DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Moderate tetrabasic zinc chloride supplementation improves growth performance and reduces diarrhea incidence in weaned pigs

  • Zhang, Gang (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Xia, Tian (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Zhao, Jinbiao (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Liu, Ling (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University) ;
  • He, Pingli (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Zhang, Shuai (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Zhang, Liying (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University)
  • Received : 2018.12.02
  • Accepted : 2019.04.15
  • Published : 2020.02.01

Abstract

Objective: Two experiments were conducted to evaluate tetrabasic zinc chloride (TBZC) on the health of weaned pigs, and to determine the optimal supplemental concentrations and whether dietary TBZC could replace the pharmacological concentrations of dietary zinc oxide (ZnO) to improve growth performance and decrease Zn excretion in weaned pigs. Methods: In Exp. 1, 180 weaned pigs (8.92±1.05 kg body weight [BW]) were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatments, including the basal diet containing 125 mg/kg zinc sulfate (ZnSO4), and the basal diet with 1,200, 1,800, 2,400, or 3,000 mg/kg TBZC supplementation. In Exp. 2, 240 weaned pigs (7.66±1.09 kg BW) were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatments, including a negative control diet without Zn supplementation, a positive control diet (2,250 mg/kg ZnO), and 3 experimental diets with different concentrations of TBZC supplementation (1,000, 1,250, and 1,500 mg/kg). Results: In Exp. 1, the average daily gain (ADG), feed efficiency (G:F) and diarrhea incidence responded quadratically (p<0.01) as the TBZC supplemental concentrations increased, and pigs fed 1,200 and 1,800 mg/kg TBZC showed the best growth performance. Moreover, 1,800 mg/kg TBZC supplementation showed the greatest (p<0.01) total antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase activities in liver of pigs. Histopathological examination revealed lesions in heart, liver, lung and kidney, and mild or severe histological lesions mainly occurred with the supplementation of 2,400 and 3,000 mg/kg TBZC. In Exp. 2, 1,000 and 1,250 mg/kg TBZC supplementation in diets significantly (p<0.01) increased ADG and G:F of weaned pigs, reduced Zn excretion in feces, and had no effect on diarrhea-reducing compared to 2,250 mg/kg ZnO supplementation. Conclusion: The TBZC is a potential alternative to ZnO. The recommended concentration of TBZC in weaned pig diets is 1,000 to 1,250 mg/kg.

