DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Anticancer Effects of Ganjang with Different Aging Periods

숙성 기간에 따른 간장의 항암 효과

  • Received : 2020.03.27
  • Accepted : 2020.04.27
  • Published : 2020.04.30

Abstract

Ganjang and doenjang are known as major fermented soy-based foods in Koreans. Current investigations have proved that fermented soybean foods impart anti-cancer, anti-obesity, and anti-diabetic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-cancer activities of commercialized soy food, Ganjang, as a function of aging period. The test groups were classified into four time periods-short (under 5 years, S group), mid (under 10 years, M group), long (under 15 years, L group), and eternal (over 15 years, E group). The anti-cancer effects of Ganjang were determined by cell cytotoxicity assay of three types of cancer cell lines and splenocyte proliferation assay. Besides these assays, we also analyzed NK cell activity for cancer immunotherapy. The results show that the anti-cancer effect increased in the S and M period aging groups for all three cancer cell lines. Interestingly, similar to the anti-cancer result, splenocyte proliferation and NK activity showed the highest effect in the S and M groups. In contrast, Japanese ganjang-treated (JG1, JG2) groups and E group showed significantly reduced splenocyte proliferation. Collectively, these results suggest that the short and middle periods of traditional fermented Ganjang might have potential anti-cancer activities.

