DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Thyroid Doses in Children from Radioiodine following the Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

  • Kim, Eunjoo (National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology) ;
  • Kurihara, Osamu (National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology)
  • Received : 2019.12.24
  • Accepted : 2020.03.18
  • Published : 2020.03.31

Abstract

Background: Huge amounts of radionuclides were released into the environment due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, which caused not only serious contamination on the ground, but also radiation exposure to the public. One problem that remains in performing the dose estimation is the difficulty of estimating the internal thyroid dose due to the intake of radioiodine (mainly, 131I) because of limitations to the human data available. Materials and Methods: The relevant papers were collected and reviewed by the authors. The results of thyroid dose estimates from different studies were tabulated for comparison. Results and Discussion: The thyroid dose estimates from the studies varied widely. The dose estimates by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation were higher than the others due to the ingestion dose being based on conservative assumptions. The dose estimates by Japanese experts were mostly below 20-30 mSv. The recent studies suggested that exposure on March 12, 2011 would be crucial for late evacuees from the areas near the FD-NPP because of the possible intake of short-lived radionuclides other than 131I. Further multilateral studies are vital to reduce uncertainties in the present dose estimations. Conclusion: The estimation of the thyroid doses to Fukushima residents still has many uncertainties. However, it is considered unlikely that the thyroid doses exceeded 50 mSv except in some extreme cases. Further multilateral studies are thus necessary to reduce the uncertainties in the present dose estimations.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Ministry of the Environment of Japan

