Characteristics of proteolytic microorganisms and their effects on proteolysis in total mixed ration silages of soybean curd residue

  • Hao, Wei (Department of Agricultural Engineering, College of Engineering, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Tian, Pengjiao (Department of Agricultural Engineering, College of Engineering, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Zheng, Mingli (Department of Agricultural Engineering, College of Engineering, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Wang, Huili (Department of Agricultural Engineering, College of Engineering, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Xu, Chuncheng (Department of Agricultural Engineering, College of Engineering, China Agricultural University)
  • Received : 2018.12.11
  • Accepted : 2019.03.28
  • Published : 2020.01.01


Objective: The objective of this study was to isolate proteolytic microorganisms and evaluate their effects on proteolysis in total mixed ration (TMR) silages of soybean curd residue. Methods: TMRs were formulated with soybean curd residue, alfalfa or Leymus chinensis hay, corn meal, soybean meal, a vitamin-mineral supplement, and salt in a ratio of 25.0: 40.0:30.0:4.0:0.5:0.5, respectively, on a basis of dry matter. The microbial proteinases during ensiling were characterized, the dominate strains associated with proteolysis were identified, and their enzymatic characterization were evaluated in alfalfa (A-TMR) and Leymus chinensis (L-TMR) TMR silages containing soybean curd residue. Results: Both A-TMR and L-TMR silages were well preserved, with low pH and high lactic acid concentrations. The aerobic bacteria and yeast counts in both TMR silages decreased to about 105 cfu/g fresh matter (FM) and below the detection limit, respectively. The lactic acid bacteria count increased to 109 cfu/g FM. The total microbial proteinases activities reached their maximums during the early ensiling stage and then reduced in both TMR silages with fermentation prolonged. Metalloproteinase was the main proteinase when the total proteinases activities reached their maximums, and when ensiling terminated, metallo and serine proteinases played equally important parts in proteolysis in both TMR silages. Strains in the genera Curtobacterium and Paenibacillus were identified as the most dominant proteolytic bacteria in A-TMR and L-TMR, respectively, and both their proteinases were mainly with metalloproteinase characteristics. In the latter ensiling phase, Enterococcus faecium strains became the major sources of proteolytic enzymes in both TMR silages. Their proteinases were mainly of metallo and serine proteinases classes in this experiment. Conclusion: Proteolytic aerobic bacteria were substituted by proteolytic lactic acid bacteria during ensiling, and the microbial serine and metallo proteinases in these strains played leading roles in proteolysis in TMR silages.


Supported by : National Natural Science Foundation of China


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