Taxonomic Revision of Notohymena gangwonensis (Protozoa: Ciliophora), with Notes on Its Cortical Granules and Scanning Electron Micrographs

  • Moon, Ji Hye (Department of Biology, Gangneung-Wonju National University) ;
  • Kim, Kang-San (Department of Biological Sciences, Inha University) ;
  • Chae, Kyu Seok (Department of Biological Sciences, Inha University) ;
  • Min, Gi-Sik (Department of Biological Sciences, Inha University) ;
  • Jung, Jae-Ho (Department of Biology, Gangneung-Wonju National University)
  • Received : 2019.12.16
  • Accepted : 2020.02.07
  • Published : 2020.04.30


From a moss sample, we isolated and identified Notohymena gangwonensis Kim et al., 2019 based on morphological and molecular data. The moss and type population has completely identical 18S rRNA (nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA) gene sequences and both are highly similar in morphological and morphometric attributes, except for the diameter and arrangement of the cortical granules. Thus, we reexamined the type materials(i.e., micrographs and gDNA) and resulted in finding mistakes made by the authors of the species. Based on these data and supporting materials newly obtained (i.e., internal transcribed spacer [ITS] 1, ITS2, 5.8S, and partial 28S rDNA sequences, and scanning electron micrographs), we provide improved diagnosis of the species to clarify its identity. In addition, a key for Notohymena species is provided.


Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF)


  1. Barth D, Krenek S, Fokin SI, Berendonk TU, 2006. Intraspecific genetic variation in Paramecium revealed by mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I sequences. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 53:20-25.
  2. Berger H, 1999. Monograph of the Oxytrichidae (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia). Monographiae Biologicae, 78:1-1080.
  3. Foissner W, 1996. Faunistics, taxonomy and ecology of moss and soil ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from Antarctica, with description of new species, including Pleuroplitoides smithi gen. n., sp. n. Acta Protozoologica, 35:95-123.
  4. Foissner W, 2014. An update of 'basic light and scanning electron microscopic methods for taxonomic studies of ciliated protozoa'. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 64:271-292.
  5. Foissner W, 2016. Terrestrial and semiterrestrial ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from Venezuela and Galapagos. Denisia, 35:1-912.
  6. Foissner W, Agatha S, Berger H, 2002. Soil ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from Namibia (Southwest Africa), with emphasis on two contrasting environments, the Etosha region and the Namib desert. Part I: Text and line drawings. Denisia, 5:1-1063.
  7. Foissner W, Al-Rasheid K, 2006. A unified organization of the stichotrichine oral apparatus, including a description of the buccal seal (Ciliophora: Spirotrichea). Acta Protozoologica, 45:1-16.
  8. Kamra K, Kumar S, 2010. Notohymena saprai sp. nov, a new oxytrichid ciliate (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from the Valley of Flowers, a Himalayan bioreserve region; description and morphogenesis of the new species. Indian Journal of Microbiology, 50:33-45.
  9. Kearse M, Moir R, Wilson A, Stones-Havas S, Cheung M, Sturrock S, Buxton S, Cooper A, Markowitz S, Duran C, Thierer T, Ashton B, Meintjes P, Drummond A, 2012. Geneious Basic: an integrated and extendable desktop software platform for the organization and analysis of sequence data. Bioinformatics, 28:1647-1649.
  10. Kim JH, Jung JH, 2017. Cytological staining of protozoa: a case study on the impregnation of hypotrichs (Ciliophora: Spirotrichea) using laboratory-synthesized protargol. Animal Cells and Systems, 21:412-418.
  11. Kim KS, Jung JH, Min GS, 2019. Morphology and molecular phylogeny of two new terrestrial ciliates, Australocirrus rubrus n. sp. and Notohymena gangwonensis n. sp. (Ciliophora: Oxytrichidae), from South Korea. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 66:740-751.
  12. Kumar S, Foissner W, 2015. Biogeographic specializations of two large hypotrich ciliates: Australocirrus shii and A. australis and proposed synonymy of Australocirrus and Cyrtohymenides. European Journal of Protistology, 51:210-228.
  13. Kuppers GC, Claps MC, Lopretto EC, 2007. Description of Notohymena pampasica n. sp. (Ciliophora, Stichotrichia). Acta Protozoologica, 46:221-227.
  14. Lynn DH, 2008. The ciliated protozoa: characterization, classification, and guide to the literature. Springer, New York, pp. 1-605.
  15. Naqvi I, Gupta R, Makhija S, Toteja R, Abraham JS, Sripoorna S, El-Serehy HA, Al-Misned FA, 2016. Morphology and morphogenesis of a new oxytrichid ciliate, Notohymena limus n. sp. (Ciliophora, Oxytrichidae) from Delhi, India. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 23:789-794.
  16. Park MH, Jung JH, Jo E, Park KM, Baek YS, Kim SJ, Min GS, 2019. Utility of mitochondrial CO1 sequences for species discrimination of Spirotrichea ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora). Mitochondrial DNA Part A, DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis, 30:148-155.
  17. Sonnenberg R, Nolte AW, Tautz D, 2007. An evaluation of LSU rDNA D1-D2 sequences for their use in species identification. Frontiers in Zoology, 4:6.