Effect of oyster shell powder on nitrogen releases from contaminated marine sediment

  • Khirul, Md Akhte (Department of Ocean System Engineering, College of Marine Science, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Kim, Beom-Geun (Department of Ocean System Engineering, College of Marine Science, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Cho, Daechul (Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Soonchunhyang University) ;
  • Yoo, Gilsun (Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Soonchunhyang University) ;
  • Kwon, Sung-Hyun (Department of Marine Environmental Engineering, College of Marine Science, Engineering Research Institute (ERI), Gyeongsang National University)
  • Received : 2018.11.10
  • Accepted : 2019.03.15
  • Published : 2020.04.30


Nitrogen flux release from organically enriched sediments into overlying water, which may have significantly influence on water quality and increasing continuous eutrophication. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the remediation efficiency of oyster shell powder and its treated product into organically enriched sediment in terms of nitrogen flux, organic matter, chlorophyll-a, pH and dissolved oxygen (DO). The TOSP was mainly composed of CaO2. The application of TOSP into the sediment has increased the pH, DO and significantly decreased the concentrations of NH4+-N and T-N compared to other basins. On the other hand, nitrate was enriched with the addition of treated oyster powder, an oxygen releasing compound on both phases. Furthermore, chlorophyll-a was found to be increasing with time in the control basin meanwhile it dropped drastically with the addition of TOSP, which implied on the repression of algal growth owing to blockage of nitrogen source migrating from the sediment. This study has shown that the TOSP was effective to improve sediment-water quality, diminish eutrophication and control harmful algae blooms in a marine environment. Therefore, it is a good reference as an effective environmental remediation agent.


Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF)