References

  1. Zhang BK, Guo YM. Supplemental zinc reduced intestinal permeability by enhancing occludin and zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1) expression in weaning piglets. Br J Nutr 2009;102:687-93. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114509289033 https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114509289033
  2. Hill GM, Mahan DC, Carter SD, et al. Effect of pharmacological concentrations of zinc oxide with or without the inclusion of an antibacterial agent on nursery pig performance. J Anim Sci 2001;79:934-41. https://doi.org/10.2527/2001.794934x https://doi.org/10.2527/2001.794934x
  3. Walk CL, Wilcock P, Magowan E. Evaluation of the effects of pharmacological zinc oxide and phosphorus source on weaned piglet growth performance, plasma minerals and mineral digestibility. Animal 2015;9:1145-52. https://doi.org/10.1017/S175173111500035X https://doi.org/10.1017/S175173111500035X
  4. Zhang BK, Guo YM. The growth-promoting effect of tetrabasic zinc chloride is associated with elevated concentration of growth hormone and ghrelin. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2008;21:1473-8. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2008.80057 https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2008.80057
  5. Li MZ, Huang JT, Tsai YH, Mao SY, Fu CM, Lien TF. Nanosize of zinc oxide and the effects on zinc digestibility, growth performances, immune response and serum parameters of weanling piglets. Anim Sci J 2016;87:1379-85. https://doi.org/10. 1111/asj.12579 https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.12579
  6. Zhang BK, Guo YM. Beneficial effects of tetrabasic zinc chloride for weanling piglets and the bioavailability of zinc in tetrabasic form relative to ZnO. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2007;135: 75-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.06.006 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.06.006
  7. Mavromichalis I, Webel DM, Parr EN, Baker DH. Growth-promoting efficacy of pharmacological doses of tetrabasic zinc chloride in diets for nursery pigs. Can J Anim Sci 2001; 81:387-91. https://doi.org/10.4141/A01-005 https://doi.org/10.4141/A01-005
  8. Swinkels JW, Kornegay ET, Zhou W, et al. Effectiveness of a zinc amino acid chelate and zinc sulfate in restoring serum and soft tissue zinc concentrations when fed to zinc-depleted pigs. J Anim Sci 1996;74:2420-30. https://doi.org/10.2527/ 1996.74102420x https://doi.org/10.2527/1996.74102420x
  9. Pieper R, Martin L, Schunter N, et al. Impact of high dietary zinc on zinc accumulation, enzyme activity and proteomic profiles in the pancreas of piglets. J Trace Elem Med Biol 2015; 30:30-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2015.01.008 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2015.01.008
  10. NRC. Nutrient requirements of swine. 11th ed. Washington, DC, USA: National Academy Press; 2012.
  11. Kuang H, Yang P, Yang L, Aguilar ZP, Xu H. Size dependent effect of ZnO nanoparticles on endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling pathway in murine liver. J Hazard Mater 2016;317: 119-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.05.063 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.05.063
  12. Schell TC, Kornegay ET. Zinc concentration in tissues and performance of weanling pigs fed pharmacological levels of zinc from ZnO, Zn-Methionine, Zn-Lysine, or ZnSO4. J Anim Sci 1996;74:1584-93. https://doi.org/10.2527/1996.7471584x https://doi.org/10.2527/1996.7471584x
  13. Yanagisawa H, Miyakoshi Y, Kobayashi K, et al. Long-term intake of a high zinc diet causes iron deficiency anemia accompanied by reticulocytosis and extra-medullary erythropoiesis. Toxicol Lett 2009;191:15-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet. 2009.07.024 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2009.07.024
  14. El-Hack MEA, Alagawany M, Salah AS, et al. Effects of dietary supplementation of zinc oxide and zinc methionine on layer performance, egg quality, and blood serum indices. Biol Trace Elem Res 2018;184:456-62. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-017-1190-0 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-017-1190-0
  15. Milani NC, Sbardella M, Ikeda NY, Arnoc A, Mascarenhas BC, Miyada VS. Dietary zinc oxide nanoparticles as growth promoter for weanling pigs. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2017;227: 13-23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.03.001 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.03.001
  16. Roselli M, Finamore A, Garaguso I, Britti MS, Mengheri E. Zinc oxide protects cultured enterocytes from the damage induced by Escherichia coli. J Nutr 2003;133:4077-82. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/133.12.4077 https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/133.12.4077
  17. Katouli M, Melin L, Jensen-Waern M, Wallgren P, Mollby R. The effect of zinc oxide supplementation on the stability of the intestinal flora with special reference to composition of coliforms in weaned pigs. J Appl Microbiol 1999;87:564-73. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.1999.00853.x https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.1999.00853.x
  18. Vahjen W, Pieper R, Zentek J. Increased dietary zinc oxide changes the bacterial core and enterobacterial composition in the ileum of piglets. J Anim Sci 2011;89:2430-9. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2010-3270 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2010-3270
  19. Medani M, Bzik VA, Rogers A, et al. Zinc sulphate attenuates chloride secretion in Human colonic mucosae in vitro. Eur J Pharmacol 2012;696:166-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar. 2012.09.017 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2012.09.017
  20. Sun JY, Jing MY, Weng XY, et al. Effects of dietary zinc levels on the activities of enzymes, weights of organs, and the concentrations of zinc and copper in growing rats. Biol Trace Elem Res 2005;107:153-65. https://doi.org/10.1385/BTER:107:2:153 https://doi.org/10.1385/BTER:107:2:153
  21. El Hendy HA, Yousef MI, Abo El-Naga NI. Effect of dietary zinc deficiency on hematological and biochemical parameters and concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron in growing rats. Toxicology 2001;167:163-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0300-483X(01)00373-0 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0300-483X(01)00373-0
  22. Trckova M, Lorencova A, Babak V, Neca J, Ciganek M. Effects of sodium humate and zinc oxide used in prophylaxis of post-weaning diarrhoea on the health, oxidative stress status and fatty acid profile in weaned piglets. Vet Med (Praha) 2017; 62:16-28. https://doi.org/10.17221/70/2016-VETMED https://doi.org/10.17221/70/2016-VETMED
  23. Revy PS, Jondreville C, Dourmad JY, Nys Y. Assessment of dietary zinc requirement of weaned piglets fed diets with or without microbial phytase. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 2006; 90:50-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2005.00576.x https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2005.00576.x
  24. Nagalakshmi D, Sridhar K, Parashuramulu S. Replacement of inorganic zinc with lower levels of organic zinc (zinc nicotinate) on performance, hematological and serum biochemical constituents, antioxidants status, and immune responses in rats. Vet World 2015;8:1156-62. https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2015.1156-1162 https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2015.1156-1162
  25. Yin LL, Zhang Y, Guo DM, An K, Yin MS, Cui X. Effects of zinc on interleukins and antioxidant enzyme values in psoriasis-induced mice. Biol Trace Elem Res 2013;155:411-5. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-013-9799-0 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-013-9799-0
  26. Zhao CY, Tan SX, Xiao XY, Qiu XS, Pan JQ, Tang ZX. Effects of dietary zinc oxide nanoparticles on growth performance and antioxidative status in broilers. Biol Trace Elem Res 2014; 160:361-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-014-0052-2 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-014-0052-2
  27. Park SY, Birkhold SG, Kubena LF, Nisbet DJ, Ricke SC. Effects of high zinc diets using zinc propionate on molt induction, organs, and postmolt egg production and quality in laying hens. Poult Sci 2004;83:24-33. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/83. 1.24 https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/83.1.24
  28. Martin L, Pieper R, Schunter N, Vahjen W, Zentek J. Performance, organ zinc concentration, jejunal brush border membrane enzyme activities and mRNA expression in piglets fed with different levels of dietary zinc. Arch Anim Nutr 2013;67: 248-61. https://doi.org/10.1080/1745039X.2013.801138 https://doi.org/10.1080/1745039X.2013.801138
  29. Crowell JA, Korytko PJ, Morrissey RL, Booth TD, Levine BS. Resveratrol-associated renal toxicity. Toxicol Sci 2004;82:614-9. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfh263 https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfh263
  30. Rincker MJ, Hill GM, Link JE, Meyer AM, Rowntree JE. Effects of dietary zinc and iron supplementation on mineral excretion, body composition, and mineral status of nursery pigs. J Anim Sci 2005;83:2762-74. https://doi.org/10.2527/2005.83122762x https://doi.org/10.2527/2005.83122762x