472-487, 2018.
  8. J. Wan, D. Li, C. Zou, and K. Zhou, "M2M communications for smart city: An event-based architecture," in Proc. of 2012 IEEE 12th International Conference on Computer and Information Technology, CIT 2012, pp. 895-900, 2012.
  9. L. Da Xu, W. He, and S. Li, "Internet of things in industries: A survey," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol. 10, no. 4. pp. 2233-2243, Nov-2014. https://doi.org/10.1109/TII.2014.2300753
  10. A. Pal, H. K. Rath, S. Shailendra, and A. Bhattacharyya, "IoT Standardization: The Road Ahead," Internet of Things - Technology, Applications and Standardization, InTech, 2018.
  11. D. Evans, "The Internet of Things - How the Next Evolution of the Internet is Changing Everything," CISCO white Pap., no. April, pp. 1-11, 2011.
  12. S. Li, L. Da Xu, and S. Zhao, "5G Internet of Things: A survey," J. Ind. Inf. Integr., vol. 10, pp. 1-9, Jun. 2018.
  13. M. S. M. Gismalla and M. F. L. Abdullah, "Device to device communication for internet of things ecosystem: An overview," Int. J. Integr. Eng., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 118-123, 2017.
  14. D. Zeng, S. Guo, and Z. Cheng, "The Web of Things: A Survey (Invited Paper)," J. Commun., vol. 6, no. 6, Sep. 2011.
  15. D. Guinard, V. Trifa, and E. Wilde, "A resource oriented architecture for the web of things," in Proc. of 2010 Internet of Things, IoT 2010, pp. 1-8, 2010.
  16. M. Castro, A. J. Jara, and A. F. Skarmeta, "Enabling end-to-end CoAP-based communications for the Web of Things," J. Netw. Comput. Appl., vol. 59, pp. 230-236, Jan. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnca.2014.09.019
  17. S. S. Mathew, Y. Atif, Q. Z. Sheng, and Z. Maamar, "The Web of Things - Challenges and enabling technologies," Stud. Comput. Intell., vol. 460, pp. 1-23, 2013.
  18. D. Guinard, "A Web of Things Application Architecture - Integrating the Real-World into the Web," PhD th., ETH Zurich, no. 19891, p. 220, 2011.
  19. L. Mainetti, V. Mighali, and L. Patrono, "A software architecture enabling the web of things," IEEE Internet Things J., vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 445-454, Dec. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1109/JIOT.2015.2477467
  20. M. Kavehrad, "Sustainable energy-efficient wireless applications using light," IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 66-73, Dec. 2010.
  21. Z. Wang, Q. Wang, W. Huang, and Z. Xu, Visible Light Communications Modulation and Signal Processing. John Wiley & Sons, 2017.
  22. P. Luo, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, E. Bentley, A. Burton, and X. Tang, "Performance analysis of a car-to-car visible light communication system," Appl. Opt., vol. 54, no. 7, pp. 1696-1706, Mar. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.54.001696
  23. G. Cossu et al., "Experimental demonstration of high speed underwater visible light communications," in Proc. of the 2013 2nd International Workshop on Optical Wireless Communications, IWOW 2013, pp. 11-15, 2013.
  24. N. Farr, A. Bowen, J. Ware, C. Pontbriand, and M. Tivey, "An integrated, underwater optical/acoustic communications system," in Proc. of OCEANS'10 IEEE Sydney, OCEANSSYD 2010, pp. 1-6, 2010.
  25. M. Saotome, Y. Kozawa, Y. Umeda, and H. Habuchi, "Differential-OOK System for Underwater Visible-Light Communications," J. Signal Process., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 175-178, 2016. https://doi.org/10.2299/jsp.20.175
  26. H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, "Indoor optical wireless communication: potential and state-of-the-art," IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 56-62, Sep. 2011.
  27. A. Zanella, N. Bui, A. Castellani, L. Vangelista, and M. Zorzi, "Internet of things for smart cities," IEEE Internet Things J., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 22-32, Feb. 2014. https://doi.org/10.1109/JIOT.2014.2306328
  28. C. X. Wang et al., "Cellular architecture and key technologies for 5G wireless communication networks," IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 122-130, Feb. 2014.
  29. G. Cerruela García, I. Luque Ruiz, and M. Gómez-Nieto, "State of the Art, Trends and Future of Bluetooth Low Energy, Near Field Communication and Visible Light Communication in the Development of Smart Cities," Sensors, vol. 16, no. 11, p. 1968, Nov. 2016. https://doi.org/10.3390/s16111968
  30. M. Novak, O. Wilfert, and T. Simicek, "Visible light communication beacon system for internet of things," in Proc. of 2017 Conference on Microwave Techniques, COMITE 2017, pp. 1-5, 2017.
  31. S. V. Tiwari, A. Sewaiwar, and Y. H. Chung, "Smart home technologies using Visible Light Communication," in Proc. of 2015 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics, ICCE 2015, pp. 379-380, 2015.
  32. M. T. Niaz, F. Imdad, and H. S. Kim, "Power consumption efficiency evaluation of multi-user full-duplex visible light communication systems for smart home technologies," Energies, vol. 10, no. 2, p. 254, Feb. 2017. https://doi.org/10.3390/en10020254
  33. C. M. Kim, S. Il Choi, and S. J. Koh, "IDMP-VLC: IoT device management protocol in visible light communication networks," in Proc. of International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology, ICACT, pp. 578-583, 2017.
  34. S. Rajagopal, R. Roberts, and S.-K. Lim, "IEEE 802.15.7 visible light communication: modulation schemes and dimming support," IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 72-82, Mar. 2012.
  35. A. Jovicic, J. Li, and T. Richardson, "Visible light communication: opportunities, challenges and the path to market," IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 26-32, Dec. 2013.
  36. S. Rajbhandari et al., "High-Speed Integrated Visible Light Communication System: Device Constraints and Design Considerations," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 1750-1757, Sep. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSAC.2015.2432551
  37. B. B. Purkayastha and K. K. Sarma, "Synchronization," A Digital Phase Locked Loop based Signal and Symbol Recovery System for Wireless Channel, Springer, pp. 127-151, 2015.