Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Bioactive Peptides on Antioxidant Potential of Broiler Breast Meat and Physicochemical Characteristics of Nuggets

  • Aslam, Sadia (National Institute of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Food, Nutrition and Home Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad) ;
  • Shukat, Rizwan (National Institute of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Food, Nutrition and Home Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad) ;
  • Khan, Muhammad Issa (National Institute of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Food, Nutrition and Home Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad) ;
  • Shahid, Muhammad (Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Agriculture)
  • Received : 2019.08.19
  • Accepted : 2019.11.04
  • Published : 2020.01.01


Poultry meat is generally exposed to quality deterioration due to lipid oxidation during storage. Oxidative stability of meat can be increased by feed supplementation. Aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of fish waste derived bioactive peptides on antioxidant potential of broiler breast meat and physico-chemical characteristics and quality parameters of nuggets prepared from breast meat. 180 broiler birds (six groups of 30 birds) were purchased. Each group was given different concentrations of bioactive peptides i.e. 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg/kg feed. After completion of six weeks birds were slaughtered and breast meat was stored at -18℃ for six months. Nuggets were prepared and stored at -18℃ for 45 days. Meat samples were analyzed for antioxidant activity [total phenolic contents (TPC), DPPH· scavenging activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power] and lipid oxidation assay at regular intervals of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 months while nuggets were analyzed for quality (pH, color, texture and water holding capacity) parameters after regular interval of 15 days. A significant (p<0.05) effect of feed supplementation was observed on antioxidant status such as TPC, DPPH· scavenging activity, and FRAP of broiler breast meat. Dietary interventions of bioactive peptides significantly (p<0.05) delayed lipid oxidation of breast meat than control. All the quality parameters were also significantly affected due to dietary bioactive peptides and storage duration. Thus, dietary interventions of bioactive peptides can increase the antioxidant and shelf stability of broiler breast meat and nuggets.


Supported by : Higher Education Commission


  1. Amarowicz R, Troszynska A, Barylko-Pikielna N, Shahidi F. 2005. Polyphenolics extracts from legume seeds: Correlations between total antioxidant activity, total phenolics content, tannins content and astringency. J Food Lipids 11:278-286.
  2. Arnesen JA, Gildberg A. 2007. Extraction and characterisation of gelatine from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) skin. Bioresour Technol 98:53-57.
  3. Arshad MS, Anjum FM, Khan MI, Saeed F, Imran A, Sohaib M, Nadeem M, Hussain S. 2016. Manipulation of natural antioxidants in feed to enhance the oxidative stability and quality of broiler breast meat and nuggets. J Food Process Preserv 41:e12849.
  4. Asghar A, Lin CF, Gray JI, Buckley DJ, Booren AM, Crackel RL, Flegal CJ. 1989. Influence of oxidised dietary oil and antioxidant supplementation on membrane-bound lipid stability in broiler meat. Br Poult Sci 30:815-823.
  5. Auwal SM, Zarei M, Abdul-Hamid A, Saari N. 2017. Response surface optimisation for the production of antioxidant hydrolysates from stone fish protein using bromelain. Evid Based Compl Alt Med 2017:1-10.
  6. Aziza AE, Quezada N, Cherian G. 2010. Antioxidative effect of dietary Camelina meal in fresh, stored, or cooked broiler chicken meat. Poult Sci 89:2711-2718.
  7. Banerjee R, Verma AK, Das AK, Rajkumar V, Shewalkar AA, Narkhede HP. 2012. Antioxidant effects of broccoli powder extract in goat meat nuggets. Meat Sci 91:179-184.
  8. Basmacioglu H, Cabuk M, Unal K, Ozkan K, Akkan S, Yalcin H. 2003. Effects of dietary fish oil and flax seed on cholesterol and fatty acid composition of egg yolk and blood parameters of laying hens. S Afr J Anim Sci 33:266-273.
  9. Bernardi DM, de Paris LD, Dieterich F, e Silva FGD, Boscolo WR, Sary C, Signor A, Bertol TM, Sgarbieri VC. 2016. Production of hydrolysate from processed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) residues and assessment of its antioxidant activity. Food Sci Technol 36:709-716.
  10. Brannan RG. 2007. Effect of grape seed extract on physicochemical properties of ground, salted, chicken thigh meat during refrigerated storage at different relative humidity levels. J Food Sci 73:C36-C40.