References

  1. Ahn SC, Bog HJ. 2007. Consumption pattern and sensory evaluation of traditional Doenjang and commercial Doenjang. Korean J Food Culture., 22:633-644
  2. Bae SM, Kim JH, Cho CW, Jeong TJ, Yoon HS, Byun MW, Lee SC. 2002. Effect of ${\gamma}$-irradiation on the antioxidant activity of rice hull, rice bran and bran. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr., 31:246-250 https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.246
  3. Barua A, Bradaric MJ, Bitterman P, Abramowicz JS, Sharma S, Basu S, Lopez H, Bahr JM. 2013. Dietary supplementation of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera, Dunal) enhances NK cell function in ovarian tumors in the laying hen model of spontaneous ovarian cancer. Am J Reprod Immunol., 70(6):538-50 https://doi.org/10.1111/aji.12172
  4. Bhaumik S, Jyothi MD, Khar A. 2000. Differential modulation of nitric oxide production by curcumin in host macrophages and NK cells. FEBS Lett., 483(1):78-82 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0014-5793(00)02089-5
  5. Braedel-Ruoff S. 2010. Immunomodulatory effects of Viscum album extracts on natural killer cells: review of clinical trials. Forsch Komplementmed., 17(2):63-73 https://doi.org/10.1159/000288702
  6. Castriconi R, Daga A, Dondero A, Zona G, Poliani PL, Melotti A. 2009. NK cells recognize and kill human glioblastoma cells with stem cell-like properties. J Immunol., 182:3530-9 https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.0802845
  7. Choi C, Choi KS, Lee SH, Hong SP, Lee HD, Bae DK. 1998. Characteristics and action pattern of ${\alpha}$-galactosidase from Scopulariopsis brevicaulis in Korean Traditional Meju. 1998. Agri Chem Biotech., 41:489-495
  8. Choi YJ, Cho SH, Chung RW, Kim EM, Won SI, Cha GH, Kim HS, Lee HG. 2007. Investigation of fermented soybean sauce on literatures before the 17th century. Korean J Food Cookery Sci., 23:107-123
  9. Ishikawa H, Saeki T, Otani T, Suzuki T, Shimozuma K, Nishino H, Fukuda S, Morimoto K J Nutr. 2006. Aged garlic extract prevents a decline of NK cell number and activity in patients with advanced cancer., 136(3 Suppl):816S-820S https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/136.3.816S
  10. Joo HK, Kim DH, Oh KT. 1992a Chemical composition changes in fermented doenjang depend on doenjang koji and its mixture. J Korean Agric Chem Soc., 35:351-369
  11. Joo HK, Oh KT, Kim DH. 1992b. Effects of mixture of improved meju, Korean traditional meju and natto on soybean paste fermentation. J Korean Agric Chem Soc., 35:286-293
  12. Kaneko K, Tsuji K, Kim CH, Otogu1ro C, Sumino T, Aida K, Sahara K, Kaneda T. 1994 Contents and compositions of free sugars, organic acids, free amino acids and oligopeptides in soy sauce and soy paste produced in Korea and Japan. Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi., 41:148-156 https://doi.org/10.3136/nskkk1962.41.148
  13. Kang IJ, Ham SS, Chung CK, Lee SY, Oh DH, Do JJ. 1999. Production and characteristics of fermented soy sauce from mountain herbs. Korean J Food Sci Technol., 31:1203-1210
  14. Kim DH, Kim SH. 1999. Biochemical characteristics of whole soybean cereals fermented with Mucor and Rhizopus strain. Korean J Food Sci Technol., 31: 176-182
  15. Kim JU, Hur BS, Park WP. 1989. Utilization of soymilk residue for barley doenjang. J Korean Agric Chem Soc., 32:91-97
  16. Kim MJ, Rhee HS. 1990. Studies on the changes of taste compounds during soy paste fermentation. Korean J Soc Food Sci., 6:1-8
  17. Kobayashi M, Matsushita H, Yoshida K, Tsukiyama R, Sugimura T, Yamamoto K. 2004. In vitro and in vivo anti-allergic activity of soy sauce. Int J Mol Med., 14:879-884
  18. Kwon OJ, Kim TW, Kim MA, Kim DG, Lee SH, Son DH, Choi YK. 2010. Changes in the quality characteristics of soy sauce made with salts obtained from deep ocean water. Korean J Food Preserv., 17:820-825
  19. Kwon SH, Shon MY. 2004. Antioxidant and anticarcinogenic effect of traditional Doenjang during Maturation Periods. Korean Journal of Food Preservation., 11(4):461-467
  20. Lee WJ, Cho DH. 1971. Microbiological studies of Korean native soy sauce fermentation. J Korean Agric Chem Soc., 14:137-148
  21. Long EO, Kim HS, Liu D. 2013. Peterson ME, Rajagopalan S. Controling natural kiler cell responses: integration of signals for activation and inhibition. Anu Rev Immunol., 31:227-58 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-020711-075005
  22. Messina MJ, Persky V, Setchell KD, Barnes S. 1994. Soy intake and cancer risk: a review of the in vitro and in vivo data. Nutr Cancer., 21(2):113-31 https://doi.org/10.1080/01635589409514310
  23. Nagahama K, Eto N, Shimojo T, Kondoh T, Nakahara K, Sakakibara Y, Fukui K, Suiko M. 2015. Effect of kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia) pericarp on natural killer cell activity in vitro and in vivo. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem., 79(8):1327-36 https://doi.org/10.1080/09168451.2015.1025033
  24. Oh HS, Kim JH. 2006 Development of functional soybased stew sauce including hot water extract of Cornus officinalis S. et Z. Korean J Food Culture 21, 550-558
  25. Park KY. 2010. Korea's traditional-Functional health Sauce (Doenjang, Ganjang). Korea Food Research Institute, Wanju, Korea. 3(1):31-35
  26. Park SK, Seo KI, Shon MY, Moon JS, Lee YH. 2000. Quality characteristics of home-made doenjang, a traditional Korean soybean paste. Korean J Soc Food Sci., 16:121-127
  27. Rauf A, Imran M, Butt MS, Nadeem M, Peters DG, Mubarak MS. 2018 Resveratrol as an anti-cancer agent: A review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr., 58(9):1428-1447 https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2016.1263597
  28. Ryu BH, Cho KJ, Chae YJ, Park CO. 1993. Thermal koji hydrolysis for rapid fermentation of soy sauce. J Korean Soc Food Nutr., 2:215-221
  29. Shim SL, Ryu KY, Kim W, Jun SN, Seo HY, Han KJ, Kim JH, Song HP, Cho NC, Kim KS. 2008. Physicochemical characteristics of medicinal herbs Ganjang. Korean J Food Preserv., 15:243-252
  30. Vivier E, Tomasello E, Baratin M, Walzer T, Ugolini S. 2008. Functions of natural killer cells. Nat Immunol., 9:503-10 https://doi.org/10.1038/ni1582
  31. Won SB, Oh KH, Jung SY, Song HS. 2012. Sensory evaluation of Hutgae (Hovenia dulcis Thunb) extract for soy sauce development. Korean J Food Nutr., 25: 266-273 https://doi.org/10.9799/ksfan.2012.25.2.266
  32. Yanagida F. 1995. Angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activities of various fermented foods. Biosci Biotech Bioch., 59:1147-1149 https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.59.1147
  33. Yoo JY. 1997. Present status of industries and research activities of Korean fermented soybean products. Korean J Appl Microbiol Biotechnol., 23:13-30
  34. Yun YS, Moon HS, Oh YR, Jo SK, Kim YJ, Yun TK. 1987. Effect of red ginseng on natural killer cell activity in mice with lung adenoma induced by urethan and benzo(a)pyrene. Cancer Detect Prev Suppl., 1:301-9