DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) larvae hydrolysate on nutrient ileal digestibility in growing pigs compared to those of defatted mealworm larvae meal, fermented poultry by-product, and hydrolyzed fish soluble

  • Received : 2019.10.02
  • Accepted : 2019.12.23
  • Published : 2020.03.01

Abstract

Objective: To investigate effect of mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) larvae hydrolysate on nutrient ileal digestibility compared to those of dried mealworm larvae meal, fermented poultry by-product, and hydrolyzed fish soluble in growing pigs. Methods: A total of 12 crossbred ([Landrace×Yorkshire]×Duroc) growing pigs with average body weight of 28.70±0.32 kg were surgically equipped with simple T-cannulas. A total of 12 pigs were assigned to individual metabolic crates and allotted to one of four treatments with 3 replicates in a fully randomized design. Results: Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of dry matter (DM) was the highest in pigs fed HML diet. AIDs of crude protein (CP) were higher in pigs fed HML and DMLM diets than those in pigs fed the other two diets. AID of total amino acid was higher (p = 0.06) in pigs fed HML diet. AIDs of lysine (Lys), methionine (Met), and threonine (Thr) were similar in pigs fed DMLM and HML diets, but were higher (p = 0.05, p<0.05, and p = 0.05, respectively) than those in pigs fed FPBM or HFS diet. Pigs fed HML diet had higher standardized ileal digestibilities (SIDs) of DM and CP (p<0.05 and p<0.05, respectively) compared to pigs fed the other FPBM and HFS diets. SIDs of total amino acid were not different (p = 0.06) between treatments. For SIDs of Lys, Met, and Thr, pigs fed HML and DMLM diets showed higher SIDs (p = 0.05, p<0.05, and p<0.05, respectively) than pigs fed FPBM and HFS diets. SIDs of non-essential amino acids (aspartic acid, glycine, and alanine) were higher (p<0.05, p<0.05, and p<0.05, respectively) in pigs fed HML, FPBM, and DMLM diets than those in pigs fed the HFS diet. AID and SID of glutamic acid were higher in pigs fed HML and FPBM diets. Conclusion: In conclusion, dietary supplementation of mealworm larvae hydrolysate had higher digestibility in DM, CP, Lys, Met, and Thr compared to dietary supplementation with fermented poultry by-product and hydrolyzed fish soluble.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (IPET)

