DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Augmenting yogurt quality attributes through hydrocolloidal gums

  • Rafiq, Lubna (National Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad) ;
  • Zahoor, Tahir (National Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad) ;
  • Sagheer, Ambreen (Lahore College of Home Economics) ;
  • Khalid, Nazia (National Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad) ;
  • Rahman, Ubaid ur (School of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Management and Technology) ;
  • Liaqat, Atif (Department of Food Science and Technology, Khwaja Fareed University of Engineering and Information Technology)
  • Received : 2018.03.19
  • Accepted : 2018.09.13
  • Published : 2020.02.01

Abstract

Objective: The present work was undertaken to determine the possibility of using xanthan and guar gums as stabilizers to enhance the yogurt quality. Methods: Yogurt was manufactured from standardized milk (3.5% fat, 8.5% solid-not-fat contents) with the addition of 2% to 3% starter culture. Enzyme-hydrolyzed xanthan gum (0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%) and guar gum (0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%) were added to the yogurt as stabilizers. Prepared yogurt samples were kept at refrigeration temperature (4℃±2℃) for 21 days and various quality and sensory parameters were studied at regular intervals (7 days). Results: Results showed that yogurt with 0.5% xanthan gum (T5) was best in terms of preventing syneresis and improving the viscosity, water holding capacity and texture of the product. Additionally, adding gums did not adversely affect the sensorial attributes of the product. Conclusion: Modified gums were found useful in augmenting yogurt quality and therefore addition of gums is highly recommended for manufacturing yogurt.

References

  1. Shiby VK, Mishra HN. Fermented milks and milk products as functional foods: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2013;53: 482-96. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2010.547398
  2. Mckinley MC. The nutrition and health benefits of yogurt. Int J Dairy Technol 2005;58:1-12. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0307.2005.00180.x
  3. Lucey JA. Formation and physical properties of milk protein gels. J Dairy Sci 2002;85:281-94. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74078-2
  4. Temesgen M. Effect of application of stabilizers on gelation and synersis in yogurt. Food Sci Qual Manag 2015;37;90-102.
  5. Crittenden RG, Martinez NR, Playne MJ. Synthesis and utilization of folate by yogurt starter cultures and probiotic bacteria. Int J Food Microbiol 2003;80:217-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(02)00170-8
  6. Van de Water J, Naiyanetr P. The health benefits of fermented milk products that contain lactic acid bacteria. In: Franworth ER editor, Handbook of fermented functional foods. Second Edition. Boca Raton, London, New York: CRC Press; 2008. p. 129-64.
  7. Nguyen PTM, Kravchuk O, Bhandari B, Prakash S. Effect of different hydrocolloids on texture, rheology, tribology and sensory perception of texture and mouthfeel of low-fat pot-set yogurt. Food Hydrocoll 2017;72:90-104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2017.05.035
  8. Palaniraj A, Jayaraman V. Production, recovery and applications of xanthan gum by Xanthomonas campestris. J Food Eng 2011; 106:1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2011.03.035
  9. Macit E, Bakirci I. Effect of different stablizers on quality characteristics of the set-type yogurt. Afr J Biotechnol 2017;16:2142-51. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB2017.16197
  10. El-Sayed EM, Abd El-Gawad IA, Murad HA, Salah SH. Utilization of laboratory-produced xanthan gum in the manufacture of yogurt and soy yogurt. Eur Food Res Technol 2002;215:298-304. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-002-0551-9
  11. Mudgil D, Barak S, Khatkar BS. X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and thermal characterization of partially hydrolyzed guar gum. Int J Biol Macromol 2012;50:1035-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2012.02.031
  12. Brennan CS, Tudorica CM. Carbohydrate-based fat replacers in the modification of the rheological, textural and sensory quality of yogurt: comparative study of the utilization of barley beta-glucan, guar gum and inulin. Int J Food Sci Technol 2008; 43:824-33. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2007.01522.x
  13. AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). Official methods of analysis, 17th ed, Arlington VA, USA: AOAC International; 2006.
  14. Aalvarez-Sabatel S, Maranon IM, Juan-Carlos A. Impact of high pressure homogenisation (HPH) on inulin gelling properties, stability and development during storage. Food Hydrocoll 2015;44:333-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2014.09.033
  15. Gharibzahedi SMT, Djomeh EZ, Razavi SH, Jafari SM. Mechanical behavior of lentil seeds in relation to their physicochemical and microstructural characteristics. Int J Food Prop 2014;17: 545-58. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2011.642448
  16. Amerinasab A, Labbafi M, Mousavi M, Khodaiyan F. Development of a novel yoghurt based on date liquid sugar: physicochemical and sensory characterization. J Food Sci Technol 2015;52:6583-590. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-1716-4
  17. Montgomery DC. Design and analysis of experiments. 7th Ed. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley and Sons Inc.; 2008. p. 162-264.
  18. Ramasubramanian L, Restuccia C, Deeth HC. Effect of calcium on the physical properties of stirred probiotic yogurt. J Dairy Sci 2008;91:4164-75. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1354
  19. Aryana KJ, McGrew P. Quality attributes of yogurt with Lactobacillus casei and various prebiotics. LWT-Food Sci Technol 2007;40:1808-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2007.01.008
  20. Galal EA, Mahmoud A, EL-Fakhany A, Moawad A. Effect of adding carrot puree on Organoleptic, chemical and microbiological quality of UF soft cheese. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference. Food for better health. Cairo, Egypt: NRC; 2003. p. 18-20.
  21. Mazloomi SM, Shekarforoush SS, Ebrahimnejad H, Sajedianfard J. Effect of adding insulin on microbial and physicochemical properties of low fat probiotic yogurt. Iranian J Vet Res 2011; 12:93-8.
  22. Gueimonde M, Alonso L, Delgado T, Bada-Gancedo JC, Reyes-Gavilan CG. Quality of plain yogurt made from refrigerated and $CO_2$ treated milk. Food Res Int 2003;36:43-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(02)00106-0
  23. Karaca OB. Effects of different prebiotic stabilisers and types of molasses on physicochemical, sensory, colour and mineral characteristics of probiotic set yoghurt. Int J Dairy Technol 2013;66:490-7.
  24. Penna ALB, Converti A, De Oliveira MN. Simultaneous effects of total solids content, milk base, heat treatment temperature and sample temperature on the rheological properties of plain stirred yogurt. Food Technol Biotechnol 2006:44;515-8.
  25. Seckin AK, Baladura E. Effect of using some dietary fibers on color, texture and sensory properties of strained yogurt. GIDA, J Food 2012;37:63-9.
  26. Milani E, Koocheki A. The effects of date syrup and guar gum on physical, rheological and sensory properties of low fat frozen yogurt dessert. Int J Dairy Technol 2011;64:121-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0307.2010.00631.x