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Implementation of Battery Management System for Li-ion Battery Considering Self-energy Balancing

셀프에너지 밸런싱을 고려한 리튬이온전지의 Battery Management System 구현

  • Kim, Ji-Myung (Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education) ;
  • Lee, Hu-Dong (Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education) ;
  • Tae, Dong-Hyun (Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education) ;
  • Ferreira, Marito (Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education) ;
  • Park, Ji-Hyun (Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education) ;
  • Rho, Dae-Seok (Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education)
  • 김지명 (한국기술교육대학교 전기공학과) ;
  • 이후동 (한국기술교육대학교 전기공학과) ;
  • 태동현 (한국기술교육대학교 전기공학과) ;
  • 페레이라 마리토 (한국기술교육대학교 전기공학과) ;
  • 박지현 (한국기술교육대학교 전기공학과) ;
  • 노대석 (한국기술교육대학교 전기공학과)
  • Received : 2019.12.24
  • Accepted : 2020.03.06
  • Published : 2020.03.31

Abstract

Until now, 29 fire accidents have occurred; 22 of them were caused by the interconnection of renewable energy sources that occurred during the rest period after the lithium-ion battery had been fully charged regardless of the seasons. The fire accidents of ESS were attributed to thermal runaway due to the overcharging of a few cells with the phenomenon of self-energy balancing, which is unintentional current flow from cells with a high SOC to the low cells if the SOC condition of each cell connected in parallel is different. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel configuration and operation algorithm of the BMS to prevent the self-energy balancing of ESS and presents a hybrid SOC estimation algorithm. From the test results of the self-energy balancing phenomenon between aging and normal cells based on the proposed algorithm and BMS, it was confirmed the possibility of self-energy balancing, which is unintentional current flow from cells with a high SOC to cells with a low SOC. In addition, the proposed configuration of the BMS is useful and practical to improve the safety of lithium-ion batteries because the BMS can reliably disconnect a parallel connection of the cells if the self-energy balancing current becomes excessively high.

현재까지 총 29건의 전기저장장치의 화재가 발생되었는데, 이 중 22건이 신재생에너지 연계용이며, 완전충전 이후, 운전대기 상태인 휴지기간 동안에 계절과 무관하게 화재사고가 발생되었다. 이것은 병렬로 연결된 셀들의 SOC 상태가 서로 다른 경우, 의도하지 않게 SOC가 높은 셀에서 낮은 셀로 전류가 이동하는 셀프에너지 밸런싱 현상으로, 일부 셀이 과충전되어 열폭주로 인한 화재의 원인으로 평가되고 있다. 따라서, 본 논문에서는 전기저장장치의 셀프에너지 밸런싱을 방지하는 새로운 BMS의 회로구성과 운용 알고리즘 그리고 SOC 평가알고리즘을 제안한다. 제안한 알고리즘과 구현한 BMS를 바탕으로 리튬이온전지의 열화 특성과 열화 및 정상 셀 간의 셀프에너지 밸런싱 특성을 분석한 결과, 정상 셀 대비 열화 셀의 방전 용량 비율은 91.75[%]이며, 열화율이 8.25[%]임을 알 수 있었고, SOC가 높은 정상 셀에서 SOC 낮은 열화 셀로 전류가 이동하는 셀프에너지 밸런싱 현상이 발생함을 확인하였다. 또한, 셀프에너지 밸런싱 전류가 과도하게 높아지는 경우, BMS가 확실하게 셀들의 병렬연결을 분리하여, 리튬이온전지의 안전성을 향상시킬 수 있어, 본 논문에서 제안한 BMS의 유용성을 확인하였다.

Keywords

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 한국에너지기술평가원

본 논문은 산업통상자원부의 재원으로 한국에너지기술평가원의 연구(No.20182410105070)와 한국에너지기술평가원의 연구(No.20191210301940) 그리고 2019년 교육부 대학혁신지원사업 사업비를 지원받아 연구되었음

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