References

  1. National Diet of Japan. The official report of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission. Tokyo, Japan: National Diet of Japan; 2012.
  2. Kurihara O. External and internal dose assessments of Fukushima residents after the 2011 nuclear disaster. J Natl Inst Public Health. 2018;67:11-20.
  3. Yasumura S, Hosoya M, Yamashita S, Kamiya K, Abe M, Akashi M, et al. Study protocol for the Fukushima Health Management Survey. J Epidemiol. 2012;22:375-383. https://doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20120105
  4. International Atomic Energy Agency. Assessment of occupational exposure due to intakes of radionuclides. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency; 1999.
  5. International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements. Phantoms and computational models in therapy, diagnosis, and protection (ICRU Report 48). Bethesda, MD: International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements; 1992.
  6. Tsuruta H, Oura Y, Ebihara M, Ohara T, Nakajima T. First retrieval of hourly atmospheric radionuclides just after the Fukushima accident by analyzing filter-tapes of operational air pollution monitoring stations. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6717.
  7. Balonov MI, Bruk GY, Zvonova IA, Pitkevich VA, Bratilova AA, Jesko TV, et al. Methodology of internal dose reconstruction for a Russian population after the Chernobyl accident. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2000;92:247-253. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.rpd.a033278
  8. Drozdovitch VV, Goulko GM, Minenko VF, Paretzke HG, Voigt G, Kenigsberg YI. Thyroid dose reconstruction for the population of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident. Radiat Environ Biophys. 1997;36:17-23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004110050050
  9. Hirakawa S, Yoshizawa N, Murakami K, Takizawa M, Kawai M, Sato O, et al. Surveys of food intake just after the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2017;58:36-42. https://doi.org/10.3358/shokueishi.58.36
  10. Kim E, Kurihara O, Suzuki T, Matsumoto M, Fukutsu K, Yamada Y, et al. Screening survey on thyroid exposure for children after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station accident. Proceedings of the 1st NIRS Symposium on Reconstruction of Early Internal Dose in the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident; Chiba, Japan; 10-11 Jul, 2012. p. 59-66.
  11. Kim E, Yajima K, Hashimoto S, Tani K, Igarashi Y, Iimoto T, et al. Reassessment of internal thyroid doses to 1,080 children examined in a screening survey after the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Disaster. Health Phys. 2020;118:36-52. https://doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001125
  12. Tokonami S, Hosoda M, Akiba S, Sorimachi A, Kashiwakura I, Balonov M. Thyroid doses for evacuees from the Fukushima nuclear accident. Sci Rep. 2012;2:507. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep00507
  13. Matsuda N, Kumagai A, Ohtsuru A, Morita N, Miura M, Yoshida M, et al. Assessment of internal exposure doses in Fukushima by a whole body counter within one month after the nuclear power plant accident. Radiat Res. 2013;179:663-668. https://doi.org/10.1667/RR3232.1
  14. Uchiyama K, Miyashita M, Sato H, Tanishima Y, Maeda S, Yoshikawa J, et al. A study of thyroid $^{131}I$ activity of five human subjects exposed to a radioactive plume at Tamura City in Fukushima. Health Phys. 2015;109:573-581. https://doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000359
  15. Kurihara O, Nakagawa T, Takada C, Tani K, Kim E, Momose T. Internal doses of three persons staying 110 km south of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station during the arrival of radioactive plumes based on direct measurements. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2016;170:420-424. https://doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncw002
  16. Takada C, Kurihara O, Kanai K, Nakagawa T, Tsujimura N, Momose T. Results of whole body counting for JAEA staff members engaged in the emergency radiological monitoring for the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster. Proceedings of the 1st NIRS Symposium on Reconstruction of Early Internal Dose in the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident; Chiba, Japan; 10-11 Jul, 2012. p. 3-12.
  17. Kurihara O, Li C, Lopez MA, Kim E, Tani K, Nakano T, et al. Experiences of population monitoring using whole-body counters in response to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident. Health Phys. 2018;115:259-274. https://doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000862
  18. Kim E, Kurihara O, Tani K, Ohmachi Y, Fukutsu K, Sakai K, et al. Intake ratio of 131I to 137Cs derived from thyroid and whole-body doses to Fukushima residents. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2016;168: 408-418.
  19. Kim E, Kurihara O, Kunishima N, Momose T, Ishikawa T, Akashi M. Internal thyroid doses to Fukushima residents-estimation and issues remaining. J Radiat Res. 2016;57(Suppl 1):i118-i126. https://doi.org/10.1093/jrr/rrw061
  20. Hosoda M, Tokonami S, Akiba S, Kurihara O, Sorimachi A, Ishikawa T, et al. Estimation of internal exposure of the thyroid to $^{131}I$ on the basis of $^{134}Cs$ accumulated in the body among evacuees of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident. Environ Int. 2013;61:73-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2013.09.013
  21. Kim E, Kurihara O, Kunishima N, Nakano T, Tani K, Hachiya M, et al. Early intake of radiocesium by residents living near the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant after the accident. Part 1: Internal doses based on whole-body measurements by NIRS. Health Phys. 2016;111:451-464. https://doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000563
  22. Kunishima N, Kurihara O, Kim E, Ishikawa T, Nakano T, Fukutsu K, et al. Early intake of radiocesium by residents living near the Tepco Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant after the accident. Part 2: Relationship between internal dose and evacuation behavior in individuals. Health Phys. 2017;112:512-525. https://doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000657
  23. Igarashi Y, Kim E, Hashimoto S, Tani K, Yajima K, Iimoto T, et al. Difference in the Cs body contents of affected area residents depending on the evacuation timepoint following the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster. Health Phys. Forthcoming 2020.
  24. Kim E, Tani K, Kunishima N, Kurihara O, Sakai K, Akashi M. Estimation of early internal doses to Fukushima residents after the nuclear disaster based on the atmospheric dispersion simulation. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2016;171:398-404. https://doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncv385
  25. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Sources, effects and risks of ionizing radiation: UNSCEAR 2013 Report. Volume I: Report to the general assembly. Scientific Annex A: Levels and effects of radiation exposure due to the nuclear accident after the 2011 great east-Japan earthquake and tsunami. New York, NY: United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation; 2014.
  26. World Health Organization. Preliminary dose estimation from the nuclear accident after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2012.
  27. Murakami M, Oki T. Estimated dietary intake of radionuclides and health risks for the citizens of Fukushima City, Tokyo, and Osaka after the 2011 nuclear accident. PLoS One. 2014;9:e112791. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112791
  28. Kawai M, Yoshizawa N, Suzuki G. 131I dose estimation from intake of tap water in the early phase after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2018;179: 43-48. https://doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncx208
  29. Kamada N, Saito O, Endo S, Kimura A, Shizuma K. Radiation doses among residents living 37 km northwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. J Environ Radioact. 2012;110:84-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2012.02.007
  30. Ohba T, Hasegawa A, Suzuki G. Estimated thyroid inhalation doses based on body surface contamination levels of evacuees after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. Health Phys. 2019;117:1-12.
  31. Kurihara O, Kim E, Kunishima N, Tani K, Ishikawa T, Furuyama K, et al. Development of a tool for calculating early internal doses in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident based on atmospheric dispersion simulation. EPJ Web Conf 2017;153:08008.
  32. Kurihara O, Kim E, Suh S, Fukutsu K, Matsumoto M, Rintsu Y, et al. Reconstruction of early internal doses in the TEPCO FDNPS accident. Proceedings of the 2nd NIRS Symposium on Reconstruction of Early Internal Dose in the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Power Station Accident; Tokyo, Japan; 27 January, 2013. p. 140-162.
  33. Hamada N, Ogino H. Food safety regulations: what we learned from the Fukushima nuclear accident. J Environ Radioact. 2012;111:83-99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2011.08.008
  34. Shinkarev SM, Kotenko KV, Granovskaya EO, Yatsenko VN, Imanaka T, Hoshi M. Estimation of the contribution of short-lived radioiodines to the thyroid dose for the public in case of inhalation intake following the Fukushima accident. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2015;164:51-56. https://doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncu335
  35. Nuclear Regulation Authority. Japanese guidelines for nuclear emergency response [Internet]. Tokyo, Japan; Nuclear Regulation Authority; 2019 [cited 2020 Apr 2]. Available from: https://www.nsr.go.jp/data/000024441.pdf.
  36. International Atomic Energy Agency. Criteria for use in preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency (IAEA Safety Standards). Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency; 2011.
  37. International Atomic Energy Agency. Operational intervention levels for reactor emergencies and methodology and their derivation. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency; 2017.
  38. Li C, Ansari A, Etherington G, Jourdain JR, Kukhta B, Kurihara O, et al. Managing internal radiation contamination following an emergency: identification of gaps and priorities. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2016;171:78-84. https://doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncw199