Path Model for Presence Factors Affecting Expectations and Concerns of Using Virtual Simulation in Special Education

가상 시뮬레이션의 특수교육 활용 기대감에 영향을 미치는 현존감 요인의 경로 분석

  • 백종남 (우석대학교 특수교육과)
  • Received : 2020.01.06
  • Accepted : 2020.02.20
  • Published : 2020.02.28


The purpose of this study is to analyze the paths of the presence that influences the use of the virtual simulation in the special education classrooms. The participants consisted of 76 students who majored in special education in J and K universities. Participants took a three lectures of 3-h. that addressed the theory and practice of virtual technology such as virtual reality(VR) and augmented reality(AR), and then completed the questionnaires on participants' presence level and expectation level of virtual simulation for special education. Study results were as followings: (1) Enjoyment and Communication have direct effects on positive expectation, while Immersion has a direct effect on negative concern; (2) Reality, Accessibility Performance, Communication, and Immersion have indirect effects mediated by Enjoyment on positive expectation; and (3) Communication and Reality have indirect effects mediated by Immersion on negative concern. Lastly, the implications and suggestions for future research were presented.


Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea


  1. A. Dunser, & E. Hornecker. (2007, June). An observational study of children interacting with an augmented story book. In International Conference on Technologies for E-Learning and Digital Entertainment (pp. 305-315). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
  2. R. M. Fruland. (2002). Using immersive scientific visualizations for science inquiry: Co-construction of knowledge by middle and high school students. In annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.
  3. J. S. Kwon. (2015). Effect of computer based virtual reality program on clinical rehabilitation in Korea: A meta-analysis. Journal of Digital Convergence, 13(7), 293-304.
  4. M. J. Kim. (2015). Research trends in rehabilitation program for disabled applying virtual reality technology in Korea. Journal of Digital Convergence, 13(2), 381-391.
  5. B. H. Lee, S. Y. Kim, H. D. Seo, & H. N. Yoo. (2009). The clinical usefulness augmented reality based on exercise program for spatiotemporal parameters in children with cerebral palsy. Journal of Special Education & Rehabilitation Science, 48(4), 211-230.
  6. B. H. Lee, J. H. Jung, J. H. Yu, & D. S. Park. (2011). The effect of augmented reality based on exercise program on ankle strength, and gait ability in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Journal of Special Education & Rehabilitation Science, 50(1), 437-455.
  7. M. Bower, C. Howe, N. McCredie, A. Robinson, & D. Grover. (2014). Augmented Reality in education-cases, places and potentials. Educational Media International, 51(1), 1-15.
  8. N. N. Lim. (2015. 8. 3). AR/VR's Present and Upcoming Future. Retrieved July 30, 2016, from
  9. T. J. Park, H. J. Kim, & K. M. Ahn. (2015). Mandibular reconstruction using simulation surgery with 3d rp model in osteoradionecrosis patient: A case report. Journal of International Society for Simulation Surgery, 2(2), 76-79.
  10. J. V. Draper, D. B. Kaber, & J. M. Usher. (1998). Telepresence. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 40(3), 354-375.
  11. X. Wang, J. Laffery, W. Xing, Y. Ma, & J. Stichter. (2016). Exploring embodied social presence of youth with Autism in 3D collaborative virtual learning environment: A case study. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 310-321.
  12. K. O. Park, J. Baek, S. Seo, & Y. Lee. (2016). Investigating preservice special education teachers' perceptions on applying Augmented Reality(AR) to special education and its presence factors affecting AR. Journal of Special Education: Theory and Practice, 17(1), 189-207.
  13. W. Barfield, T. Sheridan, D. Zeltzer, & M. Slater. (1995). Presence and Performance Within Virtual Environments, in W. Barfield and T. Furness (eds) Virtual Environments and Advanced Interface Design, Oxford University Press.
  14. Y. P. Yoon. (2010). A Study on stereoscopic presence: Audience subjective typology and its behavior. Doctoral dissertation. Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Seoul.
  15. D. J. Lee. (2013). Presence analysis according to categorizing types of augmented reality user. Doctoral dissertation. Dongguk University, Seoul.
  16. K. J. Yoo, & J-J. Cho. (2007). Interpretation and content analysis of indulgence phenomenon about computer game indulgenced children. Journal of Holistic Convergence Education, 11(2), 71-94.
  17. Y. Ga, T. Choi, & G. Yoon (2015). Analysis of game immersion using EEG signal for computer smart interface. Journal of Sensor Science and Technology, 24(6), 392-397.
  18. M. M. Handelsman, W. L. Briggs, N. Sullivan, & A. Towler (2005). A measure of college student course engagement. The Journal of Educational Research, 98(3), 184-191.