  1. Buzancic M, Nincevic Gladan Z, Marasovic I, Kuspilic G, Grbec B. Eutrophication influence on phytoplankton community composition in three bays on the eastern Adriatic coast. Oceanologia 2016;58:302-316.
  2. Schumacher J, Dolch T, Reise K. Transitions in sandflat biota since the 1930s: Effects of sea-level rise, eutrophication and biological globalization in the tidal bay Konigshafen, northern Wadden Sea. Helgol. Mar. Res. 2014;68:289-298.
  3. Glibert PM, Burkholder JM. Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication:Strategies for nutrient uptake and growth outside the Redfield comfort zone. Chinease J. Oceanol. Limnol. 2011;29:729-738.
  4. Nagasoe S, Shikata T, Yamasaki Y, et al. Effects of nutrients on growth of the red-tide dinoflagellate Gyrodinium instriatum Freudenthal et Lee and a possible link to blooms of this species. Hydrobiologia 2010;651:225-238.
  5. Jayaweera M, Asaeda T. Impacts of environmental scenarios on chlorophyll-a in the management of shallow, eutrophic lakes following biomanipulation: An application of a numerical model. Ecol. Eng. 1995;5:445-468.
  6. Guinder VA, Lopez-Abbate MC, Berasategui AA, et al. Influence of the winter phytoplankton bloom on the settled material in a temperate shallow estuary. Oceanologia 2015;57:50-60.
  7. Carpenter SR, Caraco NF, Correll DL, Howarth RW, Sharpley AN, Smith VH. Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen. Ecol. Applic. 1998;8:559-568.[0559:NPOSWW]2.0.CO;2
  8. Kwon H-B, Lee C-W, Jun B-S, Yun J-D, Weon S-Y, Koopman B. Recycling waste oyster shells for eutrophication control. Resour. Conserv. Recy. 2004;41:75-82.
  9. Nakatani N, Takamori H, Takeda K, Sakugawa H. Transesterification of soybean oil using combusted oyster shell waste as a catalyst. Bioresour. Technol. 2009;100:1510-1513.
  10. Park WH, Polprasert C. Roles of oyster shells in an integrated constructed wetland system designed for P removal. Ecol. Eng. 2008;34:50-56.
  11. Yoon GL, Kim BT, Kim BO, Han SH. Chemical-mechanical characteristics of crushed oyster-shell. Waste Manage. 2003;23:825-834.
  12. Lee CH, Lee DK, Alia MA, Kima PJ. Effects of oyster shell on soil chemical and biological properties and cabbage productivity as a liming materials. Waste Manage. 2008;28:2702-2708.
  13. Liu SJ, Jiang B, Huang G-Q, Li X-G. Laboratory column study for remediation of MTBE-contaminated groundwater using a biological two-layer permeable barrier. Water Res. 2006;40:3401-3408.
  14. Hanh D, Rajbhandari B, Annachhatre A. Bioremediation of sediments from intensive aquaculture shrimp farms by using calcium peroxide as slow oxygen release agent. Environ. Technol. 2005;26:581-589.
  15. Cassidy DP, Irvine RL. Use of calcium peroxide to provide oxygen for contaminant biodegradationina saturated soil. J. Hazard. Mater. 1999;69:25-39.
  16. Nykanen A, Kontio H, Klutas O, et al. Increasing lake water and sediment oxygen levels using slow release peroxide. Sci. Total Environ. 2012;429:317-324.
  17. Lee HS, Park DW, Woo DS. A study on physicochemical and calcination processed characteristic of oyster shell. J. Korea Acad. Ind. Cooper. Soc. 2009;10:3971-3976.
  18. Huh J-H, Choi Y-H, Lee H-J, et al. The use of oyster powders for water quality improvement of lakes by algal blooms removal. J. Korean Ceram. Soc. 2016;53:1-6.
  19. Standard method for the examination of sea water and sediment. Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, South Korea. 2013.
  20. Hieltjes AH, Lijklema L. Fractionation of inorganic phosphates in calcareous sediments. J. Environ. Qual. 1980;9:405-407.
  21. Cho D, Jiang S, Kwon SH. Chemical and biological analyses of bay sediment where magnesium oxide compounds are applied. Environ. Eng. Res. 2014;19:101-105.
  22. Kaya K, Liu YD, Shen YW, Xiao BD, Sano T. Selective control of toxic Microcystis water blooms using lysine and malonic acid: An enclosure experiment. Environ. Toxicol. 2005;20:170-178.
  23. Scholz M. Wetland systems to control urban runoff. 1st ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science; 2006.
  24. Smith VH. Low nitrogen to phosphorus ratios favour dominance by blue-green algae in lake phytoplankton. Science 1983;221:669-671.
  25. Dugadale RC, Wilkerson FP, Hogue VE, Marchi A. The role of ammonium and nitrate in spring bloom development in San Francisco Bay. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 2007;73:17-29.
  26. Xiang S-L, Zhou W-B. Phosphorus forms and distribution in the sediments of Poyang Lake, China. Int. J. Sediment Res. 2011;26:230-238.
  27. Wu Q, Zhang R, Huang S, Zhang H. Effects of bacteria on nitrogen and phosphorus release from river sediment. J. Environ. Sci. 2008;20:404-412.
  28. Bostrom B, Andersen JM, Fleischer S, Jansson M. Exchange of phosphorus across the sediment water interface. Hydrobiologia 1988;170:229-244.
  29. Stolp H. Microbiological ecology: Organisms, habitats, activities. Cambridge Univ. Press; 1988.
  30. Beutel MW. Inhibition of ammonia release from anoxic profundal sediments in lakes using hypolimnetic oxygenation. Ecol. Eng. 2006;28:271-279.
  31. Beutel MW, Leonard TM, Dent SR, Moore BC. Effects of aerobic and anaerobic conditions on P, N, Fe, Mn, and Hg accumulation in waters overlaying profundal sediments of an oligo-mesotrophic lake. Water Res. 2008;42:1953-1962.
  32. Hou D, He J, Lu C, Sun Y, Zhang F, Otgonbayar K. Effects of environmental factors on nutrients release at sediment-water interface and assessment of trophic status for a typical shallow lake, Northwest China. Sci. World J. 2013;2013:articleID716342.