DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Fruit and vegetable discards preserved with sodium metabisulfite as a high-moisture ingredient in total mixed ration for ruminants: effect on in vitro ruminal fermentation and in vivo metabolism

  • Ahmadi, Farhad (College of Medical Life Sciences and College of Sanghur Life Science, Konkuk University) ;
  • Lee, Won Hee (College of Medical Life Sciences and College of Sanghur Life Science, Konkuk University) ;
  • Oh, Young-Kyoon (Animal Nutrition and Physiology Team, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Park, Keunkyu (College of Medical Life Sciences and College of Sanghur Life Science, Konkuk University) ;
  • Kwak, Wan Sup (College of Medical Life Sciences and College of Sanghur Life Science, Konkuk University)
  • Received : 2019.07.24
  • Accepted : 2019.10.21
  • Published : 2020.03.01

Abstract

Objective: Our recent series of laboratory- and large-scale experiments confirmed that under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, sodium metabisulfite (SMB) was effective in preserving nutrients and antioxidant capacity of highly perishable fruit and vegetable discards (FVD). Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine how partial inclusion of SMB-treated FVD in total mixed ration (TMR) influences in vitro ruminal fermentation, whole-tract digestibility, nitrogen metabolism, blood metabolites, and voluntary feed intake of sheep. Methods: The FVD were mixed thoroughly with 6 g SMB/kg wet biomass and kept outdoors under aerobic conditions for 7 days. Four TMRs including four levels of SMB-treated FVD (as-fed basis) at 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% (equaling to 0%, 1.9%, 3.8%, and 5.7% on dry matter basis, respectively), were prepared as replacement for corn grain. The ruminal fermentation metabolites were studied using an in vitro gas production test. Four mature male Corriedale sheep were assigned at random to the 4 diets for two separate sub-experiments; i) digestibility trial with four 21-d periods, and ii) voluntary feed intake trial with four 28-d periods. Results: Inclusion of SMB-treated FVD in the TMR tended to quadratically increase partitioning factor. No effect was seen on total-tract digestibility of organic matter, ether extract, crude protein, and acid detergent fiber, except for neutral detergent fiber digestibility that tended to linearly increase with increasing SMB-treated FVD in the TMR. The progressive increase of FVD preserved with SMB in the diet had no effect on nitrogen metabolism. Treatment had no effect on serum antioxidant capacity and blood metabolites assayed. Voluntary feed intake was not impaired by inclusion of SMB-treated FVD in the TMR. Conclusion: It appears that FVD preserved with SMB can be safely incorporated into TMR as replacement of corn grain without impairment of nutrient metabolism and feed intake.

