Comparison of in vitro digestibility and chemical composition among four crop straws treated by Pleurotus ostreatus

  • Nie, Haitao (Department of Jiangsu Engineering Technology Research Center of Meat Sheep & Goat Industry, Nanjing Agricultural University) ;
  • Wang, Ziyu (Department of Jiangsu Engineering Technology Research Center of Meat Sheep & Goat Industry, Nanjing Agricultural University) ;
  • You, Jihao (Department of Jiangsu Engineering Technology Research Center of Meat Sheep & Goat Industry, Nanjing Agricultural University) ;
  • Zhu, Gang (Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Station of Guannan) ;
  • Wang, Hengchang (Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Station of Guannan) ;
  • Wang, Feng (Department of Jiangsu Engineering Technology Research Center of Meat Sheep & Goat Industry, Nanjing Agricultural University)
  • Received : 2018.01.03
  • Accepted : 2018.05.28
  • Published : 2020.01.01


Objective: The effects of Pleurotus ostreatus on the feed utilization of broad bean stalks (BBS), rape straw (RS), paddy straw (PS), and corn stalk (CS) was examined. Methods: The four roughages were co-cultured with Pleurotus ostreatus. The chemical composition; enzyme activities of laccase, carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) and xylanase; carbohydrate and protein fractions (based on The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System [CNCPS]) were assessed at different days after inoculation (7, 14, 21, 28 d) and un-inoculated roughages (control, 0 d). The digestibility of nutrient components and the gas production of roughage with various incubation times were monitored at 0, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 h using an in vitro ruminal fermentation method. Results: A higher CMCase activity (0.1039 U/mL) and earlier time to peak (14 d) were detected in Pleurotus ostreatus cultured with CS (p<0.05). Significantly, the incubation length-dependent responses of cumulative gas production were observed from 24 to 72 hours post fermentation (p<0.05), and these incubation length-dependent effects on cumulative gas production of PS and CS appeared earlier (24 h) for PS and CS than those (48 h) for BBS and RS (p<0.05). The fast-degradable carbohydrate (CA) content for all four roughages significantly increased over time (p<0.05). Nonetheless, increased degradation efficiency for CA treated with Pleurotus ostreatus was detected at both 21 and 28 days of incubation (p<0.05). With the exception of PS (p<0.05), there were no significant difference among the roughages (p>0.05) in slowly-degradable carbohydrate (CB2) at different incubation times (p<0.05). Conclusion: Assessment of the alterations in chemical composition, CNCPS system fractions, and the fermentation kinetics after biological pretreatment may yield a valuable database for evaluating the biological pretreatment of Pleurotus ostreatus in ruminant feed.


Supported by : China Agriculture Research System


  1. Jakyeom S, Keun JJ, Seongwon S. Evaluation of nutritional and economic feed values of spent coffee grounds and Artemisia princeps residues as a ruminant feed using in vitro ruminal fermentation. Peer J 2015;3:e1343.
  2. Aregheore EM, Ali I, Ofori K, Rere T. Studies on grazing behavior of goats in the Cook Islands: The animal-plant complex in forage preference/palatability phenomena. Int J Agric Biol 2006;8;147-53.
  3. Youngil K, Junsang S, Wansup K. Evaluation of microbially ensiled spent mushroom (Pleurotus osteratus) substrates (bed-type cultivation) as a roughage for ruminants. J Anim Sci Technol 2010;52:117-24.
  4. Panagiotou G, Olavarria R, Olsson L. Penicillium brasilianum as an enzyme factory; the essential role of feruloyl esterases for the hydrolysis of the plant cell wall. J Biotechnol 2007;130:219-28.
  5. Jaewon L, Hoyong K, Bonwook K, et al. Enzymatic saccharification of biologically pretreated Pinus densiflora using enzymes from brown rot fungi. J Biosci Bioeng 2008;106:162-7.
  6. Kumar R, Singh S, Singh OV, Harvey SP. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass: biochemical and molecular perspectives. J Ind Microbiol 2008;35:377-91.
  7. Isroi, Millati R, Syamsiah S, et al. Biological pretreatment of lignocelluloses with white-rot fungi and its applications: a review. Bioresources 2011;6:5224-59.
  8. Cohen R, Persky L, Hadar Y. Biotechnological applications and potential of wood-degrading mushrooms of the genus Pleurotus. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2002;58:582-94.
  9. Russell JB, O'Connor JD, Fox DG, Van Soest PJ, Sniffen CJ. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets: I. Ruminal Fermentation. J Anim Sci 1992;70:3551-61.
  10. Rahman MM, Lourenço M, Hassim HA, et al. Improving ruminal degradability of oil palm fronds using white rot fungi. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2011;169:157-66.
  11. NRC. Nutrient requirements of small ruminants: sheep, goats, cervids, and new world camelids. Washington, DC, USA: National Academies Press; 2007.
  12. Palmieri G, Giardina P, Bianco C, et al. A novel white laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus. J Biol Chem 1997;272:31301-7.
  13. Meddebmouelhi F, Moisan JK, Beauregard M. A comparison of plate assay methods for detecting extracellular cellulase and xylanase activity. Enzyme Microb Technol 2014;66:16-9.
  14. Tilley JMA, Terry RA. A two-stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. Grass Forage Sci 1963;18:104-11.
  15. Bosch G, Pellikaan WF, Rutten PG, et al. Comparative in vitro fermentation activity in the canine distal gastrointestinal tract and fermentation kinetics of fiber sources. J Anim Sci 2008; 86:2979-89.
  16. Schofield P, Pitt RE, Pell AN. Kinetics of fiber digestion from in vitro gas production. J Anim Sci 1994;72:2980-91.
  17. AOAC. Official methods of analysis, 14th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC, USA: AOAC international; 1990.
  18. Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB, Lewis BA. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J Dairy Sci 1991;74:3583-97.
  19. Krishnamoorthy U, Sniffen CJ, Stern MD, Van Soest PJ. Evaluation of a mathematical model of rumen digestion and an in vitro simulation of rumen proteolysis to estimate the rumen-undegraded nitrogen content of feedstuffs. Br J Nutr 1983;50:555-68.
  20. Koukiekolo R, Cho HY, Kosugi A, et al. Degradation of corn fiber by Clostridium cellulovorans cellulases and hemicellulases and contribution of scaffolding protein CbpA. Appl Environ Microbiol 2005;71:3504-11.
  21. Philippoussis A, Diamantopoulou P, Papadopoulou K, et al. Biomass, laccase and endoglucanase production by Lentinula edodes during solid state fermentation of reed grass, bean stalks and wheat straw residues. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2011;27:285-97.
  22. Kirk TK, Schultz E, Connors WJ, Lorenz LF, Zeikus JG. Influence of culture parameters on lignin metabolism by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Arch Microbiol 1978;117:277-85.
  23. Mikiashvili N, Wasser SP, Nevo E, Elisashvili V. Effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on Pleurotus ostreatus ligninolytic enzyme activity. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2006;22:999-1002.
  24. Yang X, Zeng Y, Ma F, Zhang X, Yu H. Effect of biopretreatment on thermogravimetric and chemical characteristics of corn stover by different white-rot fungi. Bioresour Technol 2010;101:5475-9.
  25. Yu HB, Guo GN, Zhang XY, Yan KL, Xu CY. The effect of biological pretreatment with the selective white-rot fungus Echinodontium taxodii on enzymatic hydrolysis of softwoods and hardwoods. Bioresour Technol 2009;100:5170-5.
  26. Seo S, Lee SC, Lee SY, Seo JG, Ha JK. Degradation kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of ruminant feeds using automated gas production technique. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2009;22:356-64.
  27. Akin DE, Benner R. Degradation of polysaccharides and lignin by ruminal bacteria and fungi. Appl Environ Microbiol 1988;54:1117-25.
  28. Fox DG, Tedeschi LO, Tylutki TP, et al. The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System model for evaluating herd nutrition and nutrient excretion. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2004;112:29-78.
  29. Ghoorchi T, Arbabi S. Study of protein characteristic of five feeds by CNCPS model. Asian J Anim Vet Adv 2010;5:584-91.
  30. Krishnamoorthy U, Muscato TV, Sniffen CJ, Soest PJV. Nitrogen fractions in selected feedstuffs. J Dairy Sci 1982;65:217-25.
  31. Hall MB, Herejk C. Differences in yields of microbial crude protein from in vitro fermentation of carbohydrates 1. J Dairy Sci 2001;84:2486-93.
  32. Ten HR, Teunissen PJ. Oxidative mechanisms involved in lignin degradation by white-rot fungi. Chem Rev 2001;101:3397-414.