  11. Buckley DJ, Morrissey PA, Gray JI. 1995. Influence of dietary vitamin E on the oxidative stability and quality of pig meat. J Anim Sci 73:3122-3150.
  12. Chanda S, Dave R. 2009. In vitro models for antioxidant activity evaluation and some medicinal plants possessing antioxidant properties: An overview. Afr J Microb Res 3:981-996.
  13. Chandralekha S, Babu AJ, Moorthy PRS, Karthikeyan B. 2012. Studies on the effect of pomegranate rind powder extract as natural antioxidant in chicken meat balls during refrigerated storage. J Adv Vet Res 2:107-122.
  14. Delles RM, Xiong YL, Ao T, Dawson K. 2013. Antioxidant supplementation minimizes the negative impact of dietary oxidized oil on chicken broiler breast and thigh meat quality. Poult Sci 93:1561-1570.
  15. Easssawy MMT, Abdel-Moneim MA, El-Chaghaby GA. 2016. The use of quinoa seeds extract as a natural antioxidant in broilers' diets and its effect on chickens' performance and meat quality. J Anim Poult Prod 7:173-180.
  16. Edens FW. 2001. Involvement of Sel-Plex in physiological stability and performance of broiler chickens. In Biotechnology in feed industry: Proceedings 17th Alltech's Annual Symposium. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK. pp 349-376.
  17. Elavarasan K, Naveen Kumar V, Shamasundar BA. 2014. Antioxidant and functional properties of fish protein hydrolysates from fresh water carp (Catla catla) as influenced by the nature of enzyme. J Food Process Preserv 38:1207-1214.
  18. El-Gasim EA, Al-Wesali MS. 2000. Water activity and Hunter colour values of beef patties extended with Samh (Mesembryanthemum forsskalei Hochst) flour. Food Chem 69:181-185.
  19. Fasseas MK, Mountzouris KC, Tarantilis, PA, Polissiou M, Zervas G. 2008. Antioxidant activity in meat treated with oregano and sage essential oils. Food Chem 106:1188-1194.
  20. Girgih AT, He R, Hasan FM, Udenigwe CC, Gill TA, Aluko RE. 2015. Evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant properties of a cod (Gadus morhua) protein hydrolysate and peptide fractions. Food Chem 173:652-659.
  21. Government of Pakistan. 2019. Pakistan economic survey 2018-2019. Economic Advisor's Wing, Finance Division, Islamabad, Pakistan.
  22. Guardiola F, Codony R, Addis PB, Rafecas M, Boatella J. 1996. Biological effects of oxysterols: Current status. Food Chem Toxicol 34:193-211.
  23. Hernandez-Ledesma B, Davalos A, Bartalome B, Amigo L. 2005. Preparation of antioxidant enzymatic hydrolysates from alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin. Identification of active peptides by HPLC-MS/MS. J Agric Food Chem 53:588-593.
  24. Huang X, Ahn DU. 2018. The incidence of muscle abnormalities in broiler breast meat: A review. Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour 38:835-850.
  25. Huff-Lonergan E, Lonergan SM. 2005. Mechanisms of water-holding capacity of meat: The role of postmortem biochemical and structural changes. Meat sci 71:194-204.
  26. Hwang KE, Choi YS, Choi SM, Kim HW, Choi JH, Lee MA, Kim CJ. 2013. Antioxidant action of ganghwayakssuk (Artemisia princeps Pamp.) in combination with ascorbic acid to increase the shelf life in raw and deep fried chicken nuggets. Meat Sci 95:593-602.
  27. Ismail IB, Al-Busadah KA, El-Bahr SM. 2013. Oxidative stress biomarkers and biochemical profile in broilers chicken fed zinc bacitracin and ascorbic acid under hot climate. Am J Biochem Mol Biol 3:202-214.
  28. Jang A, Liu XD, Shin MH, Lee BD, Lee SK, Lee JH, Jo C. 2008. Antioxidative potential of raw breast meat from broiler chicks fed a dietary medicinal herb extract mix. Poult Sci 87:2382-2389.
  29. Je JY, Park PJ, Kim SK. 2005. Antioxidant activity of a peptide isolated from Alaska pollack (Theragra chalcogramma) frame protein hydrolysate. Food Res Int 38:45-50.
  30. Jeevitha K, Mohana PK, Samanta SK. 2014. Antioxidant activity of fish protein hydrolysates from Sardinella longiceps. Int J Drug Dev Res 6:137-145.