Acknowledgement

Grant : Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development

Supported by : Rural Development Administration

References

  1. Boland MJ, Rae AN, Vereijken JM, et al. The future supply of animal-derived protein for human consumption. Trends Food Sci Technol 2013;29:62-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2012.07.002 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2012.07.002
  2. Archer J, Richardson E, Herd R, Arthur P. Potential for selection to improve efficiency of feed use in beef cattle: a review. Aust J Agric Res 1999;50:147-62. https://doi.org/10.1071/A98075 https://doi.org/10.1071/A98075
  3. Gill M, Smith P, Wilkinson JM. Mitigating climate change: the role of domestic livestock. Animal 2010;4:323-33. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731109004662 https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731109004662
  4. FAO. Global food losses and waste. Extent, causes and prevention [Internet]. Rome, Italy: FAO; 2011 [cited 2018 May]. Available from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/014/mb060e/mb060e00.pdf
  5. Angulo J, Mahecha L, Yepes SA, et al. Nutritional evaluation of fruit and vegetable waste as feedstuff for diets of lactating Holstein cows. J Environ Manag 2012;95:S210-4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.06.050 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.06.050
  6. Ahmadi F, Lee YH, Lee WH, Oh YK, Park KK, Kwak WS. Preservation of fruit and vegetable discards with sodium metabisulfite. J Environ Manag 2018;224:113-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.07.044 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.07.044
  7. Ahmadi F, Lee YH, Lee WH, Oh YK, Park KK, Kwak WS. Long-term anaerobic conservation of fruit and vegetable discards without or with moisture adjustment after aerobic preservation with sodium metabisulfite. Waste Manag 2019; 87:258-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2019.02.010 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2019.02.010
  8. Wang F, Nishino N. Ensiling of soybean curd residue and wet brewers grains with or without other feeds as a total mixed ration. J Dairy Sci 2008;91:2380-7. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0821 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0821
  9. Lee MRF, Merry RJ, Davies DR, et al. Effect of increasing availability of water-soluble carbohydrates on in vitro rumen fermentation. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2003;104:59-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(02)00319-X https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(02)00319-X
  10. NRC. Nutrient requirement of small ruminant sheep, goats, cervids, and new world camelids. Washington, DC, USA: National Academy Press; 2007.
  11. Conrad HR, Weiss WP, Odwongo WO, Shockey WL. Estimating net energy lactation from components of cell solubles and cell walls. J Dariy Sci 1984;67:427-36. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(84)81320-X https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(84)81320-X
  12. Menke KH, Steingass H. Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Anim Res Dev 1988;28:7-55.
  13. Blummel M, Karsli A, Russell JR. Influence of diet on growth yields of rumen micro-organisms in vitro and in vivo: influence on growth yield of variable carbon fluxes to fermentation products. Br J Nutr 2003;90:625-34. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN 2003934 https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN2003934
  14. Chaney AL, Marbach EP. Modified reagents for determination of urea and ammonia. Clin Chem 1962;8:130-2. https://doi.org/10.1093/clinchem/8.2.130
  15. Barker SB, Summerson WH. The colorimetric determination of lactic acid in biological material. J Biol Chem 1941;138:535-54.
  16. Morrow LA, Felix TL, Fluharty FL, Daniels KM, Loerch SC. Effects of sulfur and acidity on performance and digestibility in feedlot lambs fed dried distillers grains with solubles. J Anim Sci 2013;91:2211-8. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2012-5866 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2012-5866
  17. Dubois M, Gilles KA, Hamilton JK, Rebers P, Smith F. Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Anal Chem 1956;28:350-6. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac60111a017 https://doi.org/10.1021/ac60111a017
  18. AOAC International. Official methods of analysis. 19th ed. Arlington, VA, USA: AOAC International; 2012.
  19. Erel O. A novel automated direct measurement method for total antioxidant capacity using a new generation, more stable ABTS radical cation. Clin Biochem 2004;37:277-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2003.11.015 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2003.11.015
  20. SAS Institute. SAS user's guide. Version 9.1. Cary, NC, USA: SAS Institute Inc.; 2003.
  21. Strobel HJ, Russell JB. Effect of pH and energy spilling on bacterial protein synthesis by carbohydrate-limited cultures of mixed rumen bacteria. J Dairy Sci 1986;69:2941-7. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(86)80750-0 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(86)80750-0
  22. Broderick GA, Radloff WJ. Effect of molasses supplementation on the production of lactating dairy cows fed diets based on alfalfa and corn silage. J Dairy Sci 2004;87:2997-3009. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73431-1 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73431-1
  23. Penner GB, Oba M. Increasing dietary sugar concentration may improve dry matter intake, ruminal fermentation, and productivity of dairy cows in the postpartum phase of the transition period. J Dairy Sci 2009;92:3341-53. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1977 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1977
  24. Oba M. Effects of feeding sugars on productivity of lactating dairy cows. Can J Anim Sci 2011;91:37-46. https://doi.org/10.4141/CJAS10069 https://doi.org/10.4141/CJAS10069
  25. Nikolaev K, Dzhidzheva V. Toxicity of sodium metabisulphite in sheep. Vet Med Nauki 1973;10:61-5.
  26. Bird PR. Sulphur metabolism and excretion studies in ruminants. X. Sulphide toxicity in sheep. Aust J Biol Sci 1972;25: 1087-98. https://doi.org/10.1071/BI9721087 https://doi.org/10.1071/BI9721087
  27. Sutoh M, Obara Y, Miyamoto S. The effect of sucrose supplementation on kinetics of nitrogen, ruminal propionate and plasma glucose in sheep. J Agric Sci (Camb.) 1996;126:99-105. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600088845
  28. Gengelbach GP, Ward JD, Spears JW. Effect of dietary copper, iron, and molybdenum on growth and copper status of beef cows and calves. J Anim Sci 1994;72:2722-7. https://doi.org/10.2527/1994.72102722x https://doi.org/10.2527/1994.72102722x
  29. Singh VK, Pattanaik AK, Sharma K, Saini M. Effect of dietary energy intake on erythrocytic antioxidant defence in growing lambs fed a wheat straw-based diet. Anim Prod Sci 2011;51: 642-9. https://doi.org/10.1071/AN10098 https://doi.org/10.1071/AN10098