References

  1. Yoo JS, Cho KH, Hong JS, et al. Nutrient ileal digestibility evaluation of dried mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) larvae compared to three animal protein by-products in growing pigs. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2019;32:387-94. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.18.0647 https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.18.0647
  2. Laura G, Ilaria B, Sihem D, Achille S, Francesco G. Animals fed insect-based diets: State-of-the-Art on digestibility, performance and product quality. Animals 2019;9:170. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9040170 https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9040170
  3. Makkar HPS, Tran G, Heuze V, Ankers P. State-of-the-art on use of insects as animal feed. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2014; 197:1-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2014.07.008 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2014.07.008
  4. Berg J, Wendin K, Langton M, Josell A, Davidsson F. State of the Art Report: Insects as food and feed. Ann Exp Biol 2017; 5:37-46.
  5. Stamer A. Insect proteins-a new source for animal feed: The use of insect larvae to recycle food waste in high-quality protein for livestock and aquaculture feeds is held back largely owing to regulatory hurdles. EMBO Rep 2015;16:676-80. https://doi.org/10.15252/embr.201540528 https://doi.org/10.15252/embr.201540528
  6. Ravzanaadii N, Kim SH, Choi WH, Hong JS, Kim NJ. Nutritional value of mealworm, Tenebrio molitor as food source. Int J Indust Entomol 2012;25:93-8. https://doi.org/10.7852/ijie.2012.25.1.093 https://doi.org/10.7852/ijie.2012.25.1.093
  7. Jin XH, Heo PS, Hong JS, et al. Supplementation of dried mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood profiles in weaning pigs. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2016;29:979-86. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.15.0535 https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.15.0535
  8. Ji YJ, Liu NH, Kong XF, et al. Use of insect powder as a source of dietary protein in early-weaned piglets. J Anim Sci 2016; 94(Suppl 3):111-6. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2015-9555
  9. Lee HJ, Choi IH, Kim DH, et al. Influence of fermented fish meal supplementation on growth performance, blood metabolites, and fecal microflora of weaning pigs. R Bras Zootec 2017;46:433-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1806-92902017000500010 https://doi.org/10.1590/s1806-92902017000500010
  10. Sulabo RC, Mathai JK, Usry JL, et al. Nutritional value of dried fermentation biomass, hydrolyzed porcine intestinal mucosa products, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs. J Anim Sci 2013; 91:2802-11. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2012-5327 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2012-5327
  11. Cho JH, Kim IH. Effects of fermented fish meal on N balance and apparent total tract and ileal amino acid digestibility in weanling pigs. J Anim Vet Adv 2011;10:1455-9. https://doi.org/10.3923/javaa.2011.1455.1459 https://doi.org/10.3923/javaa.2011.1455.1459
  12. Stein HH, Shipley CF, Easter RA. Technical note: a technique for inserting a T-cannula into the distal ileum of pregnant sows. J Anim Sci 1998;76:1433-6. https://doi.org/10.2527/1998.7651433x https://doi.org/10.2527/1998.7651433x
  13. Chobert JM, Sitohy MZ, Whitaker JR. Solubility and emulsifying properties of caseins modified enzymatically by Staphylococcus aureus V8 Protease. J Agric Food Chem 1988;36:220-4. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00079a055 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00079a055
  14. Cho JH, Kim IH. Evaluation of the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of protein and amino acids in nursery diets by in vitro and in vivo methods. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2011;24: 1007-10. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2011.10435
  15. NRC. Nutrient requirements of swine (10th Ed.). Washington, DC, USA: National Academy Press; 1998.
  16. NRC. Nutrient requirements of swine (11th Ed.). Washington, DC, USA: National Academy Press; 2012.
  17. Stein HH, Aref S, Easter RA. Comparative protein and amino acid digestibilities in growing pigs and sows. J Anim Sci 1999; 77:1169-79. https://doi.org/10.2527/1999.7751169x https://doi.org/10.2527/1999.7751169x
  18. Stein HH, Kim SW, Nielsen TT, Easter RA. Standardized ileal protein and amino acid digestibility by growing pigs and sows. J Anim Sci 2001;79:2113-22. https://doi.org/10.2527/2001.7982113x https://doi.org/10.2527/2001.7982113x
  19. van Huis A. Potential of insects as food and feed in assuring food security. Annu Rev Entomol 2013;58:563-83. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ento-120811-153704 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ento-120811-153704
  20. Kar SK, Jansman AJM, Boeren S, Kruijt L, Smits MA. Protein, peptide, amino acid composition, and potential functional properties of existing and novel dietary protein sources for monogastrics. J Anim Sci 2016;94(Suppl 3):30-9. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2015-9677
  21. Siemianowska E, Kosewska A, Aljewicz M, et al. Larvae of mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) as european novel food. Agric Sci 2013;4:287-91. https://dx.doi.org/10.4236/as.2013.46041
  22. Yu MH, Lee HS, Cho HR, Lee SO. Enzymatic preparation and antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysates from Tenebrio molitor larvae (Mealworm). J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2017; 46:435-41. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2017.46.4.435 https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2017.46.4.435
  23. Ravzanaadii N, Kim SH, Choi WH, et al. Nutritional value of mealworm, Tenebrio molitor as food source. Int J Indust Entomol 2012;25:93-8. https://doi.org/10.7852/ijie.2012.25. 1.093 https://doi.org/10.7852/ijie.2012.25.1.093
  24. Kourimska L, Adamkova A. Nutritional and sensory quality of edible insects. NFS J 2016;4:22-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nfs.2016.07.001 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nfs.2016.07.001
  25. Zielinska E, Baraniak B, Karas M, et al. Selected species of edible insects as a source of nutrient composition. Food Res Int 2015;77:460-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2015.09.008 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2015.09.008
  26. Yi L, Lakemond CMM, Sagis LMC, Eisner-Schadler V, van Huis A, van Boekel MA. Extraction and characterisation of protein fractions from five insect species. Food Chem 2013; 141:3341-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.05.115 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.05.115
  27. Janssen RH, Vincken JP, van den Broek LAM, et al. Nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors for three edible insects: Tenebrio molitor, Alphitobius diaperinus, and Hermetia illucens. J Agric Food Chem 2017;65:2275-8. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b00471 https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b00471
  28. Yi L, Van Boekel M, Lakemond CMM. Extracting Tenebrio molitor protein while preventing browning: effect of pH and NaCl on protein yield. J Insects Food Feed 2017;3:21-31. https://doi.org/10.3920/JIFF2016.0015 https://doi.org/10.3920/JIFF2016.0015
  29. Smith DM. Protein separation and characterization procedures. In: Nielsen SS, editor. Food analysis. Chapter 15. New York, NY, USA: Springer Verlag; 2010. pp. 263-80.
  30. Jamdar SN, Harikumar P. A rapid autolytic method for the preparation of protein hydrolysate from poultry viscera. Bioresour Technol 2008;99:6934-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2008.01.023
  31. Koeleman E. Peptones: A welcome new ingredient for animal feed. Feed Tech 2008;12:15-7.
  32. Panda S, Babu LK, Panda AK, Tanuja S, Panigrahy K. Dietary supplementation of fermented fish silage in broiler japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) - a review. Int J Livest Res 2017;7:31-48. https://dx.doi.org/10.5455/ijlr.20170306091640
  33. Han YK, Kim IH, Hong JW, et al. Apparent ileal digestibility of nutrient in plant protein feedstuffs for finishing pigs. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2003;16:1020-4. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2003.1020 https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2003.1020
  34. Zhang HY, Yi JQ, Piao XS, et al. The metabolizable energy value, standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in soybean meal, soy protein concentrate and fermented soybean meal, and the application of these products in early-weaned piglets. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2013;26:691-9. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2012.12429 https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2012.12429
  35. Adebiyi AO, Ragland D, Adeola O, Olukosi OA. Apparent or standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids of diets containing different protein feedstuffs fed at two crude protein levels for growing pigs. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2015;28:1327-34. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.14.0914 https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.14.0914
  36. Jin XH, Heo PS, Hong JS, Kim NJ, Kim YY. Supplementation of dried mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood profiles in weaning pigs. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2016;29:979-86. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.15.0535 https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.15.0535
  37. Nchienzia HA, Morawicki RO, Gadang VP. Enzymatic hydrolysis of poultry meal with endo- and exopeptidases. Poult Sci 2010;89:2273-80. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2008-00558 https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2008-00558
  38. Kofavet Co. LTD. New lighting of peptide nutrition and application of fish peptides. Technical Bulletin; 2016;4:1-9.