  31. Jiang Z, Lin Y, Zhou G, Luo L, Jiang S, Chen F. 2009. Effects of dietary selenomethionine supplementation on growth performance, meat quality and antioxidant property in yellow broilers. J Agric Food Chem 57:9769-9772.
  32. Jung S, Choe JH, Kim B, Yun H, Kruk ZA, Jo C. 2010. Effect of dietary mixture of gallic acid and linoleic acid on antioxidative potential and quality of breast meat from broilers. Meat Sci 86:520-526.
  33. Kala RK, Kondaiah N, Anjaneyulu ASR, Thomas R. 2007. Evaluation of quality of chicken emulsions stored refrigerated (4{\pm}1^{\circ}C) for chicken patties. Int J Food Sci Technol 42:842-857.
  34. Kasote DM. 2013. Flaxseed phenolics as natural antioxidants. Int Food Res J 20:27-34.
  35. Khan MI, Shehzad K, Arshad MS, Sahar A, Shabbir MA, Saeed M. 2015. Impact of dietary ${\alpha}$-lipoic acid on antioxidant potential of broiler thigh meat. J Chem 2015:406894.
  36. Kim K, Inkyu B, Cho J, Choi Y, Ha J, Choi J. 2019. Effects of humic acid and blueberry leaf powder supplementation in feeds on the productivity, blood and meat quality of finishing pigs. Food Sci Anim Resour 39:276-285.
  37. Kim SK, Kim YT, Byun HG, Nam KS, Joo DS, Shahidi F. 2001. Isolation and characterization of antioxidative peptides from gelatin hydrolysate of Alaska pollack skin. J Agric Food Chem 49:1984-1989.
  38. Kong B, Xiong YL. 2006. Antioxidant activity of zein hydrolysates in a liposome system and the possible mode of action. J Agric Food Chem 54:6059-6068.
  39. Kubow S. 1993. Lipid oxidation products in food and atherogenesis. Nutr Rev 51:33-40.
  40. Lee SU, Hur SJ. 2017. Antihypertensive peptides from animal products, marine organisms, and plants. Food Chem 228:506-517.
  41. Luna A, Labaque MC, Zygadlo JA, Marin RH. 2010. Effects of thymol and carvacrol feed supplementation on lipid oxidation in broiler meat. Poult Sci 89:366-370.
  42. Mente A, de Koning L, Shannon HS, Anand SS. 2009. A systematic review of the evidence supporting a causal link between dietary factors and coronary heart disease. Arch Intern Med 169:659-669.
  43. Mishra J, Srivastava RK, Shukla SV, Raghav CS. 2007. Antioxidants in aromatic and medicinal plants. Sci Technol Entrep 7:1-16.
  44. Mohamed A, Jamilah B, Abbas KA, Abdul Rahman R. 2008. A review on lipid oxidation of meat in active and modified atmosphere packaging and usage of some stabilizers. J Food Agric Environ 6:76-81.
  45. Moran L, Andres S, Bodas R, Prieto N, Giraldez FJ. 2012. Meat texture and antioxidant status are improved when carnosic acid is included in the diet of fattening lambs. Meat Sci 91:430-434.
  46. Muthukumar M, Naveena BM, Vaithiyanathan S, Sen AR, Sureshkumar K. 2012. Effect of incorporation of Moringa oleifera leaves extract on quality of ground pork patties. J Food Sci Technol 51:3172-3180.
  47. Naveena BM, Sen AR, Vaithiyanathan S, Babji Y, Kondaiah N. 2008. Comparative efficacy of pomegranate juice, pomegranate rind powder extract and BHT as antioxidants in cooked chicken patties. Meat Sci 80:1304-1308.
  48. O'Sullivan CM, Lynch AM, Lynch PB, Buckley, DJ, Kerry JP. 2004. Use of antioxidants in chicken nuggets manufactured with and without the use of salt and/or sodium tripolyphosphate: Effects on product quality and shelf-life stability. Int J Poult Sci 3:345-353.
  49. Oyaizu M. 1986. Studies on products of browning reaction: Antioxidative activities of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. Jpn J Nutr 44:307-315.
  50. Parveen R, Khan MI, Anjum FM, Sheikh MA. 2015. Antioxidant potential and storage stability of broiler leg meat fed on extruded flaxseed and ${\alpha}$-tocopherol acetate. Pak J Life Soc Sci 13:170-176.
