The effects of body mass index and body shape perceptions of South Korean adults on weight control behaviors; Correlation with quality of sleep and residence of place

  • Kang, Nam E (Department of Food and Nutrition, Eulji University) ;
  • Kim, Seung Ju (Department of Nursing, Eulji University) ;
  • Oh, Yoon Sin (Department of Food and Nutrition, Eulji University) ;
  • Jang, Se-Eun (Department of Food and Nutrition, Eulji University)
  • Received : 2019.06.16
  • Accepted : 2019.12.17
  • Published : 2020.04.01


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The obese population is rapidly increasing because of reduced physical activity and a Westernized diet; consequently, various chronic diseases are more prevalent. With the increasing interest in body shape and appearance, research on body shape perceptions and accompanying weight control behaviors are needed for healthy weight management. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on randomly selected 536 (209 men and 327 women) aged 20 to 65 years. Body mass index (BMI), body-shape perception, weight control behavior, quality of sleep, and place of residence were collected using self-reported questionnaires. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted using complex design in each groups. Collected data were analyzed using the SAS 9.4 statistical package, and the significance level was set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: When these two variables were divided into four groups, they were found to influence dieting attempts. People with abnormal weights who were dissatisfied with their body shapes attempted dieting 5.23 times more than those with healthy weights and satisfaction with their body shapes. Further, those with normal weights but dissatisfaction with their bodies attempted dieting 4.45 times more than those who were satisfied with their shapes. Subjects in their 20s attempted dieting 2.53 times more than those in their 30s and 40s, and female subjects attempted dieting 2.24 times more than male subjects. CONCLUSIONS: A correct perception of one's shape can be an important factor for dietary behavior, as body shape perceptions and dieting attempts are strongly related. Additionally, healthy weight management and nutrition education are important elements to incorporate into a weight control program aimed at preventing excessive weight control behaviors and promoting correct perceptions of body shape.


Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF)


  1. Kang HT, Shim JY, Lee HR, Park BJ, Linton JA, Lee YJ. Trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity in Korean adults, 1998-2009: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Epidemiol 2014;24:109-16.
  2. Ministry of Health and Welfare. Comprehensive Measures for National Obesity Management (2018-2022). Sejong: Ministry of Health and Welfare; 2018.
  3. Jee SH, Yun JE, Park EJ, Cho ER, Park IS, Sull JW, Ohrr H, Samet JM. Body mass index and cancer risk in Korean men and women. Int J Cancer 2008;123:1892-6.
  4. Duncan GE, Li SM, Zhou XH. Prevalence and trends of a metabolic syndrome phenotype among U.S. adolescents, 1999-2000. Diabetes Care 2004;27:2438-43.
  5. Hannan MT, Felson DT, Dawson-Hughes B, Tucker KL, Cupples LA, Wilson PW, Kiel DP. Risk factors for longitudinal bone loss in elderly men and women: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res 2000;15:710-20.
  6. Suastika K, Dwipayana P, Saraswati MR, Gotera W, Budhiarta AA, Sutanegara ND, Gunadi GN, Nadha KB, Wita W, Rina K, Santoso A, Soegondo S, Kajiwara N, Taniguchi H. Underweight is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease in the population of Ceningan Island, Bali. Diab Vasc Dis Res 2012;9:75-7.
  7. Wardle J, Haase AM, Steptoe A. Body image and weight control in young adults: international comparisons in university students from 22 countries. Int J Obes 2006;30:644-51.
  8. Kim MO, Eun JG, Chang UJ. Recognition of body weight and body part satisfaction in female college students. Korean J Food Nutr 2009;22:205-14.
  9. Lim GE, Kang SY, Kim YK, Kim HY, Park TJ, Kim I, Lee K. Secular trends for body-shape perception, weight-loss efforts, and weight-loss behaviors in Korean adults using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2001 to 2014. Korean J Health Promot 2017;17:31-7.
  10. Ball K, Mishra GD, Crawford D. Social factors and obesity: an investigation of the role of health behaviours. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2003;27:394-403.
  11. Jang MN, Oh SM, Kim HS, Shin HA. The relationship between quality of sleep and body mass index of adolescents: focusing on mediating effect of physical activity, dietary habit, and academic stress and moderating effect of gender. J Korean Public Health Nurs 2019;33:85-97.
  12. Cho KH, Cho EH, Hur J, Shin D. Association of sleep duration and obesity according to gender and age in Korean adults: results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2015. J Korean Med Sci 2018;33:e345.
  13. WHO Expert Consultation. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet 2004;363:157-63.
  14. Kim NS, Moon OR, Kang JH, Lee SY, Jeong BG, Lee SJ, Yoon TH, Hwang KH. Increasing prevalence of obesity related disease for Koreans associated with overweight and obesity. Korean J Prev Med 2001;34:309-15.
  15. Guh DP, Zhang W, Bansback N, Amarsi Z, Birmingham CL, Anis AH. The incidence of co-morbidities related to obesity and overweight: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health 2009;9:88.
  16. Lim YS, Park NR, Jeon SB, Jeong SY, Tserendejid Z, Park HR. Analysis of weight control behaviors by body image perception among korean women in different age groups: using the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. Korean J Community Nutr 2015;20:141-50.
  17. Kim YG. Body image perception, preventive attitude of life-style related and eating behaviors attitude according to obesity level in adult women [master's thesis]. Asan: Soonchunhyang University; 2005.
  18. Kim JY. The relationship between health concern related to weight level and weight control behavior in Korean woman [master's thesis]. Seoul: Seoul National University; 2006.
  19. Park JY. The BMI, body image recognition, and weight control behavior of female college students. J Korean Acad Fundam Nurs 2011;18:444-51.
  20. Yang HY, Byeon YS. Weight control behavior in women college students and factors influencing behavior. J Korean Acad Fundam Nurs 2012;19:190-200.
  21. Kim MK, Lee GC. Weight reduction dieting survey and satisfaction degree and diet related knowledge among adult women by age. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2006;35:572-82.
  22. Ock SM, Ju SY, Choi WS, Park HM, Jung KI, Song CJ. Association of sleep hours with obesity in adult women. Korean J Obes 2008;17:110-6.