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Neuroprotective effects of urolithin A on H2O2-induced oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in SK-N-MC cells

  • Received : 2019.06.27
  • Accepted : 2019.09.06
  • Published : 2020.02.01

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Oxidative stress causes cell damage and death, which contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Urolithin A (UA), a gut microbial-derived metabolite of ellagitannins and ellagic acid, has high bioavailability and various health benefits such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, it is unknown whether it has protective effects against oxidative stress-induced cell death. We investigated whether UA ameliorates H2O2-induced neuronal cell death. MATERIALS/METHODS: We induced oxidative damage with 300 μM H2O2 after UA pretreatment at concentrations of 1.25, 2.5, and 5 μM in SK-N-MC cells. Cytotoxicity and cell viability were determined using the CCK-8 assay. The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured using a 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. Hoechst 33342 staining was used to characterize morphological changes in apoptotic cells. The expressions of apoptosis proteins were measured using Western blotting. RESULTS: UA significantly increased cell viability and decreased intracellular ROS production in a dose-dependent manner in SK-N-MC cells. It also decreased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and the expressions of cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved PARP. In addition, it suppressed the phosphorylation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. CONCLUSIONS: UA attenuates oxidative stress-induced apoptosis via inhibiting the mitochondrial-related apoptosis pathway and modulating the p38 MAPK pathway, suggesting that it may be an effective neuroprotective agent.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Seoul Medical Center Research Institute

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