  51. Piga A, Catzeddu P, Farris S, Roggio T, Sanguinetti A, Scano E. 2005. Texture evolution of "Amaretti" cookies during storage. Eur Food Res Technol 221:387-391.
  52. Prior RL, Wu X, Schaich K. 2005. Standardized methods for the determination of antioxidant capacity and phenolics in foods and dietary supplements. J Agric Food Chem 53:4290-4302.
  53. Qwele K, Muchenje V, Oyedemi SO, Moyo B, Masika PJ. 2013. Effect of dietary mixtures of moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaves, broiler finisher and crushed maize on anti-oxidative potential and physico-chemical characteristics of breast meat from broilers. Afr J Biotechnol 12:290-298.
  54. Rowe LJ, Maddock KR, Trenkle A, Lonergan SM, Huff-Lonergan E. 2004. Oxidative environments decrease tenderization of beef steaks through inactivation of calpain. J Anim Sci 82:3254-3266.
  55. Ruiz-Ramirez, J, Serra X, Arnau J, Gou P. 2005. Profiles of water content, water activity and texture in crusted dry-cured loin and in non-crusted dry-cured loin. Meat Sci 69:519-525.
  56. Sallam KI. 2007. Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate in refrigerated sliced salmon. Food Control 18:566-575.
  57. Sathivel S, Bechtel PJ, Babbitt J, Smiley S, Crapo C, Reppond KD. 2003. Biochemical and functional properties of herring (Clupea harengus) byproduct hydrolysates. J Food Sci 68:2196-2200.
  58. Selim NA, Radwan NL, Youssef SF, Salah Eldin TA, Abo Elwafa S. 2015. Effect of inclusion inorganic, organic or nano selenium forms in broiler diets on: 2-Physiological, immunological and toxicity statuses of broiler chicks. Int J Poult Sci 14:144-155.
  59. Senevirathne M, Kim SH, Siriwardhana N, Ha JH, Lee KW, Jeon YJ. 2006. Antioxidant potential of ecklonia cavaon reactive oxygen species scavenging, metal chelating, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition. Food Sci Technol Int 12:27-38.
  60. Sohaib M, Anjum FM, Arshad MS, Imran M, Imran A, Hussain S. 2017. Oxidative stability and lipid oxidation flavoring volatiles in antioxidants treated chicken meat patties during storage. Lipids Health Dis 16:27.
  61. Tanwar TK, Kumar A, Pankaj NK. 2017. Effect of Bacopa monnieri extracts on storage quality of chicken nuggets at refrigeration temperature $(4{\pm}1^{\circ}C)$. Nutr Food Sci 47:78-88.
  62. Turienzo LR, Cobos A, Moreno V, Caride A, Vieites JM, Diaz O. 2011. Whey protein-based coatings on frozen Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Influence of the plasticiser and the moment of coating on quality preservation. Food Chem 128:187-194.
  63. Wang JR, Teng D, Tian ZG, Hu JC, Wang JH. 2008. Preparation and mechanism of functional antioxidant peptides. Nat Prod Res Dev 20:371-375.
  64. Wierbicki E, Deatherage FE. 1958. Water content of meats, determination of water-holding capacity of fresh meats. J Agric Food Chem 6:387-392.
  65. Yasin M, Asghar A, Anjum FM, Butt MS, Khan MI, Arshad MS, El-Ghorab AH, Shibamoto T. 2012. Oxidative stability enhancement of broiler bird meats with ${\alpha}$-lipoic acid and ${\alpha}$-tocopherol acetate supplemented feed. Food Chem 131:768-773.
  66. Young JF, Stagsted J, Jensen SK, Karlsson AH, Henckel P. 2003. Ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and oregano supplements reduce stress-induced deterioration of chicken meat quality. Poult Sci 82:1343-1351.
  67. Zahid MA, Seo JK, Park JY, Jeon JY, Jin SK, Park TS, Yang HS. 2018. The effects of natural antioxidants on protein oxidation, lipid oxidation, color, and sensory attributes of beef patties during cold storage at $4^{\circ}C$. Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour 38:1029-1042.
  68. Zarei M, Ebrahimpour A, Abdul-Hamid A, Anwar F, Saari N. 2012. Production of defatted palm kernel cake protein hydrolysate as a valuable source of natural antioxidants. Int J Mol Sci 13:8097- 8111.
  69. Zubair F, Nawaz SK, Nawaz A, Nangyal H, Amjad N, Khan MS. 2018. Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in Punjab, Pakistan: A cross-sectional study. J Public Health 26:523-529.